‘NUMISNET WORLD’


Volume 19 Issue 5    Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)     May 2014


'NUMISNET WORLD'

INTERNET EDITION

Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2014.

COPYRIGHT.

The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.

 

All or any prices quoted in articles in this free newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the authors' own collection - or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' -  Internet Edition © 1991 - 2007.  and the  'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition. © 2007 - 2013.  

Krause-Mishler (KM) Standard and Specialized World Catalogs (also including 'Pick' banknote numbers) - and McDonald and/or Renniks Australian catalogue numbers - are used where applicable.

*Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes.)

 

Please, also, consider my conditional invitation, to make a literary contribution, if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest - and fulfils our stated editorial guidelines. As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in additional presentation. However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication. 

We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has necessitated the following conditions.

If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagiarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbyist collector.  - G.E.P.

 

PLEASE NOTE - RE-STATED DISCLAIMERS:

Where on-line web-site Links or addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith - however, our readers are advised, that, if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.

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CHINA

THE MODERN ERA (Part Two)

By Graeme E. Petterwood.

 

The Krause publication, "Standard Catalog of World Paper Money" lists over 50 issuers of paper currency in the Chinese national section of its catalogue - dating  from the time of the demise of the Empire until the present day. Such a plethora of issuers makes it extremely difficult - almost to the point of a deterrent - to arrange a meaningful chronological order of Chinese notes for any would-be cataloguer.

 

In 'Part One' of this article, about the modern era of Chinese banknotes, we covered the period from 1911 until 1944 - and we now resume to view the changed face of this mighty, but previously diverse, nation as it emerged from the rigours of WWII and faced an even longer-lasting challenge to its traditions and aspirations.

 

Lead by General Chiang Kai-shek (1886-1975) - who had formed the Nationalist Army with assistance from German allies during the 1930's era (just as the Communist Army was also building its forces) - it had been inevitable that the resulting collision of ideals would be dramatic and violent.

The 'Long March' of 1935, which was undertaken by the Communists into the hinterland of China to save annihilation at the hands of the Nationalists, was a retreat of epic proportions.  In those days coinage was widely used.

*This is an event in world history that our readers should be aware of.

 

The successful military resurrection of the Communists, and the idea of forming a new nation - the People's Republic of China - occurred over a decade later - in 1947 - and, along with it, came the idea of a reformed paper currency after the chaos of the previous 30 years.  Lead by their late iconic leader, Mao Zedong (aka Mao Tse-tung), the new force in China had one great advantage - it could eventually have the opportunity of consolidating the money-issuers into one - if they came to power!

 

The People's Bank of China had its roots set in 1947 - and, by December 1948, it had absorbed several banking organizations in Northern China areas under its military and political control.

As the national climate was also rapidly changing, by virtue of the Communist's military successes, and the political persuasion of the masses that was taking hold in the North-Eastern part of China by mid- 1949 - the transition would soon be complete - but it would come at an enormous price in lives..

However, there was still stiff resistance by Chang Kai-shek and his Nationalists forces, during early 1949.

*The fighting retreat of the Nationalists from the mainland to Taiwan (Formosa) and its surrounding islands  - is another facet of Chinese history that needs to be remembered.

 

The Central Bank of China (Nationalist) issued notes - known as 'Yin Yuan' currency -  from One Cent, 5, 10, 20 and 50 Cents.  Larger denominations were from One Silver Dollar - 100 Silver Dollars, and they were issued to cover demand in stipulated areas still under Nationalist control at that time:-  Chunking, Tapei, Tsingtao and Canton et al..

During this time, some issues of Circulating Bearer Cashier's Cheques for Gold 'Chin Yuan' currency, with high values from 50,000 - 50,000,000 Yuan, were being issued by The Central Bank of China for their Shanghai and Changchung branches in areas also still being held by the Nationalists.  It was the last fling of a collapsing system!

 

1949 - THE CENTRAL BANK of CHINA SILVER DOLLAR NOTES

One Silver Dollar denomination (KM#441)

(Printed by the 'Chung Hua Book Co.')

 

On 2nd. September 1949, the People's Bank of China had actively started to withdraw all of the diverse currency of the private and national banks and branches that had fallen firmly under their control by this time, and the People's Republic of China had started to issue their first cohesive national currency.

Except for the shattered remnants of the former Nationalist Government - and its supporters who had fled the mainland for armed sanctuary on the island of Taiwan (Formosa) away from immediate persecution - the victory was complete and the building of a new nation and a new version of the monetary system commenced.

