7 Issue 10
INTERNET EDITION October
Anyone who wishes to apply for membership to the non-profit making organization, and who is prepared to abide by the rules of the Society and its aim of promoting the study and enjoyment of the hobby of numismatics, should contact the following address for an application form and details of subscriptions:
Tasmanian Numismatic Society.
G. P. O. Box 884J
The next BYO - BBQ gathering will be in Launceston at 11.00 a.m. on Sunday 13th. October, 2002 at 1/13 Baker Court, (Blackstone Heights) the residence of members Robert and Marianna Newbold, who have kindly offered to host this event.
General Directions:- From Country Club Avenue turn right on to the Casino Rise - Pitcher Parade - Blackstone Road and at about the 2.2 km. mark turn right on to Panorama Drive - follow this road until it meets the Bayview Drive T-junction overlooking Trevallyn Lake - turn left and follow this road for about 200 metres - then turn left again into Baker Court.
R.S.V.P. :- A word to our Secretary or another Committee member would be appreciated for the obvious reasons, and those who need transport should check through normal channels A.S.A.P.
T.N.S. members and their invited guests are welcome and, as usual, it will be BYO everything.
THE FINALISATION OF A NOTABLE COLLECTION
It must be noted with some regret that T.N.S. (Life) Member # 5, T.W. 'Bill' Holmes O.A.M., A.F.S.M., (pictured) has decided to include the majority of his extensive Collection in a forth-coming interstate Noble Numismatics Auction.
The inclusion has been advertised in the September edition of the Australasian Coin & Banknote Collectables Magazine and, because of the auction locale, the Collection should draw a larger cross section of potential buyers than it would if put on the local market to be cleared. Prices are expected to reflect the quality of this major Collection which will be incorporated in the 20th - 21st November Sydney Auction # 71. http://www.noblenumismatics.com.au/
It was a decision not taken lightly by Bill; however, he recently advised his fellow members that he has reached a point where his general health - and his eyesight, in particular - no longer functions well enough for him to fully enjoy the hobby.
Thoughtfully gathered over many years, the thousands of items to be offered will contain scarce to rare pre-decimal coins, including varieties, and a magnificent accumulation of crown sized silver pieces, including Morgan Dollars - as these were amongst Bill's major interests.
Bill tells us that, just for interest's sake, he has retained his basic Australia decimal coinage - and he is slowly putting together a collection of Tasmanian Tradesmen's tokens, local medallions, souvenir tokens and other small, numismatically-related items that take his fancy. No doubt, Tasmanian Numismatic Society members will continue to be able to draw upon his wealth of knowledge about his former specialities, when need be.
JERRY'S BOOK REVIEWS.
Fellow T.N.S. Member # 112 Jerry Remick of Quebec, Canada, has not been all that well of late; but he has again found the time and energy to send a brief review of the latest important catalogue presented for world coin collectors. As an internationally known and respected numismatist and author, Jerry is the first Tasmanian Numismatic Society International Life Member - the honour granted in Sept. 2001.
Jerry also happens to have been the most regular correspondent to this newsletter, and its predecessors, for over 34 years and was the recipient of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist's inaugural Editor's Award (1998) and several subsequent awards.
The '2003 STANDARD CATALOG OF WORLD COINS, 1901 - PRESENT (30th Edition)' by Chester L. Krause and Clifford Mishler, which was edited by Colin R. Bruce II, was published in mid-June 2002 by Krause Publications, Iola, Wisconsin.
The catalogue provides complete coverage of the 20th Century world coinage, featuring updated current prices for virtually every coin produced from 1901 to the present - the start of the 21st Century.
Besides the new price updates, is a huge amount of data on all circulating coins, commemoratives, bullion issues, mint and proof sets, patterns, trial strikes, Essai coinage, coin-like metallic issues and historically significant tokens.
As usual the range of topics include mintage figures, values in up to 5 grades of preservation, metallic compositions, weights, mint and privy marks, country location maps (showing old and new borders where necessary) and with them a few brief texts on geography, history, politics and resources. Over 450 countries are covered in the 2304 page catalogue - which is still presented with soft cover and resembles the telephone book in size (8.5 x 11 and 2.5 inches thick).
