Volume 14 Issue 10Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996) October 2009
'NUMISNET WORLD'INTERNET EDITION
Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2009.
Remember - be astute when you are handed change - not all the wonders of numismatics have been discovered yet - and they don't have to be shiny and new! This edition again features an assortment of 'trivia' that I think is of interest and I trust it will prove educational and entertaining to you as well.
All or any prices quoted in articles in this newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations.
Wherever possible - illustrations are from the authors' own collection or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' local and Internet editions and the 'Numisnet World' - Internet Editions. © 1996 - 2009.
(Fair 'acknowledged' use of any scan is allowed for educational purposes.)
Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale.
Any comments published in this privately produced newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views of the 'Numisnet World' (Internet Edition) nor its Editor.
Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, any Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to:
(2) To provide additional important information.
These items may be subject to existing copyright.
Please consider my conditional invitation to make a literary contribution if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest and fulfills our stated editorial guidelines. However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication. As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in presentation.
We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has neccessitated the following conditions.
If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbiest collector. - G.E.P.
PLEASE NOTE - RE-STATED DISCLAIMER: Where on-line web-site addressess are supplied, they are done so in good faith after we have checked them ourselves - however, our readers are advised that if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.
THE COLLECTOR'S QUANDARY!
by Graeme Petterwood. © 2009.
Each month I receive, from various sources - both hard-copy and electronic - substantial quantities of literature from dealers and other commercial numismatic enterprises - for which I am truly most grateful.
As an active numismatist, they are always interesting reading - however, more importantly to me as an Editor - it is this stream of current information that provides part of the grist for this newsletter's 'mill' - which, in turn, contributes to the bread of knowledge we all need to maintain our hobby passion..
Unfortunately, there is also an old saying, "Too much of a good thing isn't really good for us!" - and this has apparently become the case - once again!
For those 'ordinary' collectors within our hobby, who also receive copious amounts of dealer advertising pamphlets and, I would think - the dealers themselves, who have to bear the considerable costs of the preparation of same (and then hold stocks of some very expensive merchandise to back their advertising) - I have sympathy for the quandary that has been facing us all for some time.
A small random selection of quality dealers' numismatic brochures - there are many more!
We are again being pounded by the plethora of 'baubles' produced at the Royal Australian Mint (and other private mints) - and, unfortunately, not many of the average traditional Australian coin collectors can now possibly hope to afford - or cater for - this amount of Non-circulating Legal Tender (NCLT) merchandise currently being churned out in an average year.
Several well-known numismatic writers have also made mention of this influx, in their 'Australasian Coin & Banknote Magazine' (CAB) articles, of late.
This is a subject which has risen its ugly head several times over the last few decades - it has a tendency to ebb and flow - but, as mentioned in our last issue, it is occasionally allowed to rise to flood level - and the phenomena becomes a collector's nemesis!
Simply put - are we being subject to a program of Mint overkill - once again?
In the September 2009 edition of 'Mint Issue' from the RAM (shown below), - there were many different types of NCLT being advertised - incorporating a number of new design series - and different metals and finishes within some of those sets or series.
Many of us, who have been collecting the basic coin range since decimalization started in 1966 - and then started adding the few especially packaged circulating coins, and the annual Mint and Proof sets when they started to appear as attractively presented items - CANNOT keep continuing to expand collections and justify these types of' fancy purchases - no matter how dedicated we are.
The avalanches of new NCLT coins have now taken on a 'life of their own' - basically as 'Art'! - and they probably need a more appropriate numismatic definition of their own. Except that they bear the Monarch's bust - and have been designated a value - they are really not much more than glorified medallions as they will rarely be used or recognised by the majority of the public as being Legal Tender and, in the main, will remain hoarded - as beautiful curiosities with an artificial price structure..
"Mint Issue" Number 81 - September 2009 - 24pages.
Many of these NCLT items are produced in precious metals and also have uniquely-designed containers of cardboard, wood, plastic and tin, and they cannot be housed in normal coin or note folders - they are sometimes bulky or have coverings that are susceptible to damage by abrasion.
The cost of these sets - even if a moderate collection is concerned - will eventually justifiy a reasonably good security system - and, whatever way you go, it will not be cheap to be safe......!.
This handicap of incidental cost is becoming too big a burden for many of the old faithful numismatic work-horses who make up a big percentage of the hobby market. First, we miss one special item - then another - and finally, it becomes easier - and we either stop buying specials or become extremely choosy with our hobby dollar.
Adequate, and dedicated, storage for these special-packaged items has become an expensive task!
(Above:- 2001 Centenary of Federation State Tribute 'Holey Dollar and Dump' in flag-shaped box. Composition .999 Fine Silver)
This massive marketing ploy is aimed at - and is appealing to - a totally new generational-type of accumulator who flits from pretty product to pretty product.
Perhaps, I should describe them as the ‘butterfly’ collectors – and the Mint has planted a beautiful and plentiful garden for them to browse over.
The new coinage items can all be justified as Australian icons of community interest - they are beautifully produced by the top-notch Royal Australian Mint artisan team - they are very marketable as 'works-of-art' - and I realise that there is an evolving and different level of numismatic interest occurring - and a dramatic change in attitudes amongst modern buyers that is now almost inevitable.
I do not pretend to know the answer to the quandry that is quickly evolving - BUT - we now have two identifiable markets!
