Volume 16 Issue 11         Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)        November 2011





Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2011.


Please consider my conditional invitation to make a literary contribution if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest and fulfils our stated editorial guidelines.  As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in additional presentation. 

However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication. 

We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has necessitated the following conditions.

If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagiarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited.  This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbyist collector.  - G.E.P.


Remember - be astute when you are handed change - not all the wonders of numismatics have been discovered yet - and they don't have to be shiny and new!

This edition again features an assortment of  'trivia'  that I think is of interest and I trust it will prove educational and entertaining to you as well. 

All or any prices quoted in articles in this newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. 

Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the authors' own collection - or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' -  Internet Edition and the  'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition. © 1996 - 2011.  (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes.)

*Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale.


PLEASE NOTE - RE-STATED DISCLAIMER: Where on-line web-site addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith after we have checked them ourselves - however, our readers are advised that if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.



This edition of 'Numisnet World' is note-worthy for being very pictorial !



BANK NOTES - Part 2.

In our last issue, we started a short discussion series about  the miscellaneous mysteries that some banknotes present to us.

Occasionally, we encounter notes that appear to be basic issues - traditional and official - only to find various differences that alert us that all is not as it seems. These differences are occurring all the time - and, that is why numismatics is such a fascinating hobby!

At present, I have my accumulation of relatively modern international banknotes safely stored in 7 main folders - not every issuer that ever was is included, but it is a representative sort of range, within reason, and the last newsletter issue covered the first folder (A - B)

Obviously, not every nation or issuer has had multitudes of differences within a note series - but some have more than a fair share - and it is up to collectors, at all levels, to find those that are still uncatalogued.

Some already known items are also of interest - and it is some of those that I am featuring here.

Let them be a stepping-stone into the unknown!

In Part 2 of this article - which covers another selection from my folders  - I will illustrate a few more of those note mysteries.



N.D. (1962)100 RIELS (KM#12)

Although this note - printed in Munich by Giesiecke & Devrient - was numbered and signed - it was not officially issued in Cambodia due to the period of political upheaval that was about to be unleashed. (Illustrations reduced. Actual size 175 x80 mm.)


The Kingdom of Cambodia was toppled in 1970 in a bloodless coup led by Lon Noi, and members of the National Assembly, after a series of repressive measures were implemented by the monarch - who was becoming aware of the divisive influence that Communism was having on his nation.

Vietnam was the nearest neighbour and China was trying to contain the new brand of Marxism by working through Cambodian supporters.

The area was becoming a 'tinderbox' as the non-Communist nations were also exerting political pressure after the Vietnamese experience.

The former King, Norodom Sihanouk, was, initially; retained as a figure-head - but then, after a few confrontations with the new Kmer Government, he was 'exiled' to China because he was too hard to control politically.

Norodom Sihanouk was a very 'hands-on' monarch, who had involved himself in all aspects of life - both at home and on the international stage - and he had made enemies! Refer:- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norodom_Sihanouk


The short-lived, relatively moderate, Khmer Republic was toppled by the Khmer Rouge insurgency in 1975.




N.D. (1973) 1000RIELS (KM#17)

This note - printed in Munich by Giesiecke & Devrient - was also numbered and signed by the same signatories - but it was not officially issued due to the on-going political upheaval.  (Illustrations reduced. Actual size 190 x 90mm. )


In 1975, a new series of notes bearing the new state name of Kampuchea were prepared - but not issued - by the Communist oriented Khmer Rouge.

During the next 4 years, the country was run as a cashless and classless society with the entire population and economy strictly controlled by the utterly ruthless Khmer Rouge Government under the leadership of the notorious ideologue, Pol Pot.  

In 1979, the hard-line Khmer Rouge were overthrown  -  but only after a period of horrific genocide and devastating economic ineptitude.

It was found that, during the 4 year period that the Pol Pot regime was in control, a blood-curdling slaughter of the intelligentsia had occurred.

It is now estimated that this murderous regime claimed the lives of an estimated 1.7 million men, women and children  - 21% of the population.


The economy slowly recovered, and a series of notes were issued in 1980 under the auspices of the new Democratic Kampuchea which was being controlled by the Vietnamese-backed leader, Heng Samrin.

The state name of Cambodia was re-installed in 1990 with yet another series of notes issued by the state controlled National Bank of Cambodia with Norodom Sihanouk, re-instated from exile in China, as Chief of State in 1992.

After a short time, Norodom officially reclaimed the throne of Cambodia and remained as King between 1993 - 2004 when he semi-retired and passed control to his son, Norodom Sihamoni.


Most collectors would know that the notes of China have an extraordinary long history - and we could devote days to the subject - however, in the interests of our younger readers, the banknote history of the early 1900's seemed like a good spot to commence this section of Chinese miscellany.