Those who have had the chance to obtain a previous 'STANDARD CATALOG OF WORLD COINS' will appreciate all the extra features that are included as 'standard' - e.g. instant identifiers, international numbers - including foreign numeric scripts - and international grading terminology and tips. As well there are over 48,000 coin illustrations, monogram pictures, foreign exchange charts, date conversion charts, mint data, coin measurement charts and translations of abbreviated legends etc. etc.
The catalogues covering the 17th Century, 18th Century and the 19th Century are also available for those who need them.
These catalogues continue to provide coin collectors with ALL the relevant details needed to pursue their hobby with the confidence that knowledge alone can bring.
The various editions of the 'STANDARD CATALOG OF WORLD COINS' and other important catalogues may be obtained through authorised major Australian coin dealers who bulk order, so check around and shop locally to save on freight/postage costs.
International inquiries about the many other Krause Publications can be directed to:
Book Dept. PR02;
P.O. Box 5005,
Iola, Wisconsin. 54945-5009
Another of our T.N.S. International members, Jerry Adams of Keller, Texas attended the Omaha, Nebraska Token Show in late August and his report and some photos were included in our last newsletter. Jerry, who is also a member of the National Token Collectors Association (N.T.C.A.) of America has also kindly forwarded a few scans from his recent token acquisition for our readers' perusal and to show a little of the scope that is available in this branch of numismatics.
"I ended up the show with about 81 new tokens of various kinds. The most exotic of these being a nice brass Camp Supply, Indian Territory token of Lee and Reynolds, with reeded edge. These tokens were used by the Indian traders in exchange for buffalo hides."
Piles of Buffalo Hides
CAMP SUPPLY, INDIAN TERRITORY:
"Indian Territory was a former territory within the U.S. West, which included most of modern Oklahoma.
The Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, Cherokee, and Chickasaw tribes were forcibly moved to this area between 1830 and 1843, and an 1834 act set aside the land as Indian country. In 1866 its Western half was ceded to the U.S.; this portion was opened to white settlers in 1889 and became the Territory of Oklahoma in 1890. The two territories were united and admitted to the Union as the state of Oklahoma in 1907."
"Camp Supply was located in far north-western Indian Territory, near the convergence of Wolf Creek and Beaver Creek, where they form the North Fork of the Canadian River. The post was formed in November of 1868, when General Sheridan approved the site as headquarters for a winter campaign against the southern Cheyenne nation. Major George Armstrong Custer and elements of the Seventh Cavalry opened the campaign with a surprise attack against Chief Black Kettle’s band. This infamous attack became known as the Battle of the Washita River. Over 150 Cheyenne men, women and children were killed in this battle. The name of the post was changed to Fort Supply in 1889."
"The floor auction on Saturday night, yielded me a long sought after token from Fort Ord, California. I have always wanted this token, as any token from Fort Ord is considered rare. This token held interest for me, since I went through Basic Combat Training at Fort Ord 31 years ago, and had even raised the post flag while stationed there.
I was 24 years old when
I went in the military, and was considered the old guy, as some were as young as
17 in my company. We were company D, 1st battalion, 1st Basic Combat Training
At left: Jerry 'the old guy' Adams (age 24) Fort Ord, California 17th Nov. 1971
Flags at Fort Ord Main Gate Fort Ord
Post-War (c. 1940) Fort Ord - PX store
Interested readers can have a closer look at Ft. Ord at: http://www.crswann.com/ftord/ftord.htm
Many other fascinating stories about tokens, compiled and written by Jerry Adams, can be read at his site at: http://members.fortunecity.com/tokenguy/tokentales
1st. Row: (a) Zenoria Lumber Co. Zenoria, Louisiana - Bi-metal Brass and Aluminium. (b) Tex's Place, 1103 Bdwy - classified as a Maverick* (*Locale details unknown) - Aluminium. (c) Lee & Reynolds Indian Traders, Camp Supply, Indian Territory (now part of Oklahoma) - $1.00 Reeded Edge Brass. (See Below) http://members.fortunecity.com/tokenguy/tokentales/page3.htm
2nd. Row: (d) Post Exchange, Fort Totten N.Y. - Probably Brass. (e) N.C.O. Club, 17th Infantry, Fort Ord, California. - Probably Brass. (f) Bon Jellico Coal Co.(- B -) Bon Jellico, Kentucky - Probably Brass. (Illustrations not to scale.)
