Volume 18 Issue 9      Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)     September 2013



Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2013.


The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


All or any prices quoted in articles in this free newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the authors' own collection - or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' -  Internet Edition © 1991 - 2007.  and the  'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition. © 2007 - 2013.  

Krause-Mishler (KM) Standard and Specialized World Catalogs (also including 'Pick' banknote numbers) - and McDonald and/or Renniks Australian catalogue numbers - are used where applicable.

*Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes.)


Please, also, consider my conditional invitation, to make a literary contribution, if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest - and fulfils our stated editorial guidelines. As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in additional presentation. However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication. 

We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has necessitated the following conditions.

If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagiarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbyist collector.  - G.E.P.



Where on-line web-site Links or addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith - however, our readers are advised, that, if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.



The word 'reprise' is from Old French meaning 'for taking back' - or resurrecting!

For those of my readers who have noticed that I, occasionally, repeat or rehash an educational article - I offer the following well-thought out excuses ....

1. Some people missed reading the original - and that is an legitimate reason.

2. Further facts have been forthcoming - another reasonable explanation.......

3. ...and - because I ran out of time and needed to fill the hole!


My own main excuse this month is, perhaps the last one - because I am a relatively busy person for my age - and, after all, this is a voluntary effort - and it is a free publication.  However, I do try to keep it interesting ....!

So, please, bear with me during those off-times when I editorially 'stutter' - and offer you a 'reprise'!

Sometimes, the rigours of old age also drop on me, like a large concrete brick from a great height! 

From necessity, I have been my own master of this Internet publication and its predecessor since 1996 (with much appreciated technical help from my son, Paul) - but, I need to have a life outside of producing a newsletter of two - so, if I have been remiss - and if I deign to plead guilty to the third  instance above -  a little self-justification comes with the job. (Have any of you considered what is required to fill these pages, month after month, year after year?)

I'm not desiring to lower anyone's expectations of what I research and write about - nor am I soliciting a flood of sympathetic well-wishes just because I sometimes get 'browned-off' - I do this because I genuinely want to - and, I enjoy the art of crafting the storylines etc. - but, sometimes, time does escapes me, and numismatic ideas are sparse and facts are not always easy to find. 

In fact, some 'reprises' are virtually new articles on old subjects - but, that is the nature of numismatics.

Hopefully, these 'reprises'  are well-chosen - and opportune - as is the brief article about Arabic numbers at this time of Middle East unrest - and the tale of Professor Holloway's famous Pills and Ointments - and his tokens -  which I can remember seeing in my grandparent's home when I was a kid in the early 1940's.



Any numismatic collection 'worth its salt - or curry' will contain a few examples of coins and notes that originate from the Central Middle East.


If we truly wonder about the unfamiliar script and, particularly, those important cursive numerals that denote values and dates, we will, no doubt, consider undertaking some study to try and get an understanding of how they work.

The designation 'AH' although it is rarely shown on the numismatic item - indicates 'Anno Hegirae or 'after Hejira' - which is the year when the Prophet Mohammed fled from Mecca in 622 A.D.

Due to the fact that the Mohammedan Calendar is based on the lunar year (11 days shorter than the solar year), a gradually widening has occurred between the dates - and a chart is usually referred to for accurate time alignments.

A good catalogue - such as those from Krause Publications (mentioned below) - will usually have charts of various on-going time variations as part of its information referral package.


We will note that some of these 'Arabic' numbers bear a likeness to those that adorn our own numeric correspondences and calendars - and, it soon becomes obvious that we are, perhaps, seeing a closer connection with our own system than we first imagined - or, it may even be considered an essential part of its roots!

With such importance - in the historical development of our European numbering system - it behoves us to, at least, make that effort of understanding this obvious link.


1977 Egyptian One Pound 

(KPM # 44) - Serial # 211/D 0354908


Take a close look at the 'Arabic' numbers shown in the adjacent chart of various Arabic number variations and you will immediately see that, in most instances, the numbers -  0, 1, 2, 3, 7 and 9 are similar to ours. They may be at a slightly different angle - but, there is a noticeable resemblance.

Other numbers 4, 5 and 8 are more confusing due to the fact that the various  scripts differ slightly in their interpretation.

(1982) United Arab Emirates 10 Dirham note.

(KPM # 8)  - Serial #14/J 283177

(*The Burmese numerals on the chart are from a different formative source - we will refer to them at a later stage when another  reference to this subject of numeric applications is undertaken, closer to home, in Australia's near North-west!)

