Volume 17 Issue 11Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996) November 2012
Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2012.
All or any prices quoted in articles in this free newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the authors' own collection - or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition © 1991 - 2007. and the 'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition. © 2007 - 2012.
Krause-Mishler (KM) Standard World Catalogs - and McDonald and/or Renniks Australian catalogue numbers, are used where applicable.
*Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes.)
Please, also, consider my conditional invitation, to make a literary contribution, if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest - and fulfils our stated editorial guidelines. As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in additional presentation. However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication.
We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has necessitated the following conditions.
If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagiarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbyist collector. - G.E.P.
PLEASE NOTE - RE-STATED DISCLAIMERS:
Where on-line web-site Links or addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith - however, our readers are advised, that, if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.
THE PROPOSED NEW DESIGNS
AUSTRALIAN POLYMER CURRENCY
For some time now, the news has been circulating that Australia is to have a shake-up within our money system. New note designs have been shown on TV and in some major newspapers to alert the public that we may be seeing something new, relatively soon.
It appears that most of the characters on the new notes will still be the same - however, a noticeable absentee from the proposed range of portraits is that of our monarch, Queen Elizabeth II* - but that may alter, of course.
The new treatment is to impart a freshness to the updated portraits of the historical hoi-poloi - and, an opportunity to refresh our memories of why these individuals were first chosen to grace our banknotes in the early 1990's .
I have arranged to depict the sample scans of the current currency note and the new proposed version side-by-side for comparison.
Please note, it will be a case of 'ladies first' in this article - and the scans, showing old and new designs, are not to scale.
Australian Polymer banknotes have been proving themselves in the market place since 1988 when the Bicentenary AUD$10.00 was first introduced with great fanfare. The few technical problems, mainly with inks and the original holographic image, were eventually conquered - or altered from necessity.
By 1992, the general range of denominations - from AUD$5.00 - $100.00 - started to appear for circulation with the introduction of the Queen Elizabeth II (1st. issue) AUD$5.00 note closely followed by the Gilmore/Paterson AUD$10.00, in 1993 .... and so on!
1992 - 1995 Original light coloured AUD$5.00 Polymer note featuring Queen Elizabeth II* - with the Federal Parliament House in Canberra
Modified colour, new serial number system, orientation marks - and some slight alteration in text positioning - from 1995.
After nearly 20 years, it appears that the 'powers-that-be' think is time for the basic notes to receive a further design tweak - the basic colours and the characters, other than the QEII version of the AUD$5.00, will stay much the same - but, updated portraits will be appearing when the fine tuning is completed.
The release of news about proposed design changes is always of interest to local and international collectors of our pretty polymer - and I assume that, eventually, the two versions of our notes will circulate together for a time until the old ones gradually disappear into the maws of the Reserve Bank of Australia for recycling.
'Number collectors' will need to be on high alert during this time as the old notes become scarcer and disappear into history. Hopefully, by the time the new designs begin to hit the streets in great numbers, we will have our collection strategies - and our older notes - up to date!
CATHERINE HELEN SPENCE 1825 - 1910
Australian $5.00 poymer note originally celebrating the Centenary of Federation.
2001 Single year issue only - Catherine Helen Spence obverse.
Special Tender Issue - Prefixes AA01 000009 - AA01 000500 w/out O/p date
General Circulation Issues - Prefixes AA01 000501 - JD01 to final prexix w/out O/P date
General Folders - Prefixes AA01 001001 - AA01 001050 by Tender with red O/P date
Prefixes AA01 001051 - AA01 98950 by General release folders with red O/P date
Each folders contains details of security features incorporated within the note. (Size approx. 130mm x 65mm)
Many contemporary currency users would never have even heard of Catherine Helen Spence.
Born in 1825, Catherine Spence was a woman before her time - she fervently believed that a united Australia should represent a true democracy by granting equal representation to all of it's people. She stood for election as an Australasian Federal Convention candidate from South Australia in 1897 to emphasise the issue of proportional parliamentary representation from all states. It was a very contentious item on the pre-Federation agenda at that time and the often-violent verbal confrontations between jealous politicians from each of the participating colonies nearly scuttled the federation ideal. Whilst the matter was eventually resolved, Catherine Spence was unsuccessful in her attempt to be elected to the Convention in the male dominated atmosphere of the era, however, all her life she battled as a social and electoral reformer as well as pursue her career as a journalist and novelist. She died in 1910.
SIR HENRY PARKES 1815 - 1896
Known as the 'Father of Federation', Sir Henry Parkes was a vocal leader amongst the politically active members of the public who clamoured for the end of colonial rule and pressed for a constitutionally based national Australian Government with independent powers.
The pastel-hued AUD$5.00 polymer note - shown at the beginning of this article - was the first standard basic issue in the new note fabric - it has been circulating since 1992, and, during its lifetime, it has undergone several colour and text modifications. It appears that this new note (shown above) is now being prepared to take its place as our basic circulating AUD$5.00 - if so, it will replace the only note bearing the portrait of Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II of Australia and our impressive 'new' Parliament House.
