Volume 18 Issue       Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)     October 2013



Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2013.


The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


All or any prices quoted in articles in this free newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the authors' own collection - or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' -  Internet Edition © 1991 - 2007.  and the  'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition. © 2007 - 2013.  

Krause-Mishler (KM) Standard and Specialized World Catalogs (also including 'Pick' banknote numbers) - and McDonald and/or Renniks Australian catalogue numbers - are used where applicable.

*Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes.)


Please, also, consider my conditional invitation, to make a literary contribution, if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest - and fulfils our stated editorial guidelines. As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in additional presentation. However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication. 

We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has necessitated the following conditions.

If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagiarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbyist collector.  - G.E.P.



Where on-line web-site Links or addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith - however, our readers are advised, that, if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.




The money from the Mediterranean Sea region has altered over the centuries like no other place on Earth as nations struggled to find their place in the world.

Some never made it - some were destroyed by the historic ravages of time - or strategically altered by conquest - and others have remained backwaters - reliant on the largesse of their neighbours.

However, it is not my intention to go back to the beginning again - as far as the Ancient coinages of Greece, Rome (samples shown below) - those, and other releases from the regional mints of the era, have been discussed in previous issues of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' and the 'Numisnet World' on various occasions.



More recently, within the last 100 years - in particular, the upheavals of history have created radical changes in the fabric of national issues of money in the Mediterranean Sea area - both in metallic and in 'paper' currency.

The latest momentous upheaval, of course, is the advent of the Euro - which, after a decade or more, is still  finding that its level of relevance amongst world currencies is difficult to maintain as the participants in the scheme experience some of the most volatile circumstances in modern financial history. However, it is but a glitch... the die has been cast!


First, however, in this article, we must define the area we intend to discuss. The following geographic information was obtained from various common sources on the Internet and from basic atlases of the area.



(Map courtesy of 'Owl & Mouse' 2013)


There are 21 nations that currently border the world's biggest inland sea.

It once had but a single natural exit and entry point through the narrow straits at Gibraltar - that is - if the desires, of the ancient seafaring peoples of this great Sea, was to reach the Atlantic Ocean and sail beyond to the edge of the world as they knew it.


The Suez Canal linking the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea was a dream only brought to reality in November 1869 after 10 years of construction. The concept of a canal was quite ancient and attempts had been made by the Egyptian Pharaohs to link the Nile with the Red Sea - but the logistics proved to be too difficult and there was always the danger of the Nile being polluted with salt water unless a series of locks was put in place. Today, the two Seas are connected - without locks - and it is an international zone that allows all shipping access - unless there are mitigating circumstances


The modern era countries we have listed below, and are considering, are nearly all enclosed within the geographic confines of lands that edge the Mediterranean - and whilst many on the southern and far eastern shores do not participate within the European Economic Community - most are touched in some way now that the Euro-zone is a reality.  

Along with Gibraltar, Portugal's position on the the Iberian Peninsula, and the links with Spain, has always insured the strategic importance of this 'lip' of the Mediterranean Sea.

For the purposes of this numismatic-oriented article, we consider Portugal as being 'close enough' - as it is part of Europe, and, has been included in the E.E.C. from inception.  We have temporarily ignored a few large islands, that are dependencies of other nations, as they do not issue independent currencies.


Portugal 1997 Commemorative 1000Escudos .500 Silver coin - Bank of Portugal 500 Escudos banknote (1973)


I also decided to include Gibraltar - as it is a unique, historical, and strategically positioned, outpost of Great Britain - and it does have a record of dedicated banknotes issued under the auspices of the Government of Gibraltar.

Its own modern coinage has been made by the Pobjoy Mint for several decades and bears the PM mintmark - it utilises designs by Ian Rank-Broadley et al - so there will be 21 (plus 2) nations on our Mediterranean list at this time.



1975 Government of Gibraltar - One Pound banknote.

2004 Gibraltar One Pound coin with the commemorative theme of 'The Big Seige 1779 - 1783'.


Obviously, things frequently alter, with the designs and denominations available, at any given time in numismatic history - but, for our reader's interest, below is a small assorted selection of previous issues of money - low value pocket change coinage and currency notes - that were most commonly used in those Mediterranean nations over the last century or so. 