The Arabic numbers 7 - 8 are easy to mix - but - once you are familiar with them - they can be easily differentiated on coins and notes etc. - particularly if you are aware of the source of the numismatic item.

The 7's and 8's of pre-WWI Turkey* and Hyderabad in India can be a little confusing due to their positional orientation - however, it is from the Turkish or Ottoman Arabic that the most commonly used Central Mid-Eastern numerals have been derived.

In many instances, numbers were originally derived from Arabic letters - which are also confusing as these are often changed in the way they are written - dependant on the position they occupy. 

Capital letters, or initials, for instance are usually formed slightly differently than 'lowercase' medial (middle) or terminal letters in a word. 

On the banknote illustration (above), the symbols in the prefix before the serial number could be read as 14/3 but it is more likely that the prefix is probably incorporating the 'initial' letter 'J' = 14/J.


1916 - (AH)1335 Egyptian 10 Piastres .833 Silver (33mm.-14grams.) (KM # 319)

Reverse date (AH)1333 indicates the accession date of Hussein Kamil - who was ruler during the British Occupation 1914 - 1922.


1964 -(AH)1384 Egyptian (United Arab Republic) 50 Piastres .720 Silver (42mm.-20grams.) (KM # 407)

Often the Arabic number Five (5) will be shown fully closed - similar to the European Zero (0).



 Turkish Lirasi banknotes from 1970's - 1990's.

Turkey adopted standard European numerals and script-type with the rise of Kemel Ataturk (refer banknote portrait) as leader after WWI - and, it is only on older Ottoman notes and coins, from the pre-WWI era, that the Arabic numerals and script will be more commonly seen.

Turkish Ottoman era coinage - well-worn.

Ascension date AH1255 - Year 16 Abdul Mejid (1855) 20 Para - Copper - minted in Constantinople. (KM # 668.1)

Ascension date AH 1327 - Year 5  Muhammad V (1914 ) 5 Para - Nickel - minted in Constantinople. (KM # 759)


Main References:-

'Standard Catalog of World Coins' - Krause Publications.

"Standard Catalog of World Paper Money' - Krause Publications.



By chance, as I was clearing out some very old computer files a few years ago, I happened upon a group of 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletters, that originated at least 17 years ago - they are items that I had considered lost during a catastrophic computer blitz that occurred in 2000. The advent of the new millennium had its electronic cost.

Most of those articles are still not amongst the archived Internet issues of either the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' nor this publication - at this stage. 

Hopefully, they will now be able to be re-incorporated into the system - one way or another.

I first published this short article, about Professor Holloway, in May/June 1996,  and reprised it in August 2009 - but it has a habit of resurfacing.... much like the demand for his medications!

The fact is, that I have been answering  recent correspondence requesting information about this shrewd English entrepreneur and his tokens - and, it was a story that appealed to me so many years ago and still does .

I think it's also worth another 'reprise' due to the fact that Holloway's trade tokens are still a great acquisition.


Imagine that all the world's ills, in man or beast, could be cured by a single miracle salve or pill  that was easy and cheap to produce! Believe it or not, the 'cure' was found over a 150 years ago by a relatively poorly educated young man who, through his entrepreneurial skills, went on to become an English multi-millionaire - and a well considered philanthropist!  In the end - the fact that he was a con-man and a medical 'quack' - meant little - and his legacy to proper medicine and education still lingers on.

Born in the city of Devonport in England, on 22nd. September 1800, Thomas Holloway was always interested in making money, so much so that he was often taken to task by his Headmaster for his schemes to extract cash from his fellow scholars instead of studying his lessons.

The records show that the enterprising Thomas had his first official brush with the law, in 1838, as a young man.

He was selling the ointments of a rather dubious 'chemist' named Albinolo and decided that a little embellishment of the healing powers of the product would result in an increase in sales - and add a little bit more to his commission!

Unfortunately, the law didn't take kindly to the false testimonials and he was lucky to get off with a warning.

Warnings didn't have the desired effect however, and the young businessman decided that he would do his own thing and reap all the rewards by making his own ointment.  However, spending the profits before paying the bills is frowned on by creditors, so this time the justice was a lot more severe!


Thomas Holloway went to gaol for debt and took the opportunity to complete his 'education' by befriending an accountant - who was in for fraud - and thereby learnt the value of inspired book-keeping and the power of clever advertising! These lessons would stand him in good stead for most of his life!