The active involvement of a belligerent China in the Korean War, on the side of the Communist North Koreans during the late 1940's, ostracized the nation from the rest of its Asian Pacific neighbours and the majority of European countries who were members of the United Nations.

For obvious economic-based material reasons, China needed to be accepted once more by the rest of the world - but, it was some years before China was actually allowing visitors from avowed democratic countries to visit, mainly for business purposes, and, even then, the availability of Chinese currency to visiting foreigners was initially limited to 'Foreign Exchange Certificates' in exchange for 'harder currencies'..

The Chinese are a practical people and will compromise when it is for their greater good - so the nation consolidated into a Communist state - but, of its own peculiar design.

 

PEOPLE'S BANK OF CHINA

 2 Fen - featuring Aeroplane (showing both serial number variations) (KM#861b and KM#861a)

5 Fen - featuring Cargo Ship (KM#862b)

(Generic reverse with denomination in appropriate colour)

 

The early Communist regime paper currency was not represented in my collection until the 1990's, when I received some People's Bank of China low value notes and some Foreign Exchange Certificates.

The notes, dated 1953, were for very small change:- Two Fen and 5 Fen. (see above).

The 2 Fen had a slight variation - one lot (KM#861a) had Roman numerals with a serial number - and another issue that same year had only Roman numbers; (KM#861b).

These notes had a generic-style reverse, and showed the various low denomination values that had resulted from a major currency reform that occurred that year. The old Chinese Yuan was revalued at 10,000 to one new Renminbi Yuan - which, in turn equalled 100 Fen or 10 Jiao. The term 'Renmin' can be seen on currency notes.

 

The Foreign Exchange Certificates, dated 1979, issued by the Bank of China, were for 10 Fen (KM#FX1), 50 Fen (KM#FX2) and One Yuan (KM#FX3). (These Certificates also had a generic-style reverse as shown at top of scan.)

The highest values available in this series were for 50 and 100 Yuan.

These, normally, tightly-controlled Certificates were usually exchanged with visitors for their foreign currency - and it was a way of controlling the international fiscal policies established by the regime and the undesired spread of foreign currency within the population. Authorised Chinese Foreign Exchange Certificate currency was the only medium of exchange allowed by visitors at that time in history - I'm not sure of the current situation in 2014.

This particular series of Certificates (above) was discontinued when a new issue, dated 1988, came into being.

Certificates that are not commercially used or surrendered - (those paper 'souvenirs' that escape from China with returning travellers) - become valueless outside of China and an event referred to as 'seignorage' takes place.

It's like buying an expensive ticket to the Olympics and then not using it - so the organizers make a small profit at no real cost .... except for the sliver of paper and a little bit of coloured ink!

 

The quality and diversity of Chinese currency has improved immensely over the last 30 years or so - and, from typical Communist 'workers unite' styles of 1962, 1965 and 1972  - the note artistry has also undergone a change.

 

PEOPLE'S BANK OF CHINA - Various Renminbi Currency series.

1962 - 1 Jiao (KM#877c)  ..... 1965 - 10 Yuan (KM#879) ..... 1972 - 5 Jiao (KM#880c)

Notes now feature the portraits of the ethnic people of the Republic - both the young and old - the beautiful and enthusiastic - the work weathered, as well as the old who have carried the mantle during the last 70 years. The 1980 series (below) shows some of this wonderful population diversity.

 

 

 1980 SERIES ISSUE

One, 2 and 5 Jiao with ethnic reverses - plus 5 & 10 Yuan notes also featuring geographical features.

(KM# 881, 882 and 883 - plus KM#886 & 887)

 

1990 SERIES ISSUE (KM#884b)

One Yuan - featuring ethnic Chinese women as the obverse - and a section of the Great Wall of China as the reverse.

 

1999 SERIES ISSUE (KM#895)

One Yuan - featuring the late, iconic modern leader, Mao Zedong as the obverse, and a water feature as the reverse.

Several denominations in this series were issued bearing Mao's likeness.

 

Meantime, despite occasional freezing and thawing attitudes - moments of violence and skulduggery - the decades old unresolved situation between Communist and Nationalist China still exists with military awareness always paramount..

Until the mid 1990's, the Republic of China administration persisted with their Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek  portraiture on Yuan currency produced by the Bank of Taiwan.  In recent years, a more modern approach has been adopted with greater scope in subject matter.