The feeling, at the basic collector level, is that there are just too many items appearing in one year for Australia's traditional numismatic market to absorb - even with the strategic 'limited mintage' releases. The new market wants to be entertained with shades of diversity!
The huge range of 'arty' Mint product of 2009 is destined to expand and continue into 2010 - and it may be that it is designed to take up slackness in overall sales based on the failure to achieve full ratings with so many individual designs. The need to promote change becomes even more essential - because they haven't got the sales formula, nor the product appeal to cover the wider spectrum, quite right - as yet
The basic principle of any business is to be successful, and - sometimes - this diversification needs be part of the formula! BUT NOT THE COMPLETE FORMULA!
(Above:- 2001 Federation Centenary Masterpieces in Silver - 6 x AUD$5.00 coin set. Composition .925 Sterling Silver)
The Mint is also now openly taking on a far more aggressive retail dealer's role - and is marketing numismatic accessories, catalogues etc. - as well as other vague 'money-related' items. As a former sales manager, I can see the Mint's logic with the 'shotgun' approach being used - pepper the target, offer alternatives, and you will get some hits - and with new collectors coming up all the time - it is logical to assume that there are also 'new' markets to aim at. .
However, the buffalo-hunter's attitude will eventually scatter and spook the old 'meat-on-the-table' targets that used to come back year after year. These are the ones who have had a chance to accumulate a collection of some worth - and have been able to pay for it.
The 'bird in the hand' adage has been replaced with the obvious - 'sow and thou shall reap'. Beware it doesn't become 'Reap what you sow!"
As long as the ground is fertile - and not barren from over-use - and crop failures don't become more common - it stays great for the sower!
Perhaps, we 'old-timers' may be forced to forgo our lofty aspirations of ever having a complete Mint collection within our collecting lifetime and, henceforth, 'specialize' in just circulation coinage - or join the new throng and buy 'pretty' - as it appeals to us, our sense of nationalism - and our ability to pay for it..
'A vegie garden - with just a few flowers at the front' - but we don't want a 'glut on the market' somewhere down the track when all the NCLT starts to lose its bloom. Actually, I believe that many of us are already headed down that track - but, some of us are still carefully looking at the future investment potential of certain of the better structured pieces as well.
As always, there will be winners - and losers - that emerge from this quandary!
RUMMY FUNNY MONEY.
revised by Graeme Petterwood © 1997 - 2009.
1988 commemorative Australian Polymer $10.00 note depicting HMS 'Supply' in Sydney Cove
On June 26th -28th. 1790, three transport ships of the Second Fleet sailed into Sydney Harbour with the surviving 739* of its human cargo of 1006 prisoners. (*There are various estimates on the actual number of people who were involved in this venture and the true figures may never be known.)
Even after the ships had anchored, 14 prisoners died on the boats bringing them ashore to the special emergency tents that Governor Arthur Phillip had ordered to be set up in front of the colony’s temporary hospital, and another 36 soon afterwards, much to the despair of Surgeon-General John White.
The high death toll was blamed mainly on the ill treatment of the prisoners, particularly on the ‘Neptune’, by that ships’ sadistic officers, as well as several murders that had occurred amongst the convicts. The bodies had been hidden so that the victims’ allocated rations could be shared by the killers.
(Although deaths from similar causes did happen again during subsequent voyages, they would never occur again on this scale.
Between 1787 -1801, of the 5,304 men and 1,330 women convicts transported, 756 died while on the ships bringing them out to Australia.)
The convicts had left England on Jan.19th. 1790, and, of the survivors, 486 were sick with scurvy, dysentery, typhus and typhoid fever and immediately became another burden on the colony whose resources had already been stretched close to the limit - due to the non-arrival of the supply ships that had been sent to replenish the fledgling colony set up after the First Fleet had arrived in January 1788.
The original population of about 1,030 Europeans, including children, who had arrived with the First Fleet, had been in serious danger of starvation since Oct. 1788 and were only saved when Governor Phillip sent his flagship, the frigate ‘Sirius’, captained by John Hunter, back to Cape Town for supplies.
Hunter sailed from Sydney on the ‘Roaring Forties’ winds and, on his own initiative, went eastward via Cape Horn, to complete the round trip in 7 months.
With the colony still not in a position of self reliance, it was then learnt that the supply ship ‘Guardian’ sent from England in Sept. 1789 had hit an iceberg in the Indian Ocean, on Dec.23rd. of that year, and had been forced to jettison its cargo before limping back to Cape Town.
The only alternative for Phillip was to again send another of his ships, the brig ‘Supply’, under the command of Lt. Henry Lidgbird Ball, to Dutch Batavia in April 1790, for more desperately needed provisions. (The ‘Sirius’ had been wrecked on Norfolk Island on March 19th. 1790.)
On June 3rd. 1790, an old leaking supply ship, ‘Lady Julianna’, which had left England on July 29th. 1789 creaked into Port Jackson, followed 17 days later by several of the faster ships from the Second Fleet - which had set sail six months after the old vessel.
Fortunately, one of these early arrivals was the storeship ‘Justinian’, and then, when the ‘Supply’ returned on Oct.19th., loaded with rice, flour and other provisions, and announced that more supplies were to coming from Batavia (Djarkarta), the spectre of starvation was diminished.