'A picture tells a thousand words' - so we have tried to be generous with our illustrations of the currencies of the Mediterranean Sea area.  Obviously, for greater detail - including some translations of text, estimated market values and pricing etc. - a good world coinage catalogue is essential and we would recommend those published for decades by Krause Publications  - in book form or, more recently,  on the CD disc format - under the titles of:

'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money' - and - 'Standard Catalog of World Coins'.

++ Not all countries listed have been pic. sampled - at this time - due to lack of suitable specie samples.





Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.

1964 Algeria  -  Low value base metal  Aluminium & Aluminium-Bronze Centime coinage



1977 Egypt -  (top) One Pound banknote - (1905-11) .833 Silver Piastre coinage

(bottom) 1985 Central Bank of Egypt - 20 and 50 Piastres banknotes.



(1971) Central Bank of Libya  - Half Dinar banknote - not dated


1952  Morocco - Aluminium-Bronze 20Francs coin


1900's Tunisia  - Bronze and Brass Centime coinage (top)

 1960's  - Aluminium and Brass Millim coinage (below).




Cyprus, Israel, Lebanon, Syria.

 1974 Bank of Cyprus - 250 Mil banknote


State of Israel

1968 Bank of Israel - 50 Lirot banknote.

(1948- 1978) Agorot and Lira coinage set  -  1998 Bank of Israel 20 Sheqalim banknote.

Although Hebrew numerals are in existence - the State of Israel has now opted to use Western numerals for common usage.


1950 Republic of Lebanon - 50 Piastres banknote.


1929 State of Syria -   25 & 50 Piastres .680 Silver.




Albania (++), Serbia & Herzegovina, Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Malta (++), Monaco (++), Montenegro (++), Slovenia, Spain and Turkey.


1941 Serbia - 100 Dinara (Overprinted) banknote.

1943 Croatia - 1000 Kuna banknote


1941 Bank of France - 20 and 50 Franc notes


1970 France -  .900 Silver 10 Franc coin



WWII-era Greece -  inflated value paper currency issued during German occupation..

An assortment of Bronze, Aluminium and C.N. coinage issued 1900's - 1990's

1978 Greece - 100 Drachmai banknote.


1990 Republic of Slovenia -  1, 2, 5 and 50 Tolarjev banknotes.


1928 Spain - 100 Pesetas banknote.

Various dates and denominations, low value pre-Euro C.N. and Aluminium-Bronze coins.


(1970*) Turkey - Lirasi banknote series. (Shown from top) - Issued 1972 - 1970 - 1984

(featuring several portraits of Ataturk - the founder of modern Turkey.)

*Authorized in 1970, several series of Lirasi denomination notes, featuring Ataturk - and all dated 1970  - were released  during 1970-2, 1984-6.


Obviously, this is only a small sampling from the full range of Mediterranean nations' currency. If, as collectors, we did nothing else but harvest the rich bounty from this geographic region, we would have a lifetime interest.






There is another Eastern Arab-Indic cursive style with slight variations but, the Arabic-Indic (shown above) is the most commonly-used type found on notes and coinage from the Mediterranean area.





Of the 28 nations - large and small -  listed within the European Union - there are now 17 nations actively participating in the use of the Euro currency - with others trying to attain the criteria needed 'to join the club'!

(Details can be found by searching Wikipedia.)


The question is - 'Will the world eventually unite under a single - or, perhaps, several major currencies? '

I believe it will!


There would be - probably - currencies by a 'bloc' name only - like the Euro and/or the Dollar - but with a minimal  'real' money'  component (or what will pass as money in the future) available as a physical entity in public hands.

The credit or debit card - or its forthcoming equivalent - and/or direct automatic adjustment of our income against our debts - will be our only way to access goods and services. Even very basic financial transactions will be done by electronic means - bar-codes and/or implanted electronic chips - and this method will continue to grow at an ever-increasing speed until it is accepted as the norm.  It means that small change - money in its most common modern material form -  will, ultimately (sooner than later), disappear into history ....!

Already, the general public - in most developed nations - is being (virtually) forced into this way of doing daily business - and - we are finding that transactions are already being 'rounded'!