DAME MARY JEAN GILMORE 1865 - 1962
Australian $10.00 polymer notes bearing a likeness of Dame Mary Gilmore on the front were first issued in 1993.
A slightly more greyish version was issued in 1994 and a modified blue version was issued in 2002 when the position of the signatures was reversed and additional printing was added.
(Size approx. 138mm x 65mm)
Dame Mary Jean Gilmore,who began writing at the age of 8 and was still putting pen to paper in her 90's, was recognised as a leading poet of her time but, she had many other talents which her long and varied life had blessed her with!
Born at Goulburn, N. S. W. on 16th. August 1865, Mary Jean Cameron often played with children of the local aboriginal tribe, the Waradgery, and she never forgot the squalor and the ill-treatment that she saw as a child.
As an adult, she often wrote articles about the pitiful conditions that the Aborigines had to tolerate and, throughout her long life, she actively campaigned in an effort to improve their lot!
Mary finished school at 16 and then became a teacher in the mining town of Silverton until 1895, when she was caught up in the fervour of William 'Billy' Lane's plans to establish a better life, for the oppressed rural workers of Australia, in Paraguay.
She left Australia in 1896 for the ill-fated New Australia Colony of Cosme, where she met and married an ex-Victorian shearer William Gilmore, but after four years of hardship and disenchantment they returned to Australia, with their son, and settled on a farm in Victoria.
During the next few years her radical poetry started to appear in the 'Bulletin' and, by 1908, she was editing the women's page of the 'Sydney Worker', a newspaper that devoted itself to socialism and its aims of equality.
Despite her political leanings, her talents in fighting for women's rights, aboriginal welfare, treatment of prisoners, health, pensions etc., plus her encouragement to young writers, her poetry and other writings, were recognised by the Australian Government of the day and, in 1937, she was awarded the title of Dame of the British Empire. For the last 10 years of her life she continued as an unpaid columnist for the Communist Party's newspaper, 'Tribune', still fighting for those things that she believed in!
The original painting, by the famous artist, Sir William Dobell- of Mary Gilmore in her old age - which is shown in the background of the original polymer $10.00 note, hangs in the Art Gallery of N.S.W.
Dame Mary Gilmore died in Sydney on 3rd. December 1962, at the age of 97, and was given a State funeral attended by all members of the N.S.W. Cabinet. As a final honour she was selected to take her place on our TEN DOLLAR notes.
ANDREW BARTON PATERSON C.B.E. 1864 - 1941
Andrew Barton Paterson C.B.E. (Commander of the Order of the British Empire) better known as 'Banjo' Paterson was born near Molong in New South Wales on 17th. February 1864, and was the author of such Australian classic verses as the fiercely adventurous, 'The Man from Snowy River', and the reflective, 'Clancy of the Overflow', and not to be overlooked- the mischievous villainy of, 'The Man from Ironbark'.
'The Collected Verse of A. B. Paterson', first published in 1921, is the compilation of his major works and, as a contemporary reflection of Australian bush life, it is absolutely fascinating reading!
Paterson is also credited with being the author of the accepted words to the famous song, 'Waltzing Matilda', which has been heard around the world and is regarded as being as Australian as the kangaroo and koalas!
(Several theories abound to the origins of the music which was probably composed in 1899 by Harry A. Nathan, the organist at the Townsville Cathedral in Queensland. At one stage there were four different versions of the song being published.)
Paterson was a graziers son, sent to be educated in Sydney - which he detested, who found work, firstly as a lawyer's clerk and then as a solicitor and finally a journalist and editor of the Sydney 'Evening News', the 'Town and Country Journal' and the 'Sportsman'. .
His stint as a war correspondent in the Boer War and the Boxer Rebellion broadened his understanding of the human spirit and, coupled with his love and understanding for the bush and its people, helped him create the images that most of us who have read his works will never forget!
Paterson was awarded his C.B.E. in 1939, and even though his verses had sold 100,000's of copies and probably made his publishers rich, when he died two years later on 5th. February 1941, in Sydney, all he left his wife was his total fortune of 215 pounds.
MARY REIBEY 1777 - 1855
Australian $20.00 polymer notes bearing a likeness of Mary Reibey were first issued in 1994.
A modified version was issued in 2002 when the position of the obverse signatures was reversed and additional printing was added.
(Size approx. 144mm x 65mm)
On 31st. October 1994, the Reserve Bank of Australia issued the first polymer TWENTY DOLLAR note which had Mary Reibey (nee Haddock or Haydock) on the front - but who was Mary Reibey?
Mary Reibey was born in Bury, Lancashire, England on 12th. May 1777, and at the age of 13 she had been apprehended in Stafford (disguised as a boy), convicted for horse stealing and transported to Australia for 7 years on the Royal Admiral, which arrived in Sydney in October 1792 - harsh punishment for what was probably intended as a lark!