THANKS, JERRY ADAMS - T.N.S. Member #363.
The following email was received from Mike Hargreave-Mawson, (Web Officer of the Crimean War Research Society) and, after checking, we sincerely apologise for inadvertently omitting the usual references to the fact that Mike was the source of the illustration and accompanying text regarding the Crimean War Medal, in our article about Sgt. Major James Shegog.
(Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition, December 1999). SORRY, MIKE - WE WILL FIX IT, A.S.A.P.!
Mike has graciously reminded us that we can still access his own fine detailed article of the Charge of the Light Brigade and other actions on the Web at the Crimean War Research Society site: http://www.crimeanwar.org/
Additional details of the Crimean War Research Society: http://www.hargreave-mawson.demon.co.uk/cwrs.html
"Dear Sir, A colleague has just recommended your website to me, with particular reference to your fascinating article on Sgt. Major James Shegog at: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec99.htm#medals .
I intend to write a review of your website in my column in the next
edition of the Crimean War Research Society journal, "The War
However, the passage on, and the illustration of, the Crimean War medal at the bottom of the page in question have been taken without attribution from an article I wrote, and which was published on the WWW in 1997, and I would request that you add a brief acknowledgement of that fact on the site.
(i.e."Copyright © Michael Hargreave Mawson, 1997"). The full article is still available on the Crimean War Research Society website at: http://www.crimeanwar.org/ and additional contact details of the Crimean War Research Society can be found at:
I look forward to hearing from you. Best regards, Mike
Michael Hargreave Mawson,
Web Officer, Crimean War Research Society."
As many Australian readers are aware, Mostyn Arthur Byrnes is the author of the specialised and very limited edition - "A Search for Varieties on Australian Pre-Decimal coins 1910 - 1964 1/2d to 5/- " , which was an extremely long-overdue update on Australian pre-decimal coinage varieties that was released a few years ago.
Mos also wrote specialised articles for the 'Australasian Coin & Banknote Magazine' over the last two years or so.
Mos Byrnes' book was a self-published effort by the author, who used the large easy to read A4 format and opted for descriptive graphics instead of the usual photographic illustrations which he considered did not give sufficient detail for the smaller and harder to identify varieties. Mos said it proved to be a very costly exercise which he could not afford to repeat, but it was something he felt strongly about and, because he considered he had built up enough information over the years to put something definite on paper, he went ahead with the production in an effort to redress the lack of current knowledge about bronze varieties of the era from Federation until Decimalisation. At least, he started the ball rolling again.
It now appears that Mos' efforts have awakened the sleeping tiger and it has become apparent over the last few years that varieties of all types have received a tremendous boost in interest - not only in our past or present circulating coinage but right across the numismatic spectrum.
The following email from Mos' son, John Byrnes, was received on September 10th.
For those of us who know
Mos' dedication, it is a reminder that the effort and passion we put into our hobby can be very great
indeed and it does sometime exact a heavy toll.
"In fact my father has recently suffered a serious collapse of health. I think he might appreciate hearing from any coin friends, whoever might like to write to him. Send to my email address and I will print out and take anything to him."
If anyone has a question about Mos' condition or would like to say 'Hi', please contact Mos via his son's email address: z2204020@POP3.student.unsw.edu.au
Kind Regards, John Byrnes.
Mos' postal address is now:
M. A. Byrnes
55 Woodside Avenue
STRATHFIELD NSW 2135
Readers' Mailbag is a section of our newsletter that will focus on readers' requests for contacts or information as well as any relevant and constructive comments about numismatics or the contents of articles in this newsletter. This section is provided as a service only and our usual disclaimers, regarding dealings between parties, will continue to apply.