2002 EURO PAPER CURRENCY - 50 Euro note.

The 'nationality' of the note is identified by the prefix letter at the start of the serial number.

Austria = N; Belgium = Z; Denmark = W; Finland = L; France = U; Germany = X; Greece = Y; Ireland = T; Italy = S; Luxembourg = R; Netherlands = P; Portugal = M; Spain = V; Sweden = K; and United Kingdom = J

Various designs are incorporated in the range of denominations - but all feature the map of Europe as the underlay..


One & Two Euro Bi-metallic Coinage from several EEC founding nations.


Commercially Packaged base-metal Eurocent-coinage sets 1999 - 2002.

1999 - 2001 Belgium, Finland, France*, Netherlands, and Spain*.

2002  Austria, Germany, Ireland, Italy*, Luxembourg, Portugal* and Greece*.

(*National reverses of Mediterranean access nations shown.) Scans not to scale.


*A complete range of all the participating member countries' coinage at inception was available in a binder-boxed set produced by 'Leuchturm'. The Euro coins have a generic side and a 'national' side but each of the member states' coins are interchangeable throughout the Euro-zone. Since the original release dates, there has been a certain amount of 'nationalisation' occurring with new commemorative NCLT (Non Circulating Legal Tender) bullion pieces that have gradually been introduced.  (It seems old entrenched habits die hard!)



Interesting Site:-

Following a recent email conversation about the Civil War that occurred between the American States , the following article was suggested to me in regard to the importance of the cotton economy.


'From Cotton to T-Shirts: The Role of Cotton in the Civil War'






1995 - June 2007

The detail of contents of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' and 'Numisnet World' can be seen at the following links. Copies of articles are usually available by email, upon request from the Editor or the original author - or, if directly accessed, subject to those copyright provisions laid down in our current terms of use.  Articles will not be posted by mail services.

Early issues of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition', from 1995 - 1999. were archived in 2000 and articles are not linked.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug03.htm  - 1995, 1996 - 1997 (Volumes 1 and 2) Archived. Content detail only.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/Sept2003.htm  - 1998 - 1999 (Volumes 3 and 4) Archived. Content detail only.


By referring to the 'Newsletter Archives' or 'Search' function located on the Home Page, you can directly access all current Volumes online.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html  - January 2000 (Volumes 5 - to date).

In January 2006 it was decided to grant each new issue its own URL link. which would henceforth appear in the current Index.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar07.htm  - 2006 (Volume 11)

The final Index of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition'

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - 2007 (Volume 12 - Issues 1 - 6)




JULY 2007 - DECEMBER 2013.

Full details of 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  (2007)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm  -  (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec09.htm  -  (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2010)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec10.htm  -  (Volume 15 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2011)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jun11.htm  -  (Volume 16 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec11.htm  -  (Volume 16 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2012)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june12.htm  -  (Volume 17 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec12.htm   -  (Volume 17 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2013)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june13.htm  -  (Volume 18 - Issues 1 - 6)


ISSUE 7. July 2013:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/july13.htm

THE ROSES AMONGST THE THORNS - (Commemorative Coinage) - Special pieces of metal - that we now refer to as either medals or coins - have been made to commemorate a special event, place or person since Man found the ways of making metal do his bidding.. In this article we hope to give a brief modern history of our national coinage that has been encompassed in this millennia-old practice.

NOT TO BE FOUND IN POCKET CHANGE! - (Non-Circulating Legal Tender) - Broadly speaking, this category of coinage has been made for 'display purposes' only. The concept was developed over the last few decades by Perth Mint, and now we see a deluge of confusing short-term issues - with little relevance to the general public except as pretty works-of-art in metal - and, it is flooding onto the market in short powerful squirts!

It is presented as a precious bullion metal investment ingot that is given a specific face value to legitimise it as a coin  - thus it becomes legal tender for that stated value if cashed at a bank or financial institution.

This new marketing strategy has attracted a new string of collectors - in similar fashion as the postage stamp frenzy of a few decades ago.

It is slowly finding its own path away from traditional numismatics, I believe - and edging towards exonumia with a medallion-type ingot status.