On 7th. September 1794 at the age of 17, Mary, who had been working as a nursemaid for a military family was granted permission to marry an Irishman, Thomas Reibey, whom she had met during her voyage out to Australia.
Reibey had worked for the East India Company and used his contacts with them to successfully start a small import business in Sydney with a partner.
Eventually Mary became involved and she soon became very capable of handling all of the business matters when it became necessary for the partners to be away at sea. In a few years the business was booming and it continued to expand, as more vessels were added to their fleet, but Thomas Reibey became ill on one of his frequent voyages and his health quickly deteriorated on his return.
In 1811, at the age of 34, Mary became a widow with seven children.
To make life even harder, Thomas Reibey's partner also died within the month, probably from the same illness, leaving Mary as the sole owner of the business!
Out of necessity, Mary soon proved that she had the temperament to manage the growing shipping business, and after nine years of dedicated work she had accumulated a fortune of 20,000 Pounds which, in 1820, she used to return to England with two of her daughters, in an effort to attain some of the comforts that had passed her and her family by.
Within a year she had become homesick for the freedoms of Australia so she returned, and, in an effort to put her convict past behind her, she would often describe her presence in the colony as- ' Came free, by the ship, 'Mariner' in 1821'.
Ignored by the male dominated colonial society of the time, Mary remained a widow, mainly by choice, but her commercial and many real estate interests continued to quietly thrive and keep her a rich woman. She retired to Newtown, Sydney, and passed away in 1855.
As an icon for the achievement of women, who have triumphed over humble beginnings, Mary Reibey deserves her place on the $20.00 notes.
REVEREND JOHN FLYNN 1880 - 1951
The 2002 issue Australian $20.00 polymer note back featured Rev. John Flynn..
In 2002 the position of the signatures on the front was reversed and the names of the portrait subjects were incorporated into the design below the images. Original polymer note issued 1994.
Australia is described as an island continent of some 7,682,300 square kilometres (or about the same size as the U.S.A.- excluding Alaska), made up of deserts surrounded by a relatively narrow band of fertile coastline, with an average height of only 300 metres above sea-level and an average yearly rainfall of only 30 cms.(12 inches).
The Australian inland is not unlike some of the rocky deserts of America and Mexico, that suffer months of drought then bloom magnificently after a rain, but our red centre deserts stretch for thousands of square kilometres, our droughts can last for a decade, and when the 'Wet' finally arrives we can have devastating floods that can form inland seas that sometimes last for years, or else dry into salt-lakes within a few months to herald the onslaught of another drought!
In 1912, less than 50,000 people lived in this inland area that is bigger than Western Europe, and life was extremely hard and lonely for the men, and their women-folk and children, who lived 100's of kilometres from their nearest help if anything went wrong!
In response to the problems of isolation, illness or injury, and the lack of schools and religious centres, the Presbyterian Church of Australia decided, in 1912, to establish the Australian Inland Mission with a 31 year-old minister, John Flynn, as the first Superintendent.
John Flynn was born at Moliagul, Victoria on 25th. November 1880, and even though he matriculated from high school his family could not afford to send him to University. Flynn became a full fledged minister in 1911, after working on missions during his 4 years of training, and then volunteered to work at a mission in the Flinders Ranges of South Australia.
It was during this time that Flynn recognised, and started to address, the two great problems that the inland presented - the lack of transportation and communication!
During the next 16 years of establishing 'nursing hostels' in the outback and working with others dedicated to the task, such as Clifford Peel who, in 1917, suggested the air ambulance, and Alfred Traeger who, in 1928, developed an idea of Flynn's and came up with the famous 'pedal-operated radio transceiver', Flynn had great personal satisfaction to be able to see the formation of the first Flying Doctor Service (designated Royal in 1955) at Cloncurry in May 1928.
Just before his death on 5th. May 1951, Flynn could look back at the organisation he had nurtured, that was the only form of medical help available to two-thirds of this huge island continent, with just pride. He had been an able administrator with a vision that he had lived to see fulfilled.
'Flynn of the Inland' was buried in the country he loved so much, near Alice Springs.
In 1953, a commemorative cairn was erected 17 miles north of Tennant Creek, in Flynn's honour, and on it are included these words:
'His vision encompassed the continent.......
.........He bought to lonely places a spiritual ministry
And spread a mantle of safety over them........'
EDITH DIRCKSEY COWAN 1861 - 1932
Australian $50.00 polymer notes bearing a likeness of Edith Cowan were first issued in 1995.
A modified version was issued in 2003 when the position of the obverse signatures was reversed and additional printing was added.
(Size approx. 153mm x 65mm)
There was a soft sadness in the portrait of Edith Cowan, as shown on the first of the Australian FIFTY DOLLAR polymer notes, which highlighted the compassion of the woman, but did nothing to show the resolve that powered her to achieve great things in the cause of women's rights!