(above) - Maritime Customs Building and Streetcar on front of note.


Photo-engraved 1914 TEN YUAN - with Blue Over-printing

('Shanghai' - in Chinese characters on front, and English word on back of note) (KM#118q)

The plates for this note were produced by the American Bank Note Company of New York. 

With x10 magnification it is possible to see the many fine details of the photo-engravers' artwork - such as the facial expressions of the pedestrians, depicted on the front of the note - and, it's easy to imagine the 'virtual' toiling movements of the workers and horses pictured on the note's back.

Illustration enlarged. (Approx. actual size 160 x 90mm).


This front pattern (shown above) was first produced, by the American Bank Note Company of New York, in 1913 as the back pattern for a Blue 50 Dollars denomination (KM#111B) authorized by the Bank of Communications, which was o/printed with 5 different regional place names.

The back pattern of the 10 Yuan was originally the front pattern of the 1913 issue Blue 100 Dollars note (KM#111C) which was also o/printed with 5 regional names. The practice of mixing previously used front and backs to form a new note is referred to as 'muling'!

The Chinese Government were experts at getting the most out of their note designs as a perusal of any good catalogue will affirm!


In 1914, the 'muled' Red 10 Yuan note (KM#118 - sample shown above) - with slightly altered Chinese language value guilloche shapes - was over-printed and issued to over a dozen regional areas - and, in 1924, the ship/train design back  was again 'muled' with another previously used Bank building front design (from a 5 Yuan note) and issued as a Green 10 Yuan (KM# 136) for exclusive distribution in Shanghai.


In November 1927, the Red 10 Yuan (KM#147A) note was produced and overprinted for Shanghai once more - but again with different denomination guilloches than the original 10 Yuan. Also issued in November 1927, were two other very similar 10 Yuan notes - again, with different guilloches and printed in Green and Brown - which were produced for use in 7 other different major areas. (KM#147B and C)

The final sighting of this particular 'muled' combination of designs produced in Red and issued for the Bank of Communications, was in 1941 - however, it was just the basic note and it was not overprinted. (KM#158).

If this sounds confusing - it is

I strongly recommend - to those of our readers who have developed an interest in Chinese banknotes - that they should consult a good world bank note catalogue for design clarifications. (see notes below).


It was necessary to reduce the two examples of multi-lingual notes (shown below) from the Autonomous Republic of Georgia to fit the page - however, we trust that they are sufficiently clear enough to see the detail we will be discussing.

At the advent of the Russian Revolution, and, for a period thereafter, the series of notes being issued from areas under Bolshevik - and then Soviet Federation - control were often decorated with the descriptive text of several ethnic languages, as well as French, indicating that they were on a par with Russian Roubles. It was also very obvious that German and English were not amongst those favoured few languages.



State Notes*

(Top) - 1918 - 500 ROUBLES - (KM#13b)

(Illustration reduced- actual size 165 x 100mm.)

(Bottom) - 1920 - 1000 ROUBLES - (KM#14a)

(Illustration reduced - actual size 165 x 100mm.)

*These notes fall within the class of various Russian Federation co-operative state Rouble issues now historically known as 'Babylon' notes.


In 1945, Germany utilized some of the old Reichsbanknotes printing plates from the 1929-36 era to issue interim emergency currency.

This original 1929-36 note release had been produced to supplement, at par, the Rentenbank issues that had been made necessary by the hyper-inflation of the early 1920's. The later issue 1945 notes were printed on suitable quality note-paper, but, without the usual under-printed letter below the main text.

They also had an ornamental design, instead of the repeat of the featured personage, as the side watermark.

These notes were virtually identical with the older issues except for the subtle changes mentioned - and they can be easily confused, at first glance.

I have featured a 50 and 100 Reichsmark note for comparison - you will note that the 100RM is an original 1935 Swastika issue (with the underprinted letter B) and 50RM is an example of the newer (1945) issue on an old 1933 plate without under-printing - and it is also only serial numbered on one side.

(The numismatic retail price variance for the 1945 issue is approx. 3 times as great than the original 1932-36 issue - so, you may find a bargain, or you may get stung, if you are not careful - so be aware!)



(Top) - 1935 100 Reichsmark (Justus von Liebig) with B under-print - serial numbered both sides.

'J. von Liebig' watermark. (KM#183a) Centre under-print - Swastika. (Actual size 180 x 90mm)

(Bottom) 1933 50 Reichsmark (David Hansemann) without letter under-print - serial numbered front only.

Ornamental watermark. (KM#182b) Centre under-print - Note Value. (Actual size 170 x 85mm)


NEXT ISSUE:- Part 3. - A few more miscellaneous note selections that are slightly out of the ordinary - from India through to Lithuania.


Main References.

'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money - Volumes 1 & 2.' - Krause Publications.