 

BANK OF TAIWAN - REPUBLIC OF CHINA

1972 - 100 Yuan (KM#983)

*Some of the Bank of Taiwan issues, produced in the 1960's, for use on other major islands in the group (Quemoy and Matsu), featured a vertical format in similar style to old mainland pre-1949 issues.

 

The 21st Century is now into its 14th. year, and Australia is hoping to forge stronger economic relations and bonds with the acknowledged giant of the Asian-Pacific region. If this relationship prospers, we will probably see more People's Republic of China currency gracing the numismatic dealer's shelves as the odd leftovers of a visitor's business deal - or a pleasure trip -  find a new home away from home!

 

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THE INDIVIDUAL COLLECTOR'S VIEW.

THE "A - Z" of PAPER MONEY!

(Part Two)

In the first instalment of this analysis of my own accumulation of paper money, I selected a few examples from the past and present list of countries that had probably been overlooked in preference to the more 'popular' nations of the world. Now, at this conclusion of the article - I have made another small selection of similarly neglected states whose banknotes are sometimes relegated to the 'also-ran' category.

These were the 'everyday' pieces of currency of countless people in many diverse cultures, and most of these notes are battered and well-worn from personal handling. What marvellous stories they could tell!

In time, I intend to feature more of these - 'not as fragile as they look'  - wonderful pieces of paper. They are not always attractive to look at - some are extremely functional.

 

*In our April newsletter, I featured a group of Confederate States of America notes in our 'A - Z' article.

 I have since noticed that I had used an old catalogue, and had also omitted to add, several of the the sub-item letters to the Krause-Mishler numbers to define the notes more clearly. Here are the full corrected details:

1862 - CSA$5.00 - 51d,  CSA$10.00 - 52j,  CSA$XX (20) -53c.

1864 - CSA$2.00 - 66c,  CSA$10.00 - 68q,  CSA$50.00 - 70b.

 

Reference:- Krause Mishler "Standard Catalog of World Paper Money'

(Please note the illustrations are not precisely to scale.)

 

N - Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Indies, New Caledonia - (Noumea), New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway.

O - Oceania.

P - Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal.

Q - (*Qatar & Dubai)- Qatar now has a dedicated currency. I have not a sample available at this time.

(Dubai has been using United Arab Emirate currency notes for some time.)

R - Romania, Russia.

S - Scotland, Serbia, Seychelles, Siberia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, South Russia, South Vietnam, Spain, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Sweden, Switzerland.

T - Tahiti (Papeete), Thailand, Tonga, Transcaucasia, Trinidad & Tobago, Turkey.

U - Ukraine, United Arab Emirate (UAE), United States of America, Uruguay, Uzbekistan.

V - Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam

W - Western Samoa.

X - (*No national names begin with this letter.)

Z - Zimbabwe.

 

BANQUE DE L'INDOCHINE - NEW CALEDONIA (Noumea)

N.D.(1944) Five Francs (KM#48)

Noumea is the capital of a group of 25 islands known as New Caledonia located 1207 kilometres to the east of the Australian continent.

During WWII, Australia and the American Bank Note Company (ABNC) printed various value notes to be used in Noumea and other areas after French money supplies were cut off when France capitulated under the Nazi occupation in Europe.

This Australian printed example of a Five Franc note was one of the notes in that range.

 

BANQUE DE L'INDOCHINE - NOUMEA

N.D. 1951-63 Twenty Francs (KM#50c)

Typical 'colonial' note overprinted with a South Pacific area name and issued by the French Government after WWII. 

Various signatures & titles are evident.

 

NOUVELLE CALADONIE - TRESORERIE DE NOUME

1942 -1943 Emergency issue 50 Centimes - BON DE CAISSE. (KM#54)

Emergency notes of Fifty Centimes, Two and Twenty Francs were printed in Noumea and issued from July 1942 - June 1943.

 

    

INSTITUT D'EMISSION D'OUTRE-MER  - (NEW CALEDONIA) - NOUMEA

1969 100 Francs (KM#59)

Another typical 'colonial' issue from the French Government for use in the South Pacific region.

This 'generic' 100 Francs note was overprinted with the appropriate name for its intended area of use.

 

INSTITUT D'EMISSION D'OUTRE-MER  - (TAHITI) - PAPEETE

1969 100 Francs (KM#23)

 

CENTRAL BANK OF PARAGUAY

1952 - One Guarani (KM#193a)

featuring a Soldier as the obverse - Legislative Palace as the reverse. Variations of this 'soldier' note has been issued from time to time.

