Volume 19 Issue 9    Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)     September 2014



Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2014.


The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


All or any prices quoted in articles in this free newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the authors' own collection - or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' -  Internet Edition © 1991 - 2007.  and the  'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition. © 2007 - 2013.  

Krause-Mishler (KM) Standard and Specialized World Catalogs (also including 'Pick' banknote numbers) - and McDonald and/or Renniks Australian catalogue numbers - are used where applicable.

*Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes.)


Please, also, consider my conditional invitation, to make a literary contribution, if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest - and fulfils our stated editorial guidelines. As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in additional presentation. However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication. 

We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has necessitated the following conditions.

If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagiarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbyist collector.  - G.E.P.



Where on-line web-site Links or addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith - however, our readers are advised, that, if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.




For those of us who have ever enjoyed a 'flutter' at the gaming tables in the casinos around the world or even those in our own 'backyard', the gentle sound of gaming chips hitting the table-felt is an alluring one.

We are all waiting on that fortune that is just a card-turn or a ball-drop away.

In our mind's eye, we can see the croupier pushing a huge pile of gaming chips towards us - just before we wake up!


Gaming chips, counters, checks or tokens - call them what you may - are many and varied, they can be made of metal, clay composition, ivory, mother-of-pearl or special plastics - or in fact, anything that the 'gaming-house' allows - AND, they are becoming very collectible in a way not originally envisaged by the casinos. Another look at these tokens is well worth it!


Definitions used by the Royal Mint.

CHECK - A form of token given as a means of identification, or issued for small amounts of money or for services of a specific nature

COUNTER - A piece resembling a coin but intended for use on a medieval accountancy board or in gambling. See also jeton

JETON - Alternative term for counter, and used originally on the chequer board employed by medieval accountants. Nuremberg was the most important centre for the production of medieval jetons, often issued in lengthy portrait series. In modern parlance the term is often synonymous with token, though more specifically confined to pieces used in vending equipment, parking meters, laundromats, telephones and urban transport systems in many European countries. Apart from security, removing the temptation of vandals to break into the receptacles, the main advantage of such pieces is that they can be retariffed as charges increase, without any alteration in their design or composition, a method that is far cheaper than altering costly equipment to take larger coins.


U.S. Gaming Token experience.

In the main, however, most modern gaming chips are manufactured - under the same sort of extreme close security as in any mint - in metal or plastic. At one stage, the Franklin Mint was heavily involved in manufacturing 30, 37, 40, 45mm gaming tokens in 'Franklinium', (a Nickel-based alloy) as well as Bronze, Brass, bonded Silver-clad Nickel Silver, .925 Sterling and .999 Silver for casinos in Las Vegas and Reno.

The denominations ranged from 1/2, 1, 2 1/2, and 5 Dollar tokens.

There are tokens of 10, 12 1/2 and 25 Cents, made by other manufacturers, as well as tokens now being produced in the hundreds of dollar denominations.


In the early 1960' s, as a result of the rising price of silver at that time, the traditional silver Dollars formerly in use in Nevada casinos began to disappear in ever-increasing numbers and, by 1966, their circulation had virtually ceased.

The following extract is from 'Numismatic Issues of THE FRANKLIN MINT 1969 Edition'

(covering the years 1965 - 1968)

"To replace Silver Dollars on the gaming tables, Franklin Mint Gaming Tokens were introduced in 1965. In the first year of issue, they were issued by 27 casinos and only in One Dollar denomination. Since then, many more casinos have converted to Gaming Tokens, including a number of foreign casinos. Half-Dollar, Two Dollar and Five Dollar denominations were introduced in 1967 and 2 1/2 Dollar in 1968. In all, there are 242 types of 1965 - 1968 Franklin Mint Gaming Tokens...." 1969 Edition.


It is of some interest to collectors of numismatic literature that this Franklin Mint catalogue, which retailed at U.S.$2.50 in 1969, is now selling for about U.S.$17.50 - $20.00 in reasonable condition in numismatic circles..



 Franklin Mint 37mm $1.00 gaming token dated and produced for Marina Casino, Las Vegas in 1979.

The Marina was in operation from 1975 - 1990 at 33805 Las Vegas Blvd. Las Vegas, Nevada.