Edith Brown had a traumatic childhood which started on 2nd. August 1861, at Glengarry in Western Australia. Her mother, Mary, died in childbirth when Edith was only an impressionable 7 year old and then, when she was aged 15, her father, Kenneth, murdered his second wife!
On 12th. November 1879, after she had turned eighteen, Edith married James Cowan. - and, by 1891, they were raising five children.
James Cowan was the man who would eventually become the City of Perth police magistrate, and, because of her husband's involvement, through the courts, with all sorts of disadvantaged women and children who had been handed a poor deal in life, Edith started to become active in numerous voluntary organisations in an effort to better their lot!
Her first priorities included health and hygiene, state schools to provide free education (including sex education to be taught in schools), equal citizenship rights for both sexes, as well as day nurseries for working mothers. Over the next fifty or so years until her death at age 70, on the 9th. June 1932, Edith Cowan achieved an impressive number of 'firsts' in her fight to champion the cause of the underdogs.
From 1891-1906 she worked with several organisations to get her day nurseries accepted as well as the Children's Courts, of which she became one of the first women to be appointed to the bench in 1915.
During World War I, she worked tirelessly for the Red Cross and was awarded the O.B.E. (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) in 1920, the same year she was appointed one of the first female Justices of the Peace in the country!
In 1921 Edith decided to stand for the Western Australian Parliament as a National Party member, and was successful in becoming the first woman to win a seat in any Australian Parliament.
Her contribution during her only term in office included putting forward several private member's bills, which were accepted, that helped promote women's inheritance rights and the equal opportunity for women to enter the legal profession.
Edith Cowan has been remembered in several other more tangible ways as well- a memorial clock tower in Perth's King's Park, a Western Australian Federal electorate, and a University have all been named after this truly remarkable woman!
DAVID UPAIPON 1872 - 1967
David Unaipon was born at Port McLeay Mission in South Australia on 28th. September 1872, son of a Ngarrindjeri Aboriginal evangelist, James Ngunaitponi and his wife Nymbulda.
During his lifetime David was obsessed with science and inventions and, even though higher education was denied to him, his natural talent for - 'making things that worked' - shone through!
In 1909 he patented an improved handpiece for shearers and invented a centrifugal motor amongst many other things, but could never get any financial backing to develop his ideas.
He had married a Tangani woman, Katherine Carter (nee Sumner) in 1902, and because of his background, and a knowledge of several of the aboriginal dialects, he won acceptance by many local tribes and became prominent as a spokesperson for them.
In the late 1920's, Unaipon was involved in several Royal Commissions and inquiries into Aboriginal welfare and he wanted to see the Commonwealth take control of aboriginal affairs instead of them being left to the individual states that had no resources, and in some cases no inclination, to act sympathetically in this area of social justice.
David Unaipon was an advocate of 'sympathetic co-operation' between all races and, in an effort to create a spirit of understanding, he wrote several articles for a newspaper, the Sydney 'Daily Telegraph' and a magazine, 'The Home' as well as several books about native legends that gave him the honour of being the first Aboriginal author to be published internationally.
He died on 7th. February 1967, at the age of 94, and was buried where he was born, at Port McLeay.
HELEN PORTER MITCHELL 1861 - 1931
aka -DAME 'NELLIE MELBA'
The Australian $100.00 polymer notes bearing a likeness of Dame 'Nellie Melba' were first issued in 1996.
(Size approx 158mm x 65mm)
Shown is the 1999 issue Australian $100.00 polymer note. No alterations from the 1996 original issue had been noted.
Helen Porter Mitchellwas born at Richmond, Melbourne on the 19th. May 1861, and went on to become the world's finest operatic soprano of her time- with a vocal range spanning nearly three octaves.
Her musical talent was recognised early in her life, in fact she was only six when she made her first public singing appearance, and at age eight, she accompanied herself on the piano at a concert at the Richmond Town Hall on 11th. December 1869, and the local newspaper, the Richmond 'Advertiser', reported that the 'precocious little Miss Mitchell caught the audience by surprise...... and rightly deserved the spontaneous encore she received....'
Helen married Charles Armstrong- the son of an Irish baronet, in 1882, but the marriage was not successful and they divorced in 1900, after she had a public affair with the Duke of Orleans, the Bourbon pretender to the French throne.
(The reports of the day say that Mr. Armstrong and Queen Victoria were not amused!)
Helen had been tutored by several excellent teachers in Australia, but she realised that she would need to go to Europe to complete her training.
In 1886, her teacher, Mathilde Marchesi of Paris had introduced her to several famous French and Italian composers, including Puccini, to give a boost to her operatic career and had then persuaded the young singer to take a stage name that would easily remembered by the international audiences.
Helen (nicknamed 'Nellie') chose a name that would always remind her of her home city of Melbourne in Australia- that name was Melba.
She eventually made her professional debut in Brussels in 1887, as Gilda in Verdi's 'Rigoletto', and then Gounod chose her for Juliette in his 'Romeo et Juliette', and she was Puccini's ideal Mimi for his 'La Boheme'.