By 1842, he was spending huge amounts of money, for that time, on advertising in respected newspapers and journals in England, Australia, India, China, Africa and the U.S.A., backed by testimonials of a seemingly impeccable nature from influential and satisfied customers.

He had also become 'Professor' Thomas Holloway!

The list of ills that Holloway's Pills and Ointments would cure, included:

"Ague, Asthma, Bilious complaints, Blotches on the skin, Bowel complaints, Colics, Constipation, Consumption, Debility, Dropsy, Dysentery, Erysipelas, Female irregularities, Fevers of all kinds, Fits, gout, Headaches, Indigestion, inflammation, jaundice, Liver complaints, Lumbago, Piles, Rheumatism, Retention of Urine, Sore Throats, Scrofula (aka King's Evil), Stones, Tics, Tumors, Ulcers, Venereal affections, Worms of all kinds, Weaknesses of all kinds."

By 1848, testimonials even started to roll in about the ointment's healing assets with animals - particularly with horses - and, in the 'era of the horse', the extra sales made Holloway ever richer! 

As one of the world's first multi-millionaires, 'Professor' Thomas Holloway must have laughed all the way to the bank!

As you can see, the list of ailments that his ointments would cure was very impressive and they seemed to work - at least until the pot ran out!

The fact that they contained an opium base may have had something to do with it! 

If you spent another 33 Shillings ($3.30) for the large Economical Pot -  your illnesses evaporated in euphoria!


In 1857 and 1858, like many other businessmen of the day, Professor Holloway issued a token bronze penny and halfpenny which enjoyed considerable popularity because of the shortage of small change in the English colonies.

The tokens shown below were made by Heaton & Sons and have a very pleasing design by J. Moore.

In keeping with the reputation of the Professor's compassion for the sick and ailing, some of his tokens show the benevolent 'healer' with his flock at his feet. and others with the Goddess Hygeia, accompanied by the Serpent associated with healing, as She is seated upon Her throne.

However, the enterprising 'Professor' Thomas Holloway has achieved a sort of immortality, and that is something, I am sure, he would have probably desired. Like his pills and ointments, these attractive coin-sized tokens were relatively cheap and easy to obtain - but the tokens have lasted a great deal longer than the euphoric effects of the early  'medicines'. They have been admired and hoarded, for over 150 years - they are a MUST for any token collector. 

1858 Professor Holloway's Halfpenny and Penny-sized bronze advertising tokens.

(References: Renniks #262 - Andrews #668)



*I have since read several very interesting, well researched articles that challenge some of the previous 'facts' I had obtained - and used - in the original 1996 'Tasmanian Numismatist' article about  the life of this larger-than-life subject -  and I fully commend these new articles. (refer below).

It shows how wide-reaching the influence of 'Professor' Thomas Holloway actually became; and how it reached up - from those dubious beginnings - and provided the financial benefits that eventually flowed through to enhance legitimate medical research and training. Truth is always stranger than fiction.









1995 - June 2007

The detail of contents of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' and 'Numisnet World' can be seen at the following links. Copies of articles are usually available by email, upon request from the Editor or the original author - or, if directly accessed, subject to those copyright provisions laid down in our current terms of use.  Articles will not be posted by mail services.

Early issues of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition', from 1995 - 1999. were archived in 2000 and articles are not linked.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug03.htm  - 1995, 1996 - 1997 (Volumes 1 and 2) Archived. Content detail only.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/Sept2003.htm  - 1998 - 1999 (Volumes 3 and 4) Archived. Content detail only.


By referring to the 'Newsletter Archives' or 'Search' function located on the Home Page, you can directly access all current Volumes online.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html  - January 2000 (Volumes 5 - to date).

In January 2006 it was decided to grant each new issue its own URL link. which would henceforth appear in the current Index.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar07.htm  - 2006 (Volume 11)

The final Index of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition'

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - 2007 (Volume 12 - Issues 1 - 6)



JULY 2007 - DECEMBER 2013.

Full details of 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  (2007)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm  -  (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec09.htm  -  (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2010)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec10.htm  -  (Volume 15 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2011)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jun11.htm  -  (Volume 16 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec11.htm  -  (Volume 16 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2012)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june12.htm  -  (Volume 17 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec12.htm   -  (Volume 17 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2013)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june13.htm  -  (Volume 18 - Issues 1 - 6)


ISSUE 7. July 2013:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/july13.htm

THE ROSES AMONGST THE THORNS - (Commemorative Coinage) - Special pieces of metal - that we now refer to as either medals or coins - have been made to commemorate a special event, place or person since Man found the ways of making metal do his bidding.. In this article we hope to give a brief modern history of our national coinage that has been encompassed in this millennia-old practice.