(Various editions compiled and edited by Messrs. Albert Pick, Neil Shafer and Colin R. Bruce II.)





of the



While attending the October 2004 ANDA - APTA  Coin & Stamp Fair, at Wrest Point Casino in Hobart, Tasmania - I had procured one solitary cheap Tongan note example, from an attending dealer, in an attempt to extend my small Pacific nations banknote collection

It was a 1985 Two Pa'Anga - in what could barely be defined as VG condition - albeit, more grubbier and limper than I would have liked. 


I had been previously advised, by visitors to Tonga, that most of the well circulated, smaller denomination currency notes in that Pacific nation end up this way due to climatic conditions - and - the basic environmental situations of the note users themselves.

I knew that my 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' colleague, Charles Hunt, already had an accumulation of Tongan bank-notes - so, it was obvious that I would consult him for a little more information.

When I sought a few extra facts about other Tongan issues, Charles' generosity of time, his knowledge and his enthusiasm was obvious - and it rubbed off on me. The extra note, that Charles produced and freely offered to me, was the lowest current denomination there was -  I generously graded it 'about' Good - but, - it was given to me with goodwill  - and, I "never look a gift horse in the mouth" - especially from a collector friend! 


My fascination, with currency from the South Pacific, was definitely given an additional boost with that rather tatty and dilapidated Tongan 1985 Half Pa'Anga note (shown below).  It then meant I had two notes - and, in my opinion, that makes a collection!

Refer:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/nov04.htm




(Top) - 1983 Half Pa'Anga  - featuring King Taufa'ahau Tupou and the Tongan Coat-of-Arms (front) - with Copra workers (back). (KM#18c)

(Bottom) - 1985 Two Pa'Anga - featuring King Taufa'ahau Tupou and the Tongan Coat-of-Arms (front) - with Tapa Fibre cloth makers (back). (KM#20c)

(Illustrations reduced. Actual size 14.5 x 7 cm.)


In 1995, a new series of undated Tongan notes were issued in all denominations (except the 1/2 Pa'Anga - which had been withdrawn after 1983)  - and I was fortunate to be able to obtain an uncirculated T$50 (shown below).

It featured the bust of the late King Taufa'ahau, as its front - with a panoramic view of Vava'u Harbour, as the back.. My collection was growing.



N.D. (1995 issue) - 50 Pa'Anga note -  featuring King Taufa'ahau Tupou and the Tongan Coat-of-Arms (front) and Vava'u Harbour scene (back). (KM#36)

(Illustrations enlarged. Actual size 15 x 7 cm.)


My latest acquisition of Tongan currency also included another 1995 T$50 note bearing the A/1 prefix - but, it is in such good condition that I have kept it as a spare!  I have used the Internet to attempt to do some homework on the newer (N.D. 2009) notes of the new King Siaosi Tupou V (aka George) (shown below) - however, some of the KM* catalogue references I have tried to access are still absent from general availability, so, I have used my imagination - and assumed that the item numbers on the three highest denominations will follow on in the usual numerical sequence.....! Corrections may need to follow!!



King Siaosi Tupou V

With the exception of the colour and denomination numerals and wording - all front designs and note sizes appear identical.

The backs feature - Breaching Whale, Rugby, old Tombs, Memorial statues, the National Reserve Bank of Tonga, and the Royal Palace. (KM#37 - 42)*

(Illustrations reduced. Actual sizes 15 x 7cms.)

Refer:- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Tupou_V





'NUMISNET WORLD' July 2007 - June 2011.

The detail of contents of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' and 'Numisnet World' can be seen at the following links. Copies of articles are usually available by email, upon request from the Editor or the original author - or, if directly accessed, subject to those copyright provisions laid down in our current terms of use.  Articles will not be posted by mail services.

Early issues of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition', from 1995 - 1999. were permanently archived in 2000 and articles are not linked directly.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug03.htm  - 1995, 1996 - 1997 (Volumes 1 and 2) Archived. Content detail only.

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By referring to the 'Newsletter Archives' or 'Search' function located on the Home Page, you can directly access all current Volumes online.

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In January 2006 it was decided to grant each new issue its own URL link. which would henceforth appear in the current Index.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar07.htm  - 2006 (Volume 11)

The final Index of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition'

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Full details of initial 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  (2007)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)

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For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec09.htm  - (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2010)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec10.htm  - (Volume 15 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2011)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jun11.htm  -  (Volume 16 - Issues 1 - 6)


'NUMISNET WORLD' - INDEX - July to Dec. 2011.

Issue 7. July 2011:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/july11.htm

T.N.S. RESUMPTION OF MEETINGS & PROPOSED COIN FAIR - A T.N.S. Executive Committee 'NOTIFICATION' has been received, indicating that a general meeting of past and present members, plus any interested guests, will be held on 21st. July at Battery Point Conference Centre in  Hobart.