ISSUE 8. August 2013:-  http://www.vision.au/~pwood/aug13.htm

FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE BOX - Every numismatist has a 'box' that contains the accumulated oddments that are acquired along with the collectibles that fit the required parameters of the hobby. Many of these are legitimate - but are not in the mainstream - some are more suited to be labelled exonumia.

Occasionally, these oddments can prove to be a distraction that exerts a powerful influence on our time as we fall under their spell.

BEREAVEMENT - It is with regret we pass on notification of the recent passing of HRH Princess Shirley of Hutt River. A brief history of Hutt River is also included for those who may wonder about this self-proclaimed fiefdom.

T.N.S. PRESIDENTIAL NOTES - In the interest of our readers, we have included several memos from T.N.S. President Roger McNeice regarding clearance of remainders of historical medallions recently discovered during a clean-up of 'TASMEDALS' archives. 'First in - first served'

TASMANIAN PASSES, CHECKS & CLUB TOKENS - A little historical background on the use of the Bellerive Ferry Turnstile Tokens.


Issue 9. September 2013:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/sep13.htm

THE GOOD OLD 'REPRISE' - There comes a time when ideas are hard to come by, time is too short - or other more pressing reasons influence the content of this independently produced newsletter. In such instances - and for new readers, we try to resurrect an educational article that may have been written some time ago and which we consider are worthy of another airing. Sometimes, further facts have been uncovered - and that makes it worth a second look!

CENTRAL MIDDLE-EASTERN NUMERALS - Not all scripts are easy to understand for novice numismatists. This brief article is not truly a reprise - but, it is an invigorated lesson about central Mid-Eastern numerals, particularly those of Arabic origin, that will be encountered quite frequently as we accumulate our various coin and banknote samples..

OUT OF THE VAULT - 'THE MEDICINE MAN!' - This is also a new look at an incredible character - Professor Thomas Holloway  - with some new informative links that shed extra light on this story of inspired enterprise.


Issue 10. October 2013:-

MONEY OF THE MEDITERRANEAN - A pictorial browse through some of the coinage and currency of the nations that border the worlds largest near-landlocked sea - the Mediterranean.

Some would say that the Mediterranean Sea is the cradle of our modern civilization - and, that the concepts of paper currency over metallic coinage - as we know it today - were fine-tuned and developed in this area after the links between China in the East and Italy in the West were forged by 'Marco Polo' et al.... and the process is still on-going!

ARE WE READY FOR A LINKED UNIVERSAL CURRENCY? - The world jury is still out on the advantages - or not - of having blocs of nations forgoing their national currencies in favour of a more inclusive trading arrangement - such as the Euro-zone and its one currency.

Whether the other major entities in Northern America - the United States of America, Canada and Mexico -  the Russian Federation and China - as well as the Austral-Asian-Pacific, African and South American areas - will also head down this path remains to be seen.





The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


The 'NumisNet World'’ (Internet Edition) newsletter has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented free on a monthly basis with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics. Whilst the 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter abides by the same basic guidelines originally suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter, it is a separate, independent publication.

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, email or hand delivered, directly to financial members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions.

All titles and matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society


Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.

Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Editor. 

ALL comments in linked articles are the responsibility of the original authors.

Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, any Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations -  or  - (2) To provide additional important information. 


Some illustrated items - including their designs and packaging -  may be subject to existing copyright restrictions.

In such instances, they may not be replicated or their images reproduced or republished - unless prior permission is sought from, and given by, the originator, owner or licensee of such item, design or packaging.



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Under this act, information about individuals can be stored and published only if: the information is already contained in a publicly available document or if personal information has been provided by the individual to whom the information relates, and if that individual is aware of the purposes for which the information is being collected.

All information published by the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter is either publicly available, or has been voluntarily provided by writers, on request from the Editor of the ''NumisNet World'  (Internet Edition) newsletter.

While the ''NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter may hold writers' addresses and other details for the purposes of communication and copyright protection, it will never make such addresses or details available to any member of the public without the permission of those involved.

The 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter also respects the privacy of our readers. When you write to us with comments, queries or suggestions, you may provide us with personal information including your contact address or other relevant information. Your personal information will never be made available to a third party without permission.



All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned. 

The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. Deadline for any literary contributions, or amendment to copy, is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication.


The Editor,

Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.


Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

Email: pwood@vision.net.au