NOT TO BE FOUND IN POCKET CHANGE! - (Non-Circulating Legal Tender) - Broadly speaking, this category of coinage has been made for 'display purposes' only. The concept was developed over the last few decades by Perth Mint, and now we see a deluge of confusing short-term issues - with little relevance to the general public except as pretty works-of-art in metal - and, it is flooding onto the market in short powerful squirts!

It is presented as a precious bullion metal investment ingot that is given a specific face value to legitimise it as a coin  - thus it becomes legal tender for that stated value if cashed at a bank or financial institution.

This new marketing strategy has attracted a new string of collectors - in similar fashion as the postage stamp frenzy of a few decades ago.

It is slowly finding its own path away from traditional numismatics, I believe - and edging towards exonumia with a medallion-type ingot status.


ISSUE 8. August 2013:-  http://www.vision.au/~pwood/aug13.htm

FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE BOX - Every numismatist has a 'box' that contains the accumulated oddments that are acquired along with the collectibles that fit the required parameters of the hobby. Many of these are legitimate - but are not in the mainstream - some are more suited to be labelled exonumia.

Occasionally, these oddments can prove to be a distraction that exerts a powerful influence on our time as we fall under their spell.

BEREAVEMENT - It is with regret we pass on notification of the recent passing of HRH Princess Shirley of Hutt River. A brief history of Hutt River is also included for those who may wonder about this self-proclaimed fiefdom.

T.N.S. PRESIDENTIAL NOTES - In the interest of our readers, we have included several memos from T.N.S. President Roger McNeice regarding clearance of remainders of historical medallions recently discovered during a clean-up of 'TASMEDALS' archives. 'First in - first served'

TASMANIAN PASSES, CHECKS & CLUB TOKENS - A little historical background on the use of the Bellerive Ferry Turnstile Tokens.


Issue 9. September 2013:- 

THE GOOD OLD 'REPRISE' - There comes a time when ideas are hard to come by, time is too short - or other more pressing reasons influence the content of this independently produced newsletter. In such instances - and for new readers, we try to resurrect an educational article that may have been written some time ago and which we consider are worthy of another airing. Sometimes, further facts have been uncovered - and that makes it worth a second look!

CENTRAL MIDDLE-EASTERN NUMERALS - Not all scripts are easy to understand for novice numismatists. This brief article is not truly a reprise - but, it is an invigorated lesson about central Mid-Eastern numerals, particularly those of Arabic origin, that will be encountered quite frequently as we accumulate our various coin and banknote samples..

OUT OF THE VAULT - 'THE MEDICINE MAN!' - This is also a new look at an incredible character - Professor Thomas Holloway  - with some new informative links that shed extra light on this story of inspired enterprise.





The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


The 'NumisNet World'’ (Internet Edition) newsletter has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented free on a monthly basis with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics. Whilst the 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter abides by the same basic guidelines originally suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter, it is a separate, independent publication.

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, email or hand delivered, directly to financial members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions.

All titles and matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society


Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.

Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Editor. 

ALL comments in linked articles are the responsibility of the original authors.

Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, any Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations -  or  - (2) To provide additional important information. 


Some illustrated items - including their designs and packaging -  may be subject to existing copyright restrictions.

In such instances, they may not be replicated or their images reproduced or republished - unless prior permission is sought from, and given by, the originator, owner or licensee of such item, design or packaging.



The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter complies with the Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act.

Under this act, information about individuals can be stored and published only if: the information is already contained in a publicly available document or if personal information has been provided by the individual to whom the information relates, and if that individual is aware of the purposes for which the information is being collected.

All information published by the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter is either publicly available, or has been voluntarily provided by writers, on request from the Editor of the ''NumisNet World'  (Internet Edition) newsletter.

While the ''NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter may hold writers' addresses and other details for the purposes of communication and copyright protection, it will never make such addresses or details available to any member of the public without the permission of those involved.

The 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter also respects the privacy of our readers. When you write to us with comments, queries or suggestions, you may provide us with personal information including your contact address or other relevant information. Your personal information will never be made available to a third party without permission.



All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned. 

The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. Deadline for any literary contributions, or amendment to copy, is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication.


The Editor,

Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.


Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

Email: pwood@vision.net.au