Nickel silver with interrupted milled edge - FM mintmark near reverse bottom rim centre.


As mentioned, Franklin Mint also made similar metal tokens for foreign casinos, including many English and the former Portuguese Macau casinos. Some were made without a specified denomination for technical legal reasons or so that they could be used at whatever denomination set by the individual gaming-house or casino. Changing technology meant that tokens made from materials other than metal also began to make an appearance - and gain popularity.

In many instances the modern plastic chips, which are now being decorated with laser cut designs, also give off a special electronic signature due to a metallic addition inserted during the making process. The Internet has substantial lists of gambling token manufacturers and several very informative sites, such as Robert Eisenstadt's gambling memorabilia site, that has excellent illustrations available on how chips are manufactured. Refer: http://www.antiquegamblingchips.com/sitemap.htm


Even in this field of numismatics, forgeries occur - or sometimes, during a busy period, a similar coloured but lower valued  'foreign casino' chip is substituted to make a wager. A little bit like using a cheap foreign coin mixed in with our legal coinage to pay for a purchase at a supermarket at rush hour. However the hardest things to deal with in regard to gaming tokens - or coins where they are still used in the cheaper denomination slot machines - is the hi-tech cheat who actually tells machines to 'pay up'. To beat these fraudsters, gaming machine chip manufacturing companies are replying with hi-tech equipment and encrypted tokens. Refer: http://www.idxinc.com/security.htm


The normal plastic chip costs about 75 Cents to make and, it is a fact, that a casino doesn't really mind how many you take home as collectibles - because they make a profit on the face value payment you made. It has become a very lucrative secondary market and some chips are now sold at casino retail sales counters.

Chips are becoming so collectible that some U.S. casinos are having 'commemorative' chips produced with such things as hologram finishes etc. as elaborate as any modern coin. They realised, after a short experience a few years ago, that many of these special chips will find their way into pockets as mementos and are now gearing up to make additional profits from unredeemed gaming chips. Gaming chip manufacturers are also reaping huge rewards due to this secondary market..

On the local scene, the earliest chips for $1.00 and $2.00 were metal - an aluminium alloy in 'silver' and 'gold' finishes and were dated. Eventually, a full range of plastic chips was introduced with slightly varying designs that were often being used at the different types of gaming tables for logistic purposes.

All chips were redeemable at face value at the casino cash-desk and continue to valued at face value as long as the casino is in operation.

This is a fast growing area of numismatics in some areas in Australia and the U.S. where there are specialised clubs being formed.

Casino Chips & Gaming Tokens Collectors Club logo (Refer: http://www.ccgtcc.com/ )

Chips from now defunct U.S. casinos (e.g. Marina Casino shown above) are increasing in market value - for the obvious reason of supply and demand - and, if someone famous had a casino connection - like gangster Al Capone or singer Frank Sinatra - the chips achieve even higher commercial status.

A small selection of gaming chips collected from various older Australian venues is shown below.


Selection of assorted low value Australian gaming chips 1980 - 1990's

(Launceston) Country Club Casino - previously Launceston Casino - (Launceston, Tasmania),

Wrest Point Casino (Hobart, Tasmania), Darwin Casino (now Skycity) (Northern Territory) -

all these casinos were in the Federal Hotels Group (at that time) -  approx. 40mm metal and plastic tokens.

Hotel Conrad Jupiters Casino (Gold Coast) - 37mm metal and 40mm plastic gaming tokens.


Generic Federal Group metal gaming tokens and 'Good Luck' Reverse for Hotel Conrad Jupiters Casino metal token.

All plastic tokens are double-sided but designs are usually found to be off-set to some extent.



Wrest Point Hotel Casino, Hobart, Tasmania - oldest in Australia. http://www.wrestpoint.com.au/

Country Club Casino, Launceston, Tasmania - second oldest in Australia. http://www.countryclubcasino.com.au/



Hotel Conrad Jupiters Casino, Broadbeach, Gold Coast, Queensland. http://www.conrad.com.au/

M.G.M Grand Darwin Hotel (now Skycity Darwin) Casino, Darwin, Northern Territory. http://www.mgmgrand.com.au/


...and, we must not forget the best known grand-daddy of them all, the 21mm King George III Card counter, or jeton, dated 1788 that turns up quite often in local market junk-boxes and excites non-numismatists who start to imagine that they might have a gold 'spade' guinea coin.