 

Issued in 1919, by White Russian forces in the South Russia control area under the leadership of General Anton I. Denikin (1918-20) and General Peter Wrangel (1920), the State Treasury Notes of 1000 Rubles (KM#S424a) were printed in Odessa, and elsewhere, from captured printing plates. Some other notes in other areas  were designed and printed in Great Britain and Sweden.

SOUTH RUSSIA.

Authorized and issued by controlling White Russian Armies during 1919-20

The Bills of Exchange of 5000 Rubles (KM#S419d) were printed in Simferopol, and elsewhere, the same year.

The initial letter of the serial number gives the printing location (refer Krause's SCWPM - Volume One - Special Issues)

 

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES CENTRAL BANK

N.D. (1982) - 10 Dirhams (KM#10)

Featuring Arab Dagger and an overprinted Coat-of-Arms as the obverse - Terraces with trees as the reverse.

 

BANK OF UZBEKISTAN

1992 - 25 SUM (KM#65)

At the dissolution of the former Soviet Union into independent member states once more, various forms of coupon currency appeared, in the short tem, to facilitate business. These 1992 Uzbekistan coupons with Coat-of-Arms obverse and mosque reverse are typical of the type of note that was in circulation for a short while until regular currency was established.

The 'generic' notes ranged from One, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 SUM.

In 1994, the Central Bank of Uzbekistan started issuing a reformed currency (One New SUM  = 1,000 old SUM in Coupons) with the introduction of a fairly basic pictorial series from One - 200 Sum. 

 

MONETARY BOARD OF WESTERN SAMOA

N.D. (1980) - One Tala (KM#19)

featuring Weavers as the obverse - Canoe with fishermen and the National flag as the reverse

 

CENTRAL BANK OF SAMOA (Western Samoa)

N.D. (1990) - 2 Tala Polymer note (KM#31c)

featuring Head-of-State, Malietoa Tanumafili II, as the obverse - Samoan family scene as the reverse.

 

This concludes the banknote oddments selection for the May issue of the newsletter.

In due course, further 'Cinderella' notes will be extracted from my vaults - for viewing and a brief discussion.

 

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PERFECT PRESENTS BY POST

... and the POKIES

On the way to a milestone Birthday Party for my eldest daughter on Friday 11th April,  I decided to check my mail box at the local Post Office/Newsagent before the agency closed for the night.

I also checked my Lotto and found I had won a couple of very small dividends - the total was under AUD$30-00 !

Occasionally, as a safeguard and convenience, some parcels - and the odd letter - that may belong to other family members turns up there - and I deliver it or advise. In this instance there was some mail for on-forwarding - and, as I was seeing almost everyone in my close family that evening, I grabbed the bundle of unopened mail, shoved it in the car's glove-box, and took it with me.

As I arrived at the party venue early, I sat in the car-park and shuffled through the envelopes.

I found an advice advising me that a deposit of over AUD$200.00 had been made on my behalf from a share dividend.

I opened another envelope - and there was a cheque for a little over AUD$54.00 - also an interim share dividend.

 

Imagine my even more pleasant surprise when I found one more - slightly bulkier - envelope from my old 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' mentor and friend of decades, Founder and President - Roger McNeice OAM  -  who had recently attended the World Money Symposium and Fair in Singapore.

The contents were carefully packed in a protecting corrugated cardboard sleeve - there was no accompanying  note - just a brief message scrawled on the sleeve -  in 'a thumbnail dipped in tar' (well - a marker-pen!)

GRAHAM

(Roger always spells my name this way - no matter how much correspondence I have sent him over the last 23 years)

SINGAPORE NEW $1

MULTI METAL FOR YOUR COLLECTION

ROGER

 

2013 Singapore uncirculated Bi-Metallic $1.00 coins

 

A thoughtful pair of gestures indeed - THANK YOU, ROGER!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

 

A NOTE FROM

PRESIDENT R.V. McNEICE O.A.M.

OF THE

'TASMANIAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY'

Thanks to Mr. Peter Kingston,

the new meeting place for the Society will be at the:-

 'CIVIC CLUB'  at 134 Davey Street, Hobart.

Meetings commence at 6.30p.m. on the last TUESDAY of EACH MONTH.

(The new facilities are absolutely splendid.)

At 7 pm at each meeting night, a light supper – snacks - will be made available at a cost per member of AUD$5.00.  

Members will also be able to use the BAR facilities.

The Society will also be able to hold conventions, displays, fairs etc. at the same venue.