As the weekly ration for a working-man had been reduced to 7 pounds of bread (or flour for breadmaking), 7 pounds of beef (or 4 pounds of salted pork), 3 pints of pease, 6 ounces of butter, and an extra half a pound of flour or rice - and women only received two-thirds and children one third of this ration - the supply ships would have been a welcome sight as they entered Port Jackson.
Aboard the ships of the Second Fleet was also the first detachment of 100 men, from the 'New South Wales Corps', under the command of Captain Nicholas Nepean. The New South Wales Corps, consisting of a total of four companies of infantry, was raised initially by Major Francis Grose (1758? - 1814) in 1789, as a special force to replace the dissatisfied and unwilling 212 men of the Royal Marine Light Infantry, under the command of Major Robert Ross.
The three companies of Marines, who had landed with Capt. Arthur Phillip and the First Fleet in 1788, and were supposed to be used as garrison troops, had been thoroughly disillusioned by their inappropriate role as gaolers for the convicts in the new colony of New South Wales which, at that time, consisted of all the eastern coast of Australia. On March 13th. 1790, the Marines left Sydney for Norfolk Island, where they remained until they embarked for England on Dec.13th. 1791, and their duties were taken over by the Corps.
Each company of the new Corps consisted of:- 1 Captain, 1 Lieutenant, 1 Ensign, 3 Sergeants, 3 Corporals, 2 Drummers and 67 Privates, with staff.
Some of the Royal Marines, who had opted to stay behind, joined the N.S.W. Corps and formed a fifth company under Capt. George Johnston.
1954 Commonwealth Bank of Australia paper note with denomination of 10 Pounds
featuring Governor Arthur Phillip.
In Feb. 1792, Major Grose arrived with the second detachment of the Corps, and, the ill and exhausted Phillip - who had been repeatedly requesting to be relieved - finally left to return to England on Dec.10th. 1792.
The penal colony was left under the Lt. Governor Grose's administrative control for two years until a suitable replacement could be found.
Grose immediately suspended the powers of the few civilian magistrates and disbanded the trustee convict constables appointed by Phillip and handed all their functions over to the officers of the N.S.W. Corps.
It was during this time, when some of the officers of the Corps, who had been involved in trading some of their personal cargoes* from the ship ‘Pitt’, which had come in with the Second Fleet in February, realised that huge profits could be made from controlling the cargoes of food, livestock and the other necessities that were required in the colony, and it didn’t take long before the patterns of greed - and eventual corruption - were established.
(*It was common practice for gentlemen officers, both military and naval, in those days, to be involved in some type of private commercial enterprise as a means of supplementing their incomes.)
The often under-rated military commander, Francis Grose, was a veteran soldier who had fought against the Americans - and was wounded twice - and he came from a highly influential family. He and his 'Rum Corps', have been given the role as the 'villians' within early Australian history in many (justified) respects - but a careful re-assessment of Grose's actual achievements show that it was under his guidance - self-centred interests or not - that the penal colony was able to start developing into a proper self-sustaining settlement. - However, it was still a long difficult path that lay ahead!
Because the English Government thought that a penal colony, such as New South Wales, would not need coinage - (in fact, they thought it would be better off without it!) - they had made no official provision for any quantity to be made available for any unforeseeable commercial purposes.
Most major official purchases were covered by negotiable Bills, and between 1798 - 1800 over 94,000 Pounds value in these British Treasury Bills were issued from the colony to cover essential supplies.
The decision by the English hierarchy in regard to coinage, however, created a serious problem for the everyday running of the isolated community that soon needed a basic currency for trading purposes.
Most of the stock animals had died, and the first crops had failed to yield up to expectations under the unfamiliar Australian conditions during the first two years of the colony’s life - and those colonists who did manage to produce any useable commodity wanted to be paid so that they, in turn, could buy what they needed from the commissariat stores.
Any foreign precious metal currencies, as well as the few English coins available, disappeared rapidly with the ships that started to trickle into Sydney and sell whatever they could spare from their cargoes - through the Corps officers’ trade network of course!
On Dec.17th. 1790, the Dutch trader ‘Waaksamheyd’ arrived with more of the foodstuffs and supplies ordered by Lt. Ball when the ‘Supply’ had been in Batavia - it meant that the colony would not starve again, but it also meant that a little more of the coinage disappeared with the ship.
It wasn’t long before the use of promissory notes, commissary store receipts, rum, grain, fresh provisions, or any another commodity, had become widely accepted as a way to barter goods and services amongst any ‘speculative’ cargo-ships, or the whaling and sealer’s crews who were calling into Sydney after the mammals were discovered in 1791 in Bass’ Strait and the Tasman Sea.
The 1798 alliance - between France and Spain, drove the English whaling fleets away from the traditional areas off South America, and would also see more British ships, and others from America, venture into the South Pacific and call into Sydney’s safe Port Jackson to re-provision and have rest and recreation. Even some of the convict transport ships were used as whalers, after they had discharged their human cargoes, to save them heading back to England with empty holds. - It also meant that the men who controlled trade became increasingly asset wealthy and powerful.
The N.S.W. Corps soon became known, disparagingly, as the 'Rum Corps' because some of its more corrupt officers also gained control of the lucrative spirits trade and turned the profits to their own use.
Prior to his departure Governor Phillip had instituted a land grants’ scheme where ex-convicts were given 30 acres plus 20 acres for a wife and 10 acres for each child, ex-soldiers were given 50 acres and non-commissioned officers 100 acres.