Please readers, if delivery problems arise over a private deal - do not procrastinate when attending to your own responsibilities, contact your colleague and sort it out promptly - you will then be assured of retaining your good name within the hobby.
It appears we need to highlight this important point once again to remind readers of their obligation to communicate if doing deals with email contacts through this column.
A brief word by email can save a lot of hassles, and potential ill-will, that an unexplained delay can occasion.
During September, an advice was received by the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' that an international reader, who had submitted a request for contacts, had apparently reneged on a swapping deal, and a small parcel of numismatic items that was forwarded had not been promptly reciprocated as arranged.
A period of time elapsed and several emails were sent by the concerned party requesting information and, whilst assurances have been given and apologies proffered for the tardiness, the matter (over a 'few dollars' worth of items) is still to be satisfactorily finalised.
In the interests of our readers, we advise that names of deliberate offenders will be added to our short list of 'persona non grata' and details can be circulated via the World-wide Web to other concerned parties - if need be!
We constantly remind our readers through our disclaimers that this newsletter is to provide an information service only and 'Caveat Emptor' is advised when any private dealings are arranged between parties.
THE TALES OF THE LONG DISTANCE TRAVELLER
While on a recent South-East Asian tour, WBCC member #1, Martin Peeters of the Netherlands, had the opportunity to visit the Royal Australian Mint with well-known Australian Numismatic Society member, Rod Sell of Sydney on September 11th., 2002..
Martin was given a deluxe tour of the establishment and had the offer made to him of striking the new 50mm. bi-metallic Proof A$10.00 commemorative coin featuring a gold-plated silver No 1 Type Adelaide Pound as a centrepiece and a silver outer ring.
Composed of 60.50 grms of .999 silver, with its pure gold plated centrepiece, it is a very imposing piece. The new coin has a limited mintage of only 10,000 and, at the official release price of A$85.00, will mean that it will be snapped up very quickly.
As a founder of the Worldwide Bi-Metallic Coin Club (WBCC) it was an offer that Martin could not refuse!
The following brief report from Martin Peeters tells the story in his own words:
Sunday September 8th, while arriving in the early morning in Australia,
WBCC member #20 Rod Sell waited for me at the Sydney airport. Rod took me
from 8 in the morning till 8 in the evening for a guided tour through Sydney. I
saw it all even the complete Bi-metallic collection of Rod.
* Monday September 9th, with Rod, visited several coin dealers in Sydney and went by the Museum of the Westpac Bank. In the evening we joined the meeting of the Australian Numismatic Society, and I had my talk about the WBCC, Bi-metallics and the Euro before 25 members of the ANS. It was very enjoyable for all of us.
* Tuesday September 10th, we drove up to Canberra for the "Big Bi-metallic Day"
* Wednesday, September 11th, in the morning, Rod Sell, John Veltmeyer and myself, visited the Australian Mint. We met Sam and Rod Paton, the last mentioned gave us a really great tour through the mint including where the Bi-metallics are struck.
I even struck a new Bi-metallic Gold/Silver ringed 10 Dollar piece. Unfortunately I couldn't take it home with me!!
This VIP tour was really great and I can recommend it to all WBCC members who visit Canberra. Left by coach to Melbourne.
The new Adelaide Pound commemorative $10.00 Rod Paton farewelling Martin Peeters and Rod Sell
Martin advised me of his interesting itinerary - which included Victoria, South Australia's Kangaroo Island and then up to Alice Springs and a visit to Palm Valley (the famous mid-Australian desert oasis that Time forgot) - then a little further North.
24 September. "Folks, my vacation is great!! I'm in Cairns now; this is
really a great city. The day after tomorrow I go to the Great Barrier Reef, this
will be my last day here, Friday, I go back to the Netherlands and Saturday I'm
This vacation has really been wonderful, well organized, like hotels, bus tours, taxis, etc.
*Thursday, 26 September. This the last E-mail I send from Australia. Today I had a dive in Barrier Reef, Great!!!
final day the best of Australia. My next E-mail will be from my home,
It will be a hard way back home: fly from Cairns to Brisbane, then fly from Singapore to Frankfurt, then fly on to Amsterdam and a 1 1/2 hour drive back home. I have to change planes twice.