During the next 15 years Madame 'Nellie Melba' became the prima donna at London's Covent Garden and on her first return to Australia in 1902, she was given the superstar treatment that she expected, with a triumphant, but strenuous, tour of the major cities throughout the country.
(The Launceston 'Examiner' of February 13th. 1903, comments on Madame Melba's welcome by the mayor of that city, and when he politely asked how her steamer trip across the notoriously rough Bass Strait had been, she replied, 'Horrible!... I feel tired and need to rest.'
It was unfortunate for the audience who had brought tickets for her sell-out concert, and it appeared even worse for the entrepreneur, Mr D. Thompson, who had put up a deposit of 1000 guineas with the National Bank, when the news hit the street that the diva was indisposed and the concert would not go ahead. However a financial arrangement was agreed to and no one, except the doting audience, missed out. Melba eventually gave a concert in Launceston in April 1909.)
Melba frequently came back from her European commitments to do tours to anywhere that wanted to hear her sing, and that even included enduring the rigours of the outback regions of this continent
During World War I, Melba sang at concerts both here and in North America to raise funds for the wartime charities and, for her tireless efforts, she was awarded the title of Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1918. (It was said she raised over 100,000 Pounds.)
At the opening of the 'temporary' Federal Parliament House in Canberra in 1927, Dame Nellie Melba was invited to sing the National Anthem, and another honour was bestowed on her when she was elevated to Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire.
Melba made many 'final' appearances during her career, the 'last' at Covent Garden, England in 1926, and the 'last' at Geelong, Australia in November 1928, and a 'last' charity concert at the Brighton Hippodrome in England on 5th. October 1929.
In fact, her final 'last' appearance was in November 1930, when she had returned from England so seriously ill that she had to be taken from the ship by ambulance. She died in Sydney at the age of 69, on 23rd. February 1931, and was buried at Lilydale in Victoria- still loved by her devoted public!
It was appropriate that 'Nellie' Melba found a place on the ONE HUNDRED DOLLAR note. The 'New York Times' wrote in their epitaph to this great Australian soprano: 'Fortunate the generation that heard her, for we shall never hear her like again.'
GENERAL SIR JOHN MONASH 1865 - 1931
In 1864, a young Jewish-Prussian, Louis Monash, who had emigrated to Australia in 1853, returned to Prussia for a visit and came back with a new bride, Bertha (nee Manasse).
On 7th. June 1865 their son, John Monash, was born in West Melbourne, just five and a half years before Prussia expanded to form the German Empire, the Second Reich, which was proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles in January 1871.
It is more than ironic that this child, born of Prussian parents, should grow up to be one of Australia's greatest generals in the First World War and be responsible, in part, for the smashing of the Hindenberg Line and the ultimate defeat of the German Empire.
John Monash was educated at Scotch College, where he was considered to be an excellent academic student, before attending the University of Melbourne to follow his career choices of the Arts, Law and Engineering.
It was there that he became a leader in student politics and was instrumental in the formation of the first Student's Union as well as joining the University Company of the 4th. Battalion, Victoria Rifles.
However in 1885, owing to family circumstances that included his mother's terminal illness, he felt compelled to get a full-time job, which he achieved with a civil engineering firm and, fortunately, this proved to be the right move for him.
Like everything else Monash did, he devoted himself to the job, and excelled in its practicalities - while he also continued to study part time at the University where in 1892 he eventually gained his degrees in the Arts, Engineering and Law.
Monash had met and married Hannah Victoria Moss in 1891 and by 1893 he had the added responsibility of a daughter, Bertha, his only child.
During the great economic depression of 1894, as he had been retrenched from his job with the Melbourne Harbour Trust, he went into a partnership specialising in bridge building and, by 1905, with other business associates. he had formed the successful firm -Reinforced Concrete and Monier Pipe Construction Co. Pty. Ltd.
All the while Monash maintained his involvement with military training, and became a member of the North Melbourne Battery of the Garrison Artillery where his organising ability was soon recognised and his promotion to Major, and commanding-officer, was ratified in 1897, a position he then held for over a decade.
By 1908, Monash was heavily involved with the Australian Army Intelligence Corps and his further promotion, in 1913, to Colonel commanding the 13th. Infantry Brigade was a logical one, considering his expertise.
Meanwhile, in central Europe and the Balkans, a timetable of madness had started to unfold as nation after nation, armed itself to the teeth as a deterrent against each other, and on August 4th. 1914, with the exception of Italy, they were all at war- 'defending themselves!'
Because of the emotional and traditional ties with England, Australia was also caught up in the conflict and threw its full weight of available manpower and resources into the allied camp.
Monash was soon in command of the 4th. Infantry Brigade of the Australian Imperial Forces and off to Egypt for training prior to their first major engagement on the Gallipoli Peninsular, in the Dardenelles, on the 25th. April 1915.