After the extraordinary long recess, due to unavailability of a suitable venue, the purpose of the meeting is to reactivate existing members' interest, stimulate new membership and discuss plans for a Coin Fair to be held, at the same venue, on 11th. September 2011.

THICK - 'n' - JUST A LITTLE BIT LUMPY! -  A brief study of those 'Things' that don't sit too comfortably in our albums! We will all accumulate oddments amongst our collectibles that take a bit of thought as we seek to store them safely. I don't hope to have all the answers - but I do have a few items of the type that create grey hairs.

AUSTRALIAN CORONATION MEDALS 1937 - Just two of the scores of generic medals issued in Australia and other countries, within the old British Empire, to celebrate the Coronation of King George VI and his Queen, Elizabeth, on 12th.May 1937.

BANKNOTE ORIGAMI - An observation about the ways that banknotes were folded, to suit users' circumstances, in the days before wallets were readily available.


Issue 8. August 2011:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug11.htm

GRADING - At this time of year - our Australian Winter - it is comforting to sit in the warmth of our homes and, perhaps, indulge ourselves by playing with our favourite toys! Each year, I like to remind new readers of the pleasures - and pains - of accurate grading.

This month we will again reprise an older article and revise our expertise with grading local coinage from1910 - 1964.

MAILBOX - The Case of the Morgan Dollar. - Not quite up to Sherlock Holmes, but, a query from a lady in distress needed to be addressed.

CAVEAT EMPTOR! - Collectors need to be always alert when replicas start to appear in numbers. These are always filtering through the system - and the recent improvement in quality is creating concern. The manufacturers make no bones about it - they are serving a commercial demand, and, these are another item with which to make a living.  Unfortunately, their products often end up in collections - and, they can be mistaken for the real thing!

BELATED APOLOGY! - A belated sincere apology, and acknowledgement, are due to 'MASTERCAST' of Hobart for an incorrect attribution on an medallion illustration used several times during the last 5 years. We have only been recently advised, by renowned Tasmanian numismatist, Roger McNeice OAM, that it was actually 'MASTERCAST' who manufactured the impressive Harry Murray Commemorative Medallion, issued in 2006.

Thank You, Roger! The correct attribution has been recorded for future illustration instances.

ANOTHER MILESTONE PASSED! - Our July issue marked the completion of 4 years for the totally independent 'Numisnet World - Internet Edition.'   It is with some satisfaction that this milestone has been passed and that the privately produced publication has been well-accepted by our exonumatic and numismatic readers. The publication was formerly online under the permitted banner of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' for many years - and was seen as a 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society'  production even though it was privately funded and produced. We still enjoy excellent relations with the Society and will continue to work ethically with the T.N.S. Executive Committee and support them in their endeavours.


Issue 9. September 2011:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/sept11.htm

'ROBINSON CRUSOE' BANKNOTES - These lonely castaways are looking for numismatic companionship, but, they are easily forgotten and overlooked.

'THE ONES THAT GOT AWAY!' - We all rue the time when a 'treasure' slipped through our fingers because we just didn't have the means to put down the top dollar to bind the acquisition deal.

MODERN WIDE DATE COIN VARIETIES - These minute differences are hard to spot without some sort of magnification - but they are out there - and some collectors live and breathe 'varieties' - and are prepared to pay a premium for them. Worth a mention in any discussion!


Issue 10. October 2011:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/oct11.htm

THE SLIMMEST TWIG ON THE MONEY TREE! - A broad look at the intriguing world of exonumia. This is the fringe area of numismatics that either captivates or repels many collectors because of the sheer diversity of items involved. However, we need to look at it - to better understand its fatal attraction.

MISCELLANEOUS MYSTERIES! - BANK NOTES (Part 1). Another brief study of some slightly mysterious numismatics - or , at least, those items worthy of a second look! Let's start with a few international bank notes from the not too distant past....!

NOW ... IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS?! We will try to assist - within our capabilities! - our readers with their queries, so, please, treat our free Q & A section with a little kindness, patience and respect - and, spare the spurs!  We are not professional valuers or dealers - and, we are certainly not infallible.


Issue 11. November 2011:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/nov11.htm

MISCELLANEOUS MYSTERIES - BANK NOTES (Part 2). Continuing our brief study of some slightly mysterious banknotes.

TREASURES FROM THE SOUTH PACIFIC - 'THE PA'ANGA of the TUPOU KINGS of TONGA'. A decrepit and grubby old Tongan 1/2 Pa'anga note with a missing corner - (that I needed to cross my fingers when I graded it at 'about Good') - was given to this writer at a Coin Fair 2004. It  was the start of my interest in notes from this vast oceanic region of the world.





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Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.


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