In Nov. 1791 there were 87 free settlers in the colony - 44 ex-convicts, 11 ex-sailors, 31 ex-soldiers and 1 original free settler, and they had been joined by 3 farmers, a blacksmith, a baker, a gardener, a millwright, 2 women and 4 children in July 1792.
Previously, when Phillip’s officers or free settlers had been granted land, their proportions were based on their wealth and their ability to develop it productively.
However, certain of the Corp’s officers were also granted parcels of land - some as large as entire English counties - from Lt. Governor Grose, without any apparent conditions attached, and they began using large gangs of convicts - far beyond the original intention - as unpaid labourers to develop these huge holdings and to grow grain, part of which could sold off quietly to be distilled into more illegal alcohol. - It was like making their own money!
It had become so blatant that, in June 1793, the British Secretary of State instructed Grose to appoint inspectors to prevent the ‘ secret and clandestine’ sale of spirits in the colony!
Corruption had been allowed to run rampant and even when Grose was eventually replaced by another Corps administrator, Lt. Governor Capt. William Paterson on Dec.12th. 1794, the rot had set in so far, and was so high-reaching, that it needed radical treatment to control it!
John Hunter, the former captain of the ‘Sirius’, who arrived back from England on Sept. 25th. 1795, was the next chosen representative of the Crown, and - fully aware of the problem - he decided that enough was enough, and enthusiastically tried to close down the illegal distilleries and control the degradation, crime and violence that had become firmly entrenched in a society made up mainly from a hard-core of ex-convicts of both sexes and undisciplined soldiers, as well as deal with the greedy or corrupt officers, and ex-officers, of the Rum Corps who now effectively controlled all the trade and production in the colony.
After 5 years Governor Hunter retired - a defeated man - and although he had managed to reinstate some of the civil magistrates, it was left to another new Governor, Philip Gidley King, to try even more stricter methods - but he, too, could not make many inroads - however, King did manage to slightly improve conditions for the growing numbers of free settlers who wanted a decent society in which to raise their families.
By establishing a fund for education, which was paid for by fines and import duties, King set a precedent of school financing, by the state, which has continued to this day.
In an effort to control the continual drain of coinage from the colony, which directly enhanced the use of spirits as currency, Governor King also issued a proclamation on Nov.19th. 1800 - which besides determining the values of foreign coins which were circulating in Australia at the time - also forbade the exportation of more than 5 Pounds value of English copper coins from New South Wales under threat of prosecution and a heavy fine.
On King’s eventual recall to England, with the major problems still unresolved, Capt. William Bligh (of the ‘Bounty’ fame) became Governor on August 13th. 1806 and he also tried to curb the excesses in power that he saw being used by the Corps, their ex-members and cronies.
In Feb.1807, Bligh issued a regulation banning the use of rum and other spirits as ‘currency’ - and thus he took the fight directly to those land-owners who were getting rich by producing grain, at virtually no cost, for the illegal distilleries which supplied the main ‘currency’ that the colony was using.
George Johnston, now a major in the N.S.W. Corps, acting on behalf of John Macarthur, the Colonial Secretary (and an ex-Corps land-owner with a vested interest) - instigated an historic event (which is now referred to as the ‘Rum Rebellion’) by arresting Governor Bligh on Jan.26th.1808, and had him confined on a trumped-up charge of ‘being unfit to rule the colony’, and declaring that he had been appointed Interim Administrator.
Bligh was eventually released after about 12 months, and immediately returned to England to alert the British Government about the situation in the colony.
1985 series Reserve Bank of Australia paper Two Dollar note (issued 1988) featuring John Macarthur.
Devonshire-born in 1766, Captain John Macarthur of the N.S.W. Corps, had been sent back to England to be court-martialled in 1801, for duelling with a fellow colonist, however, some of the wool he had produced from a few Spanish Merino sheep that he had bought from some South African stock imported by a Capt. Waterhouse and a Capt. Kent, which had been sent to England by Governor King in 1800 as a trial, was seen as an important and contributing factor to the colony’s well-being.
After lobbying the Privy Council, he gained favour as a wool producer and was allowed to return to Australia in 1805 - with 10 Merino rams and 1 ewe from the Royal Flock at Kew.
(In 1797, Macarthur had owned more than half of the 2500 sheep in the colony and was obviously a powerful man with friends in the right places!)
With 5,000 acres of land situated 60 kms. south-west of Sydney at Cowpastures ('Camden Park'), which had been granted to him by Lord Camden, Macarthur used the 5 rams and the ewe, that had survived the trip, to build up his existing flock of Spanish Merinos, Irish and Bengal sheep.
On Macarthur’s return it hadn’t been long before he and Governor Bligh began to differ seriously in opinions and, in Dec.1807, Bligh had the influential Macarthur arrested as a trouble-maker. (Macarthur had already started to show the first signs of delusions of grandeur and mental instability, that would eventually claim him before he went to his grave on April 11th. 1834 as ‘ a lunatic with little hope of restoration’.)
Macarthur’s hand in Bligh’s own arrest in 1808 was seen by many in the colony as a case of ‘pay-back’ as well as getting rid of an officious governor who was interfering with the profits of those land-owners and Corp members who had most to lose!
During the administrations of Major George Johnston (Jan.26th.-July 28th. 1808), Major Joseph Foveaux (July 29th. 1808- Jan.8th. 1809), and then Colonel William Paterson again (Jan.9th-Dec.31st. 1809) things remained firmly under the influence of the men behind the scenes - Macarthur’s clique of elite ex-Corp land-owners.