They then ponder about the unusual reverse inscriptions - in this case, 'In Memory of the Good Old Days' and then they ask around to check on whether they have a fortune or not.

As Lady Luck would have it,  they haven't....

Every self-respecting numismatist should have one of these tokens in his/her collection as a novelty talking-point - as well as the famous Reader's Digest Austrian Ducat (but that's another story!)



Base metal gilded 20mm counter or jeton often used as a gaming token.

Jetons were originally designed for use as accounting aids.

Various styles exist - including some 20mm Queen Victoria copper jetons which were altered and gilded to deceive as gold coins.


Refer: Additional recommended reading - Interesting sites.





http://www.casino-tokens.com/TokenHistory.htm  (Should be read!)

http://www.ccgtcc.com/  (Check auction results!)




JULY 2007 - DECEMBER 2013.

Full details of 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  (2007)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm  -  (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec09.htm  -  (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2010)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec10.htm  -  (Volume 15 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2011)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jun11.htm  - (Volume 16 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec11.htm  - (Volume 16 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2012)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june12.htm  - (Volume 17 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec12.htm   -  (Volume 17 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2013)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june13.htm  -  (Volume 18 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec13.htm   -  (Volume 18 - Issues 7 - 12)



Issue 1. January 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan14.htm

HOW COLLECTORS FIND THE THINGS THEY COLLECT! - Sometimes 'Lady Luck' plays a part in how we collectors put together our accumulations.

A 'not-quite-random' phone call in mid-December 2013 put me in touch with another numismatic gatherer who was searching for information about some of his 'stuff'. A mutually beneficial exchange occurred - which gave me the chance of making another potential friend with a compatible interest  - and, as a bonus, I was also able to add a few pieces to my collection.

THE FACES OF MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATÜRK - A fast scan over a few of the portraits of Turkey's famous leader!


Issue 2. February 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/feb14.htm

TASMANIAN TRADESMEN'S TOKENS REVISITED 2014 (Part 1.) - This is one of those subjects that are treated as essential reading for collector's of our local tradesmen's tokens. Readers and collectors have now access to several excellent sources of literature - but, a general nudge may encourage a newcomer's start on a long journey into this intriguing facet of numismatics.


Issue 3. March 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar14.htm

CHINA - THE MODERN ERA (Part 1.) - The giant that is - CHINA - awoke during the early part of the 1900's and flexed its muscles. This two part article cannot cover the political upheaval and agony of China as it found its feet and strode into the modern era. We will touch gently upon some of its more modern numismatic history in an effort to stay reasonably contemporary with how it is all developing.

TASMANIAN TRADESMEN'S TOKENS REVISITED 2014 (Part 2.) - The continuation of the reprise of the story of Tradesmen's tokens in Tasmania. This part covers the north of the island.

THE CHANGING FACE OF MONEY! - Over the last two decades there have been some momentous changes to international currency and coinage with the overwhelming onslaught created by electronic technology now that the 'BITCOIN' has materialized in tangible form.. However, political changes have also played a decisive part with new states appearing and some old ones disappearing.


Issue 4. April 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/april14.htm

ANZAC DAY 1915 - 2014 - The Allied landing at Gallipoli. on 25th. April 1915 is again commemorated by this newsletter.  As Editor, I have been somewhat selfish by honouring my Great-Uncle Fred Fox for some years. From reading various records, I feel that the story of this one man's war  - a period of 4 years and 198 days on overseas service - was probably a typical example of the experience that thousands of other Australians had as well! 

AN INDIVIDUAL'S VIEW - THE "A - Z" - OF PAPER MONEY! - There are notes that sometimes get overlooked in favour of the 'pop' selection from major nations. This thumb-nail literary sketch - with a few pictorial examples - allows us to fill in some of the gaps between A - Z . As space and time permits, we will feature a few more!