Every Australian knows the tragic story that unfolded at the narrow beach at what became known as Anzac Cove at Gallipoli, and the incompetent British High Command of the time who made blunder after blunder, and paid for it with the blood of the bravest young men from Australia, New Zealand and Britain.
The first day's casualties amounted to 6,000 dead and 14,000 wounded, out of the 70,000 troops that took part in the initial landings. A total of 200,000 allied casualties were recorded, from all causes, by the time the campaign was declared lost in December and the orders were given for a complete withdrawal.
Eventually on the nights of the 19-20th. December 1915, under the command of one of the most competent of the English soldiers, Lieutenant-General Birdwood, in a remarkable series of subterfuges, the evacuation of Anzac Cove was completed without the loss of a single life.
From virtual defeat came this small victory, but the landing and the holding of that 1000 yards of cliff-face for 8 months by Monash and the Anzac troops under increasing counter-attacks from the Turks and their brilliant leader Colonel Mustapha Kemal Ataturk, was the baptism of fire that is seen to have welded both the young Australia and the emerging Turkey into nations with a tremendous respect for each others bravery which still holds true today.
After the Dardenelles campaign, Monash was promoted once again, to Major-General commanding the 3rd. Australian Division, and was sent to England to train his troops before they faced the horrors of the European conflict.
The Australians, all volunteers, were noted as fierce fighters and were involved in many of the most bloody battles during the War, such as Messines- Passchendaele- Amiens.
Monash was made a Knight Commander of the Bath in 1918, and appointed Commander of the Australian Corps at the rank of Lieutenant-General before he directed a huge and extremely successful collaboration of Australian and American infantry, artillery and tanks, plus aircraft at the Battle of Hamel on the 4th. July.
The battles that followed on from this resounding victory, heralded the beginning of the end for Germany's General Erich Ludendorff's armies, and when the German commander realised that the War was lost by late September 1918, he advised the Hindenburg Government to sue for the peace that would stop the slaughter of thousands more.
At 11.00 a.m. on the 11th. November 1918, the Great War was over- and all was quiet on the Western Front!
General Sir John Monash returned to Australia as a hero, and was appointed the Director-General of Repatriation and Immobilisation, until civilian life claimed his talents again and saw him head the Victorian State Electrical Commission (S.E.C.) for many years.
When his wife, Hannah, died in 1920 after a long illness, Monash devoted himself, over the final ten years or so of his life, to organising the building of the Shrine of Remembrance and to his position as Vice-Chancellor of the University of Melbourne as well as his duties as Chairman of the S.E.C.
He died on 8th. October 1931 and it is estimated that 250,000 people attended his state funeral.
In respect for his services to education, Monash University in Melbourne was named after him in 1958.
A fitting tribute for the soldier who preferred to be remembered as a scholar and a builder.
Main Internet References - and some Recommended Reading:
Australian Coin Review. Nov. 1993; Nov. 1994; Oct. 1995 and June 1996. issues.
History of World War I. Published by Octopus Books. 1974.
Australia's Yesterdays. Published by Reader's Digest Services. 1974.
The Macquarie Book of Events. Published by Macquarie Library Pty. Ltd. 1984.
Collecting and Investing in Australian Coins and Banknotes. 2nd.Edition. By Greg McDonald. (McDonald Publishing.)
Australia, The First Hundred Years. Published by Summit Books. Paul Hamlyn Pty. Ltd.
A. B. 'Banjo' Paterson's Collected Verse. Published by Angus & Robertson. 1987.
A TIMELY REMINDER ........
'TASMANIAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY'.
A timely reminder, from Hon.Sec. Chris Heath of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society', has recently appeared on my desk .
The 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' is just about the conclude its 49th year and commence the 50th. year - its 'Golden Jubilee'
Brian 'Barney' Curtin (seated) and T.N.S. founder, Roger McNeice, closely inspect a numismatic find. c.1964
The actual anniversary of the formation of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' harks back to this month in 1963 when, then school-boy, Roger V. McNeice, and a handful of like-minded coin collectors, gathered to form a club to promote the ancient hobby of numismatics.
By early 1964, it was a thriving and growing group with great plans to put in place for the advent of Decimal Currency to Australia in 1966.
Over the last 49 years, the Society has seen periods of explosive growth - however, we all know that time is a cruel and ravaging master, and, in recent years, our membership has also been deprived by virtue of our 'master' .
As this important jubilee milestone draws nearer, those readers who are T.N.S. members, will regret that many of our older and dear comrades are no longer with us - and, that is sad, because they were our own numismatic family - and many had travelled with us for a considerable part of our journey to this point in time.
Some loyal members, associates, and their families - both current and retired - will enthusiastically recollect those halcyon days as the 'foundation bricks of membership' were gathered and laid, to give so much pleasure to so many people over such a long period of time.
Half a century of mentoring, encouraging and participating in such a wonderfully productive hobby is not to be sneezed at.
Gone ... but not forgotten ......
R.I.P. - Ailsa, Tom, June and Bill, Dorothy, Frank, Jerry.