This feud for control of the colony had gone on since 1792 under the different governors and administrators, but it wasn’t until Jan.1st. 1810, when Governor Colonel Lachlan Macquarie (left) arrived, that legitimate government was restored.
With the colony population then at the 22,000 mark (about 30% were still convicts and there were 1,000 troops needed to guard them), and now growing even more quickly with the free settlers, who wanted a better life than that offered by the conditions prevailing under the corrupt ‘Rum Corps’ and their cronies, Macquarie decided that he had to take drastic action.
He had brought his own disciplined 73rd Regiment of Infantry with him from Madras to ensure that he would have no trouble similar to Bligh’s problem, and he acted immediately and firmly!
He disbanded the New South Wales Corps!
All the officers and half of the other ranks of the Corps were ordered back to England, but any suitable volunteers, from those that were allowed to stay in Australia, were permitted to join the Veteran Corps of the 73rd. Regiment.
On May 12th. 1810, the disgraced Corps left Port Jackson and, under the new name of the 102nd. Regiment, they sailed out of Australia’s history.
By the use of his strict and innovative measures to try and wipe out, or, at least, control the rum trade -and the powerful land-barons who had grown rich because of it - Macquarie, had became a marked man and attempts were soon under way to have him removed from office, if not militarily - then politically! However, lacking funding from a recalcitrant English Government, he did achieve some success in channeling some of the 'rum' income into worthy projects such as the first permanent hospital. Refer:- http://www.hawkesburyhistory.org.au/articles/rum_hospital.html
John Macarthur had returned to England in 1809 to state his case for removing Bligh, and, after he found himself under severe reprimand for his part in the ‘Rum Rebellion’, he stayed in self-imposed exile - and learnt all about wool preparation - until 1817 (to avoid being tried for treason in Sydney), while his wife saw to the successful running of his properties back in N.S.W.
Macarthur also represented himself to many of his highly placed English associates as the ‘hard-done-by-authority’ figure who only wanted the best for the colony and who despaired at the military administration.
1813 Holey Dollar & Dump
(To help alleviate a chronic coin shortage Governor Macquarie authorised the manufacture of two coins from a Spanish host coin.)
Between Sept. 1813, when Macquarie introduced the ‘Holey’ Dollar' to Australia, and April 8th. 1817, when he and a group of Sydney merchants opened Australia’s first trading bank - The Bank of New South Wales - he managed to stabilise the economy and gradually broke down the use of rum as a currency - and this effectively curtailed some of the power that the land-owners had wielded.
Because he had been forced to administer his authority firmly and impose such strict controls to achieve the necessary reforms, Macquarie was recalled to England after the orchestrated complaints from the land-owners, about his autocratic style, were investigated by Commissioner J.T. Bigge in Sept. 1819, and found to be substantially true.
Bigge had been sent, (possibly because Macarthur’s tales had raised the concerns of a few English commercial groups with vested interests) to check on the conditions in the colony, and part of his critical report back to the hierarchy in London, spelt the end for the Governor who had achieved what others had not!
The report, which was published in England on June 19th.1822, stated, in part, that Macquarie had been ‘too lenient’ on the convicts by ‘not permitting enough of them to be assigned to the land-owners’ as workers, and that the practice of ‘treating ex-convicts as equals’ was deplorable, and that the certain amount of free enterprise which was allowed amongst trustee convicts had ‘undermined the effect of their punishment’.
1972 Reserve Bank of Australia paper 10 Dollar note featuring Francis Greenway*
*(Convict architect Francis Howard Greenway had been pardoned by Macquarie for his fine efforts in planning and building many of Sydney’s now famous city landmarks.)
Macquarie had resigned and left the colony in February 1822 and returned to England, where he died on July 1st. 1824, still bitterly disappointed about the unfair criticisms, but he had left behind him a far better place than the one that he had inherited - it was still receiving convicts, it was still corrupt -but now the light was shining in, and, even with Bigge’s biased report, he would eventually be vindicated by history!
When news of Macquarie’s death eventually reached the colony, the wave of deep sorrow that swept over the land was put into words by an ex-convict poet, Michael Robinson, who wrote a simple yet eloquent epitaph : ‘Macquarie was a prince of men. Australia’s pride and joy.’
In an effort to curb excesses by the administration, it was decided that the control of the colony had to be spread over a wider spectrum - so the N.S.W. Judicature Act of 1823 was passed.
This Act would limit any future Governor or Administrator’s powers and provided for an appointed Legislative Council of 5-7 leading citizens to advise him, (this was increased to 15 members with the power to override the Governor’s decisions - if need be - in 1828) and all Acts would then have to be certified as acceptable by the Chief Justice of the newly formed Supreme Court.
Sydney Heads - Ink sketch mid-1860's
The Macquarie Book of Events. - Published by Macquarie Library Pty.Ltd. 1984.
Australian Pictures. by Howard Willoughby (1886). - Republished as a facsimile by Child, Henry & Page Pty.Ltd. 1985.
The Living Australia. (Issues 25 & 71) - Published by Bay Books Pty. Ltd.
The Exploration of Australia. by Reader’s Digest Services Pty. Ltd. 1987.