Issue 5. May 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/may14.htm

CHINA - THE MODERN ERA (Part 2.) - The inscrutable face of China changed dramatically after WWII with the rise and rise of the Communist regime. Chinese resolve and practicality kicked in and now the giant has stirred economically and the world will never be the same as it was 50 years ago..

PRESENTS by POST...and the POKIES - plus a PARTY POSTSCRIPT - Indulge me a little as I relate a few personal poppets from early April!

AN INDIVIDUAL'S VIEW - THE "A - Z" - OF PAPER MONEY! (Part 2.) - The conclusion of the A-Z of the editor's accumulation of world banknotes.

A selection of illustrations of not-so-well-known national notes.

COIN SHORTAGES and the AMERICAN COLONIES - Like Australia and other English outposts of past eras, the fledgling American colonies had problems with the shortage of specie at the everyday level - They also did what they had to do to concoct a supply of small change!


Issue 6. June 2014:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june14.htm

HOW COLLECTORS FIND THE THINGS THEY COLLECT!(2) - Another look at how collections can start - a little desire and imagination can start us on a lifetime journey. However, a fluke - an undreamed of opportunity - can be as good a way as any well-thought-out plan!  Lets start looking at 'A'

'OLDE WORLD! - NEW WORLD! - Reminisces and a forecast! Changing attitudes and the way we handle cash are about to alter forever the way we live.

T.N.S. MEDALLIONS _ EXCESS FOR SALE - 'Excess to requirement'  - some extra  medallion stock has been discovered and is detailed for sale.

GET WELL, JERRY ADAMS! - Our long-time member has been poorly of late! We wish him a speedy recovery!.



Issue 7. July 2014:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/july14.htm

TIMETABLE TO DISASTER - It was like dominos falling!The events at Sarejavo on 28th. June 1914 lead to a great conflict on a scale of horror and tragedy that the world had never seen previously. The consequences of this conflict and the period of nervous peace that followed - within a financial context - were long-ranging and were harbingers of further international disaster within 21 years for another generation to bear.

CANCELLATION OF EVENTS - The 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' has advised that it has -reluctantly - cancelled its series of Coin Fairs scheduled for the final half of 2014 due to circumstances beyond its control.


Issue 8. August 2014:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug14.htm

THE GEM THAT IS INDIA! - The first of the footsteps that we will take into the mystery that still is India!

IN MEMORIAM - It has now been 9 years since this Editor's dearly loved wife, Ailsa, passed away. She is missed.


Issue 9. September 2014:-

THE WONDERFUL WORLD OF GAMING CHIPS - Like many of my fellow collectors, I tend to gather associated items that can be used as 'money'! Gaming Chips are, of neccessity, a relatively expensive narrow-based investment so I regret that my own small accumulation is just that - small!





The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


The 'NumisNet World'’ (Internet Edition) newsletter has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented free on a monthly basis with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics. Whilst the 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter abides by the same basic guidelines originally suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter, it is a separate, independent publication.

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, email or hand delivered, directly to financial members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions.

All titles and matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society


Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.

Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Editor. 

ALL comments in linked articles are the responsibility of the original authors.

Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, any Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations -  or  - (2) To provide additional important information. 


Some illustrated items - including their designs and packaging -  may be subject to existing copyright restrictions.

In such instances, they may not be replicated or their images reproduced or republished - unless prior permission is sought from, and given by, the originator, owner or licensee of such item, design or packaging.



The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter complies with the Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act.

Under this act, information about individuals can be stored and published only if: the information is already contained in a publicly available document or if personal information has been provided by the individual to whom the information relates, and if that individual is aware of the purposes for which the information is being collected.

All information published by the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter is either publicly available, or has been voluntarily provided by writers, on request from the Editor of the ''NumisNet World'  (Internet Edition) newsletter.

While the ''NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter may hold writers' addresses and other details for the purposes of communication and copyright protection, it will never make such addresses or details available to any member of the public without the permission of those involved.

The 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter also respects the privacy of our readers. When you write to us with comments, queries or suggestions, you may provide us with personal information including your contact address or other relevant information. Your personal information will never be made available to a third party without permission.



All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned. 

The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. Deadline for any literary contributions, or amendment to copy, is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication.


The Editor,

Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.


Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

Email: pwood@vision.net.au