This vacation was one of the best!! But, starting on September 29th, I will be back, ready to take any and all Bi-metallic information for the next Newsmail."
So, no doubt, reports from the 'Long Distance Traveller' will appear in future WBCC Newsmails, in due course.
If you are interested in bi-metallics in any of the numismatic forms, contact the WBCC through the site address herewith.
For details and some early pictures of Martin's trip: http://www.wbcc-online.com/new-releases/new-images.html
The coin was officially released on 16th September, 2002. Further reference details of the new coin may be seen at:
MISCELLANEOUS Q & A's
This is not an offer to professionally evaluate items or an offer to purchase or become directly involved in commercial dealings. The most interesting or most frequently asked questions will be answered - to the best of our ability - through these columns in a general manner as well as immediately and directly to the questioner if possible. All names and direct contact addresses that may be supplied will be kept anonymous unless advised to the contrary.
Recent Search Report Queries.
A recent query about the Australian 10/- (Ten Shilling) banknote highlighted the fact that it has been well over 36 years since such a note was in circulation in this country.
The first thing any novice collector should do is invest in a reliable Australian banknote catalogue - it does not have to be an expensive volume as long as it is reasonably up-to-date, in touch with current market trends and is adequately illustrated.
Since Federation in 1910 until the introduction of decimal currency in 1966, no fewer than 8 different type notes have been available to numismatists, and if we count the signature changes as well as the issuing agencies - but don't count the varieties such as ink thickness in the signatures and slightly differing type faces - the quantity swells out to 17 distinctive basic notes.
The first note, issued between 1913 - 1914 was the George V, Commonwealth of Australia with Collins/Allen as signatories.
A similar design note was continued from 1915 - 1923 with the Collins/Allen signatures giving way to the Cerutty/Collins combination in 1918. An over-print reading 'HALF SOVEREIGN' was applied to the right and left edges of the obverse - and as an overall under-print on the reverse.
It should be noted that both of the two early types of notes are very expensive and hard to obtain - with some 1913-14 varieties valued in the thousands of A$'s in low grades up to the hundreds of thousands of A$'s in better condition, while some 1915-23 varieties are priced in the high tens of thousands of A$'s.
The Serial No. M000001 - the first note produced in Melbourne in 1913 actually bought A$1,000,000 at auction a few years ago.
"The 1913 Collins Allen ten shilling note not only attracted attention for its rarity and well preserved condition, but it also has historical significance, being the very first ten shilling note printed anywhere in the world. It was also the very first banknote designed and printed by the Commonwealth Government of Australia and even preceded the release of Britain’s ten shilling note issued one year later. The impressively designed banknote bearing the very first serial number M000001 was presented to Judith Denman, the young daughter of the Governor General of the day, Lord Denman, after she turned the handle of the printing press in a public ceremony and imprinted the serial number in red ink onto Australia’s first ten shilling note."
Between 1923 and 1933 a major change occurred. The note was adapted to include the effigy of George V, and the words 'HALF SOVEREIGN' were now overprinted in Red on the edges and the top of the note and some design changes were obvious on the obverse - the main one being that the note was clearly designated as being a 'HALF SOVEREIGN' in several places.
The reverse also had various alterations made to the right and left cartouches in the design and featured the word HALF.
This note had no less than 5 sets of signatories during its lifetime; in 1923 - Miller/Collins, 1926 - Kell/Collins, 1927 - Kell/Heathershaw, 1928 - Riddle/Heathershaw, and in 1933 - Riddle/Sheehan.
However, after 1926 it was being issued by the Commonwealth Bank instead of the Treasury Note Issue Department.
The prices demanded for these notes varies quite considerably with the lowest grades bringing hundreds of A$'s and the better grades in the tens of thousands of A$'s
Up until 1933 the Ten Shillings, or Half Sovereign, note had been redeemable in gold coin, but in that year a completely new design TEN SHILLING note, under the signatures of Riddle/Sheehan, was introduced which bore the words LEGAL TENDER.