The Display Case!(Part 2)
Compiled by: Graeme Petterwood © 2009
In any reasonably expansive collection of numismatic items- specifically world banknotes, in this instance - there are those little odd 'bits 'n' pieces' that are not numerous enough to be given a special category - except, perhaps, to have an acknowledgement - or by having a bit of end-space in a folder or an initial in the Index. They are rarely spared much space in this publication either - because of their relative singularity - but they are of interest because of their very existence in a changing world.
The advent of the Euro in 2002 almost wiped out individual European currencies for instance - so the purpose of 'The Display Case' - is to occasionally feature a few photoscans - and a little detail - of those soon-to-be 'forgotten' treasures.
References numbers will be from the 1990 - 97 editions of Krause Publications - "Standard Catalog of World Paper Money" (SCWPM) by Albert Pick (and others) - both General and Specialized Issues included in Volumes 1, 2 and 3. The catalogue numbers commence at #1 with each national entry and have been recently revised, however, the numbers I have used on illustrations will be either designated as the older Pick #'s or the newer Kr. # 's depending on the involvement of the late Albert Pick - however they still refer to items in the SCWPM catalogues mentioned and therefore should be considered as interchangeable.
1990-97 Krause Publications - 'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money' - Vols. 1, 2 & 3.
Not all of the banknotes illustrated were officially issued for genuine circulation - some were produced in times of conflict by desperate losers or opportunistic conquerors and illegal governments - or individuals - and may have been repudiated at a later date. This segment will touch on all these types of banknote anomalies - however, it will not dwell unduly on notes that may fit the category criteria but have already enjoyed a fair showing in recent times - such as some Gutschein, Notgeld, Russian regional issues and, of course, the plethora of unissued notes - from countries that have fallen by political change - and are readily available for a pittance at any numismatic market.. However, we may feature some of these if a perceived need arises.
I have carefully considered the notes I have selected - many are not pristine examples but more likely to be 'money of the people' - straight from circulation in average condition - but they are, hopefully, interesting choices from my own collection of oddments - and, over time, I will gradually work towards the XYZ's - and, in that way I will have achieved my aim of recording them, in this format, for our own little slice of history.
This will probably always be a 'Work in Progress'!
IDENTIFYING CHINESE & JAPANESE NUMERALS.
In response to enquiries regarding foreign script banknotes, I have now included a very brief table of the character numbers which are used on both Chinese, Japanese and some older Korean banknotes. The Formal style (top line) is always used to signify denominations on traditional Chinese and Japanese notes rather than issue dates which often utilise the simple characters (bottom line).
Occasionally, a more 'stylised' Formal script is employed - so the collector should make himself or herself familiar with these variations.
In regard to more modern issues of notes and coins, the simple characters - and Western numbers - are now being more frequently used.
壱 弐 参 肆 伍 陸 漆 捌 玖 拾 廿 佰 仟 萬
一 二 三 四 五 六 七 八 九 十 二十 百 千 万
The table shows Chinese numerals from left to right: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 , 9 , 10, 20, 100, 1000 and 10,000
The reason there are two rows of numbers is because the Chinese, in their wisdom, decided to simplify the Formal numbers used in official documents into a style which could be written rapidly in a commercial application. The top row is the elaborate style that is still used when circumstances warrant a certain amount of ceremonial politeness. Some of the Simple numbers exhibit traces of the characteristics carried down from the Formal numbers.
To write a combination of Simple numbers certain rules are applied i.e. 25 = 二十五 (Two, ten, and a five) and for 4,715 we would need to write the following:- 四千七百一十五 (Four, thousand, seven, hundred, one, ten, and a five)
However, it starts to get a bit more complicated when huge numbers are being used but that is beyond the scope of this brief article.
An excellent site that you should bookmark for future reference if you are accumulating Chinese (or Japanese) banknotes is:
NOTE - Also as an aid to reading the serial numerals shown on the Egyptian note in this series, I have included a basic Arabic version of numbers in the style most commonly encountered - reading from 0 - 9 (shown below). There may be other non-European numeric scripts (and dating methods) used on notes in this series and they will be provided if required.
Egypt -Historians have long-recognise that Egypt is a nation that has been poised on one of the major 'crossroads of the world' since recorded time began. This vital link between Europe and Asia gained even more importance when the Suez Canal was opened in 1869 and access was even more convenient - and, as we know - 'Time is Money' - and money eventually created commercial masters who tended to influence politicians.
As we get older, we become cynically aware that politics is also a powerful stimulus to egos - and sometimes the wallet - and some of the representatives of the people are always argumentative - on a national scale - if it suits a purpose that caters for their 'needs' within a group of the like-minded individuals.
The geographic and the 'strategic importance' of the Republic of Egypt and its famous Suez Canal cannot be underestimated, of course, with the narrow land-gap from Indian Ocean to Mediterranean Sea always worth a commercial and politically motivated argument - so it has also been deemed to be worth the major European powers bringing war to Egypt, on several occasions, to control it.