However, those of us who are now heading towards 2013 - and, who have had a long association with such a remarkable organization and its family of members - will look back at those with whom we have accepted as friends - and educators - as some of the best formative years of our lives.
My own association with the Society now goes back well over two decades ... I have made lifetime friends and I have loved every moment of it.
Obviously, next year will be an important time for some of us, and, that will also be the time for us to properly reminisce, bring out more of the old photos, and swap the stories that make us who we are .....
In the meantime, it is also nearing the time for 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' Membership Renewals for next year - this will be our 'Golden Jubilee' - and, those who like to get in early, are invited to forward their usual remittance directly to the Secretary at the postal address shown below..
Tasmanian Numismatic Society
ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTIONS 2013
Subscriptions for the next T.N.S. calendar year will fall due on
1st. January 2013.
Your early renewal would be greatly appreciated. Thank You!
If, after a period of one calendar month, the Annual Subscription has not been received - or, if, any other arrangements - including leave of absence - have not been advised, or put in place, with the T.N.S. Executive Committee - an overdue subscription reminder will be issued to the member by an appropriate method - including, a general notification in the Society's 'Tasmanian Numismatist'.
Please - ensure that all current contact addresses are made known to the Hon. Sec.
It will be deemed that the member be considered un- financial after a non-contact or non-remittance period of one additional calendar month after the reminder advice has been forwarded. If the full annual subscription has still not be remitted after a period of three calendar months, the Executive Committee of the Society will authorize the removal of the members name from the membership list, and any accumulated Society benefits will then be forfeited, and delivery of the Tasmanian Numismatist* (including the electronic version of the newsletter) - will cease.
Post Code .
PHONE: Mobile (Optional): ..
Senior Full Membership (18 years and over) - $20.00*
Associate Membership/Spouse (excludes voting rights) - $10.00
Institutional and/or International Membership - $25.00*
membership (Group or individual) - $15.00*
Junior Full Membership (Aged up to 18 years) - $10.00
Remittances - or correspondence - should be directed to:
Tasmanian Numismatic Society.
C/- Hon. Sec. C. A. Heath
P.O. Box 12.
GENERAL INDEX UPDATE.
'TASMANIAN NUMISMATIST - INTERNET EDITION' 1996 - June 2007
'NUMISNET WORLD' July 2007 - June 2012
Early issues of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition', from 1995 - 1999. were permanently archived in 2000 and articles are not linked directly.
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug03.htm - 1995, 1996 - 1997 (Volumes 1 and 2) Archived. Content detail only.
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/Sept2003.htm - 1998 - 1999 (Volumes 3 and 4) Archived. Content detail only.
By referring to the 'Newsletter Archives' or 'Search' function located on the Home Page, you can directly access all current Volumes online.
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html - January 2000 (Volumes 5 - to date).
In January 2006 it was decided to grant each new issue its own URL link. which would henceforth appear in the current Index.
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar07.htm - 2006 (Volume 11)
The final Index of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition'
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm - 2007 (Volume 12 - Issues 1 - 6)
Full details of initial 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (2007)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)
For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm - (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)
For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec09.htm - (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 12)
For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2010)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec10.htm - (Volume 15 - Issues 1 - 12)
For full details of 'Numisnet World (2011)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jun11.htm - (Volume 16 - Issues 1 - 6)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec11.htm - (Volume 16 - Issues 7 - 12)
For full details of 'Numisnet World (2012)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june12.htm - (Volume 17 - Issues 1 - 6)
'NUMISNET WORLD' - INDEX - July on 2012.
Issue 7. July 2012:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/july12.htm
KEEPING BUSY! - The Winter temptation to curl up in front of a nice warm fire, watch a movie or read a book is ingrained within our 'hibernating bear'. Numismatists have a slightly more productive schedule - they sort, they list, they mend - and, any reading is usually from a catalogue relevant to their hobby!
AUSTRALIAN COIN & BANKNOTE GRADING. - This is a subject that is still raging - even if it is done in politely hushed tones. The 'numerists' and the 'verbalists' (my terms) have both justified their positions and are prepared to go down with their ships. Collectors should be aware that several differences of grading opinion exist - they should study the differences - then independently make their own decision on how they will present their treasures for consideration.
AUSTRALIAN CURRENCY - A virtual 'hodge-podge' of Australian banknotes has been selected to show the development of Oz currency since our Federation - as well as to give an idea how different grades appear in circulation. Unfortunately, not all of the notes that have been produced are available for sampling and perusal - some are quite rare now - so that is the reader's chore to discover. This illustrated section is just the bait!
Issue 8. August 2012:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug2012.htm
'YORKIE DOODLE DANDY' - I recently was pleasantly surprised to receive a query from a fellow author regarding the authenticity of a replica item. A correspondence followed and a camaraderie developed that went beyond numismatics.