Even though designated TEN SHILLINGS the note also featured the numerals 1/2 in all corners of both sides and featured a large 1/2 in the left-hand reverse cartouche similar to the HALF SOVEREIGN issue.
Presumably this numeral would then have stood for 1/2 of One Pound.
In 1934, a similar note was issued and this time the words TEN SHILLING were overprinted in Red on the sides and top of the obverse. It still bore the Riddle/Sheehan signatures - as did the 1936-1939 version.
However, the decision was made to alter the colour quite markedly from the drab brown to orange and the newer 1936 series did away with the edge overprint, but retained the numerals 1/2 in all corners, the large 1/2 in the reverse cartouche was deleted and replaced with 10/-. The words TEN SHILLINGS were removed from the design beneath the obverse watermark and the effigy cartouche but an ornate scroll containing the words was placed centrally on the lower reverse. It is also noted that all TEN SHILLING notes - indeed up until decimalisation - bore the watermark HALF in this area under the signatures.
With the death of George V in 1936 and the abdication of Edward VIII later the same year, the decision had been made to continue with the existing 1936 design until George VI became the crowned monarch.
The first George VI notes were not issued until 1939 and from that year until 1954 there were 4 sets of signatories; in 1939 - Sheehan/McFarlane, 1942 - Armitage/McFarlane, 1949 - Coombs/Watt, and in 1952 - Coombs/Wilson.
Whilst the Legal Tender notes of George V are currently catalogued at between A$100 - A$ 9,500; the relatively modern 1939 George VI's are bringing between A$20 - A$950 with most dates after that date valued down at the A$10 - A$500 levels.
On her ascension to the throne in 1952, Queen Elizabeth II opted to only have her effigy on the Australian Pound note and the explorer, Matthew Flinders, graced the obverse of the TEN SHILLINGS note from 1954 - 1966. It is interesting to note than the numerals 1/2 were still retained in all corners, both back and front, and the reverse showed the 'temporary' Parliament House that sufficed from 1927 until 1988.
In 1961, the responsibility for note issuance passed from the Commonwealth Bank to the Reserve Bank but the design of the TEN SHILLINGS and the signatories, Coombs/Wilson, remained the same.
Prices reflect the ready availability of this note and at A$8 - A$150 across the grading range, it would be fair to say that many Matthew Flinders 10/- will have found their way into the more modern collections that started at the advent of decimal currency.
Those who put their names on Australian banknotes.
James R. Collins 1913 - 1916
George T. Allen 1913 - 1918 (Retired in 1916.)
Charles J. Cerutty 1918 - 1923
Denison S. Miller 1923 - 1926 (Died in office June 1923.)
James Kell 1924 - 1927
James T. Heathershaw 1927 - 1933
Ernest C. Riddle 1927 - 1938
Harry J. Sheehan 1932 - 1941 (Died in office March 1941)
Stuart G. McFarlane 1941 - 1948
George P. Watt 1948 - 1951
Herbert C. Coombs 1949 - 1968* (Also a Signatory on first decimal notes 1966)
Roland Wilson 1951 - 1966* (Also a Signatory on first decimal notes 1966)
Author's Banknote Collection.
'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - November 1998 et al - http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html
'A Historic First' - http://www.coindealers.com.au/articles/HistoricFirst.htm
'Select Coins & Banknotes' : http://www.aussiecoins.com/index.htm
'The Pocket Guide to Australian Coins and Banknotes (9th. Edition)'
Greg McDonald Publishing and Numismatics P/L. P.O.Box 649, Lavington, N.S.W. 2641.
The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, or hand delivered, directly to members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions.
The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ (Internet Edition) has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented on a monthly basis by the member-provider with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics. All matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and the Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) abides by the same basic guidelines suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter.
Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ or the Editor.
Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.
Tasmanian Numismatist (Internet Edition).
DISCLAIMER: All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned.
The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ (Internet Edition) takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. Deadline for any literary contributions or amendment to copy is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication. The contents of this Internet newsletter, and all prior issues, are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy.
permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically
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