The small denomination Egyptian currency note issues of the 1940's were produced, in one such time of war, when control of the nation was in the hands of the British - who governed it as a protectorate until the revolution of 1952. Refer:- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egypt
N.D. Egyptian Government Currency Note - featuring the old Aswan Dam - 5 Piastres - Pick # 163
Serial Number reading from l. to r. 583031(with initial H?) - Issued under Law No. 50/1940
Finland -When the Laplanders - the original natives of the Finland area - were overrun and dispossessed by Russian emigres from the Volga region many eons ago it was the start of a volatile relationship with other claimants. The Swedes and Russians had both forcibly occupied the area we now recognise as Finland on several occasions - for varying lengths of time - and left an 'indelible' footprint on the backs of the population.
the country had attempted to sustain its independence from German and Russian invasion in more modern times during WWII when it became a tactical region between the warring factions. It was cruelly suppressed by both sides and its economy suffered an inflationary spike during the mid 1950's
1963 Finlands Bank - Revalued currency 100 old Markka = 1 (new) Markka - Pick # 98
It had started going about the task of stabilizing its currency in 1963 - and, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Finland again decared its independence.
With a Common Market in Europe on the drawingboard, Finland applied for membership.
It was accepted as a member of the European Economic Community and, from February 28th. 2002, started using the Euro as its monetary unit.
Prior to that, currency was issued by Suomen Pankki (Finlands Bank) in denominations of Markka - and the conversion rate at changeover was to be Finland’s Markka divided by 5.94573 = One Euro.
France -The Great War of 1914 - 18 had brought the economies of Europe, virtually, to their knees and even the ultimate victors were not immune to the same sorts of currency woes as had beset the vanquished Tri-nation powers of Germany, Austria and Hungary - and most of us are now familar with the terms, Gutschein and Notgeld - and with the the flood of issues that came out of these defeated nations for years afterwards..
However, during 1919, in particular, many series of 'Notgeld' - or emergency money - notes were also issued by various Chambres de Commerce across the Republic of France in an effort to alleviate the shortage of small change in rural areas and to assist in restarting a ravaged economy, so I have decided to include a very typical example of a small denomination note issued by a very typical Chambre de Commerce - which was backed as 'exchangeable with the notes of the Bank of France'.
N.D.Chambre de Commerce de Bayonne - Departement des Basses (Lower) Pyrenees.
50 Centimes - Series 000 - Authorised November 1919 - Coffing catalog (Municipal Paper) # 1
'Exchangeable with the notes of the Bank of France.'
Gibraltar -"The British Colony of Gibraltar is located at the southernmost point if the Iberian Peninsula and has an area of 2.64 sq. miles ..." - states the Standard Catalog of World Paper Money (Volume 3) 3rd. Edition - and, it goes on to mention the fact that this tiny place has immense strategic importance as the guardian of the Mediterranean Sea as it overlooks the narrow straits beaing its name and still maintains a stance of military and naval vigilance. Also refer:- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibraltar
In Greek mythology, Gibraltar was recognised as one of the 'Pillars of Hercules'.
The area has been taken and retaken many times by local invaders - but it is currently under British rule (since it was captured in 1704 and finally being ceded in perpetuity by Spain under the Treaty of Utrecht 1713), and has been 'British' for nearly three hundred years - its people have vowed to remain so even though there have been several harassments by Spain, particularly over the last half of last century, to try and dissuade the British from continuing to claim this tiny portion of Iberia as part of the 'British realm'.
1975 (issued 1978) - Government of Gibraltar One Pound obverse - Kr. # 20a
featuring the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II.
Gibraltar 1975 One Pound reverse
features a depiction of the Governor's residence - 'The Convent'
Hong Kong -The long-term lease on the former British colony or territory of Hong Kong expired nearly 12 years ago as we all know, and the area reverted back to the People's Republic of China. The Chinese were wise enough to realise this was a 'window to the West' and allowed the commercial expertise that had been established to remain reasonably unfettered - although it is under constant scrutiny - and, of course, there were some radical changes within the many financial institutions that call Hong Kong 'home'!
The Chinese policy was 'if it ain't broken - don't fix it' - and it's working very well indeed.
However, of interest to us is the fact that the 'Hong Kong Dollar' is still the denomination that continues to circulate in the 'Special Administrative Region' - and, amongst numismatists - it is still quite collectible. The changes between the more modern issues from the Chinese Government controlled banking system are very cosmetic and I intend to show several notes from recent issues to illustrate that point - however, I also would like to take a step back and show readers some of the various older Hong Kong banknotes that impressed me enough so that I retained a few samples when thery came my way .
They are now gone from the wallets of the citizens - and, eventually, will go from living history. (Scans have been altered to best fit page.)
BRITISH CROWN COLONY of HONG KONG 1842 - 1983
BRITISH DEPENDENT TERRITORY 1983 - 1997
N.D. (1952) Government of Hong Kong One Cent notes - Pick # 325a & 325b
N.D. (1975 - 77) The Chartered Bank of Hong Kong 5 Dollars - Pick # 73b
Hong Kong - Various dated obverses of Currency banknotes used during the mid 1900's - 1990's
l. to r. - top - bottom
Government of Hong Kong (1956) $1.00 and The Chartered Bank (1981) $10.00 - Pick # 328 & 77
The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (1977) $10.00 and (1970) $5.00 - Pick # 182 & 181
The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (1982 & 1986) $50.00 - Pick # 184 & 193
HONG KONG SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION
The new Administration authorized paper banknotes have been issued by the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited and the Bank of China Limited to date and have retained a typical Hong Kong appearance featuring local scenes and structures. They contain up-to-date anti-forgery measues such as color-shifting on numerals and lettering. micro-printing, watermarks and interrupted thread security ribbons etc.