William 'Bill' Wynne - a former U.S. air-recon photographer had a real story to tell - and a real job to do - in the 1940's during the allied defence of our nation. Bill's companion, a tiny Yorkshire terrier named 'Smoky', will be well remembered as an official working 'War Dog' with her own set of medals - as well as being a talented entertainer of children and adults during the early 1950's.
The late 'Smoky', and 90 year old Bill, were also honoured in July, 2012 for their efforts, as a veterans' 'therapy' dog and trainer, by the presentation of a special award, at the Royal Brisbane Hospital, which was accepted on Bill's behalf by the U.S. Consul General.
RECENT CORRESPONDENCE - For those readers who use the Internet to keep up to date with international numismatics - you will be pleased to learn that long-time colleague Serge Pelletier has advised that the journal of the Ottawa Numismatic Society 'moneta' is now freely available on line at:- www.ons-sno.ca. Another well-known friend, Mike Metras, has advised that he is selecting part of his collection for disposal on eBay. He has supplied us a link to his initial list - arbateasmara - so if you have an interest in getting in early and making an offer - this is OK for our readers.- but get in early!
ALL THAT GLISTERS ...IS NOT GOLD! - The word 'GOLD!' conjures up all sorts of feelings. Mine started at a very young age and never, ever went away. I have selected just a few bits 'n' pieces to show the scope of things that intrigued me because of their association with the most noble of metals.
Issue 9. September 2012:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/sep12.htm
RECENT DISCUSSIONS I HAVE HAD! - Readers were forthcoming with quite a hotchpotch of subjects last month. Most of the email chatter was just interesting trivia - and, in most cases, the queries were easily answered. However, as we all know, trivia is usually the starting point for all sorts of idea development - if we are 'blessed' with an inquisitive nature. It also shows that interest in some items that have been dormant for a time - has not died off!
GOLD AMONGST THE DROSS. - Among our older Australian pre-decimal coinage - particularly that of King George V - are a few pieces of Bronze and Silver that are equivalent to 'gemstones, chunks of Gold - and some jewels'!. The list shown, has tried to separate these precious tit-bits from the mere items of interest. It is now up to you to do the work and 'cash in' on hard money that is far more than just a few petty low value coins!
Issue 10. October 2012:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/oct12.htm
COINED FOR CIRCULATION - but with a little bit of MYSTIQUE! - We may be accumulators - but, we also take on roles as recorders of history. Sometime, the information we need, to accurately define an item, is not forthcoming without an extensive search into dark corners that are rarely disturbed - this creates a certain 'mystique' that tends to drive us harder in our quest for enlightenment.. Several of my possessions fall into the category of 'mystiques'.
THE MYSTERIOUS MARAVEDIS of SPAIN. - These rough hammered and cut Bronze coins - sometimes referred to as 'cobs' - once comprised a huge proportion of the circulating basic coinage of Spain. The Maravedis had a life that started with the richness of Gold - but, they eventually ended amongst the hoi-poloi, as a common Copper coin, when the fortunes of once-mighty Spain began to ebb.
GERMAN MERCHANTS REVIVE the MARK! - The continuing saga regarding the stability of the European Euro has taken another step back into the past as German banks and merchants start accepting payments for purchases in hoarded Deutsche Marks. It is estimated that millions of Marks are still in the possession of hoarders who held them from 2002. It must be remembered, that Germany did not set a deadline on its old currency or coinage - unlike some other members of the ECU.
Issue 11. November 2012:-
PROPOSED NEW DESIGNS - The recent release of pictures of the 'proposed new banknote designs' will - no doubt - stimulate the tardy collectors and wannabe investors - into a frenzy to gather what they may from the current range before any such change occurs. With personal memories of the lengthy changeover from Imperial to Decimal currency notes in 1966 and then the demise of Paper notes from 1992 - 6; I have no doubt that the hoarders are out, in full swing, already picking over our first Polymer range for the absolute best of the final juicy morsels from the bones.
A TIMELY REMINDER - Along with the usual reminder about. annual subscriptions that we freely publish for the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society', we were also reminded that 2013 is the Golden Jubilee year of the Society's formation. This is the end of the 49th year and the countdown is on. ...
Fifty years is a long time for any sort of social group to survive - and, fortunately, we still have active numismatists in Tasmania who were part of that original few who gathered in November 1963 to form a club of like-minded enthusiasts. No doubt many memories will emerge as the year progresses.
The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.
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The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented free on a monthly basis with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics. Whilst the 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter abides by the same basic guidelines originally suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter, it is a separate, independent publication.
The Tasmanian Numismatist newsletter is the only official newsletter of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and it is published periodically and distributed by post, email or hand delivered, directly to financial members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions.
All titles and matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society.
Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.
Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Editor.
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Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, any Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations - or - (2) To provide additional important information.
Some illustrated items - including their designs and packaging - may be subject to existing copyright restrictions.
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All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned.
The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. Deadline for any literary contributions, or amendment to copy, is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication.
Numisnet World - (Internet Edition).
P.O. Box 10,
Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.