2006 Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited HK$20.00 - Kr. # 334
2006 Bank of China (Hong Kong) Limited HK$20.00 - Kr. # 207
'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money - General Issues' by Albert Pick - Volume 2. Krause Publications 1996.
'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money - General Issues' - Edited by Colin R Bruce II & George S. Cuhaj. - Volume 3. (3rd. Edition) Krause Publications 1997.
'A Guide & Checklist to World Notgeld 1914 - 1947' by Courtney L. Coffing - 2nd. Edition. Krause Publication 1988
Next Issue:- From Ireland to Lithuania!
A SMALL CHANGE IN STYLE for 2009.
For those in the international numismatic community who are ever so familiar with the smallest U.S. denomination coin - the One Cent - and didn't ever think it would change - you will have had a pleasant surprise recently.
Good old Abe is still showing on the front as usual - and, on some of these shiny new pennies, there is a depiction of his modest abode as a young man - and also there is another version with young Abe reading as he is resting from log-splitting.
Courtesy of Jerry Adams of Texas, I now have a few of both coins for our readers to admire. They were produced at various mints as usual.
2009 U.S. Lincoln Cents
GENERAL INDEX UPDATE.
'TASMANIAN NUMISMATIST - INTERNET EDITION' 1996 - June 2007
Early issues of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition', from 1995 - 1999. were permanently archived in 2000 and articles are not linked directly.
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug03.htm - 1995, 1996 - 1997 (Volumes 1 and 2) Archived. Content detail only. (Articles can be emailed).
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/ept2003.htm - 1998 - 1999 (Volumes 3 and 4) Archived. Content detail only. (Articles can be emailed).
By refering to the the 'Newsletter Archives' or 'Search' function located on the Home Page, you can directly access all current Volumes.
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html - January 2000 (Volumes 5 - to date).
In January 2006 it was decided to grant each new issue its own URL link. which would henceforth appear in the current Index for fast find:
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar07.htm - 2006 (Volume 11)
The final Index of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition'
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm - 2007 (Volume 12 - Issues 1 - 6)
'NUMISNET WORLD' July 2007 - June 2009
Full details of initial 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (2007)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)
For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm - (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)
For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/June09.htm - (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 6)
'NUMISNET WORLD' July - to date 2009
Issue 7. July 2009:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/july09.htm
The Numismatic Library - A Collector's 'Second Best Friend.' - the importance of colleagues - and a reasonable library - are essential for hobby happiness. The featured library book is 'Tasmanian Commemorative Medals and Medallions' by Roger V. McNeice OAM., F.R.N.S.
Russia - 20th Century Regional Paper Currency Issues - You will find details of these in "Standard Catalog of World Paper Money - Volume One."
Investiture of HRH The Prince of Wales (July 1st. 1969) - One of the pewter medallions issued to celebrate the ceremony at Caenarvon castle.
General Index Update - Refer last issue of 'Numisnet World'.
Issue 8. August 2009:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug09.htm
The Numismatic Library - The 'almost' coins of Canada. - a look at a small collection of token coinage of varying quality, and from various sources, and how it played a part in keeping commerce going in some areas of Canada prior to Federation. The featured library book is the well-known 'Coins of Canada'. by James A. Haxby and Robert C. Willey.
Canadian Paper Money - Playing Card money is an unlikely starting point - but it did exist, and has earned its place in currency history, as much as official issues have done. This article covers the early issues from Confederation until the reign of Queen Elizabeth II - and is illustrated with a few notes of that era.
Out of the Vault - 'The Medicine Man' - The rise and rise of 'Professor' Thomas Holloway (1800 - 1883) - the 'medicine man' to the world!
Tasmanian Stamp & Coin Shows - a miserable Saturday morning in July, at an APTA stamp and coin show, turned out to be a heart-warming experience for a budding 11 y.o. numismatist - and his grand-dad..
Issue 9. September 2009:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/sep09.htm
The Holey Dollar & the Dump - Revisited once more - a brief look at one of the most desirable coins from our colonial past - and, also some of the more modern versions that are tempting our bank balances into the red..
The Circulating Pre-Decimal Coinage of New Zealand - A brief - 'whet-the-appetite' - view of the start of New Zealand's national pre-decimal coinage.
An Old Greek Mystery - A chance acquisition - at a bargain basement price - revealed more than a heap of low value 'shrapnel' -but, things weren't all that they were supposed to be.
The Display Case! (Part 1) - Forgotten gems from our banknote collection will be featured in this ongoing segment. Let's not lose sight of what can be a very rewarding item just because it might not be part of a larger sequence of notes. (Notes featured from countries A - D.)
Issue 10. October 2009:-
The Real Collector's Quandry (Mini-Editorial) - Are we being swamped with too much of a good thing? Old-time traditional collectors are having to make financial choices and/or break a lifetime habit of trying for a complete Royal Australian Mint collection to date - and that is a hard pill to swallow.
Rummy Funny Money - Another look at the beginnings that made Australia what it is today - it was not all beer and skittles - more like a hard-fought deliverance from convicts, poverty, rum and corruption. There was only ever one way left to go - and that was UP!
The Display Case! (Part 2). - (Notes featured from countries E - H.) The continuation of an illustrated segment about notes we rarely encounter in quantity on the numismatic store counter.
A Small Change in Style for 2009 - Bright new U.S. Lincoln pennies make a welcome change with several new reverses.
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