(The future for the Society now looks very good.)

 

"Please pass the word around to other collectors who may wish to join us!"

 

Also, as 'Final Notices' have now been issued - we wish to remind those members who have not paid their Annual subscriptions :- 

As from May, defaulting members will NOT be able to participate, at future T.N.S. meetings unless arrears are paid in full - and, only if reinstatement of membership has been granted - by the T.N.S. Executive Committee - in due course.

 

Kindest regards
Roger McNeice OAM

PRESIDENT

 

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

PARTY POSTSCRIPT!

 Launceston's 'Country Club Casino'  provided a 'great select your own' smorgasbord meal in their friendly 'Links Restaurant' venue, and - of course - the family company was grand and jovial for my daughter's 'Big Birthday Bash'

They even provided a delicious birthday Chocolate 'Mudcake' with a candle....

 

 

It was a wonderful night out - particularly -  as I more than paid my way with winnings I made from a couple of 'flutters' on the pokies. 

Of course, I gave some of it back to help the local economy - but, I had enough to buy a couples of nice Hawaiian Pizzas on the way home. .

 I admit, it's rarity for me to come from the 'Cas' with any 'poly-vinyl' still in my wallet - but, HEY! -  I was definitely on a roll!

 

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COIN SHORTAGES

and

The American Colonies.

 

Australia wasn’t the only British colony that was caught up in the London Home Office’s years of reluctance to commit a sufficient amount of official coinage to enable colonists to establish a little financial stability in their market places.

The American colonists also suffered from the same lack of English coins as the Australians and also had to make do with tokens and a mixture of coinages obtained from passing trade ships or bought direct from commercial manufacturers.

In a similar effort to clarify the exchange problem they also issued a Table of Coins - however they were obliged to cater for differences within the individual colonies, all of whom had independent governments at that time.

(Values shown in Pounds, Shillings & Pence)

 

                                         England.      Philadelphia.    New York.

v       English Sixpence            0    0   6           0   0   9                0   0   9

v       English Crown                0    5   0           0   7   6               0   8   0

v       French Crown                 0    5   0           0   7   6                0   8   0

v       Guinea                            1    1   0           1 14   0                1 16   0

v       Spanish Pistole               0  16   0           1   7   0                1   9   0

v       French Pistole                 0  16   0           1   6   6               1   8   0

v       Moydore                         1    7   0           2   3   6                2   6   0

v       Half-Johannes                1  16   0           2  17  6                3   3   0

v       Johannes                         3  12   0           5  15  0                6   6   0

v       Doubloon                         3    6   0          5   8   0                 5  16  0

v       Spanish dollar                 0    4   6           0   7   6                0   8   0

v       Pistereen                         *    *   *           0   1   4                0   1   6

 

By inflating the values, it meant that it was improbable that coins would be ‘exported’ back to their countries of origin where they did not have the same buying power - thus the action achieved the purpose of keeping the coinage in the colonies.

This practice of inflating the values of the more useful silver coins, in particular, was termed “crying up”, and each of the 13 new American colonies were guilty of “upcrying” their silver coins as the mood struck them.

 

1804 - 'Spanish' 8 Reales (minted in Mexico) .903 Silver

featuring the bust of Carolus (Charles) IIII

 

The coin that bore the brunt during the small change shortage in the Americas was a coin well known to Australian colonists as well, the silver Spanish eight reales (or as it became called by the colonists - the Dollar - after the Dutch ‘daalder’, which itself was a derivative of the German “thaler’) - (see above)

 

Spanish 8 Reales (or Dollar)

showing various cuts used to facilitate the creation of 'small change' - valued usually by weight.

The Spanish dollars, which were gradually finding their way North from Mexico and Peru through the Bahamas, were usually well worn or underweight from clipping, but they were made from good quality silver, about 420 grains of .9350 fine, and, therefore, very acceptable in places where the demand for silver far exceeded supply.

To alleviate the lack of small change, the dollar would, sometimes, be cut into smaller pieces.

The most useful cut for local commerce was that of 8 pieces, or bits, each bit being 1 real which equalled 12.5 cents - thus 2 bits was equivalent to a Quarter dollar.

Prior to 1642 the value of the Spanish dollar was 4/6 (54 pence), in June of that year the price was ‘upcried’ to 4/8 (56 pence) and three months later, to 5/- (60 pence).

In 1682, just before the minting of silver coins ceased in Massachusetts Bay colony, which had been producing a 72 grain shilling (compared to the British sterling coin of 92.6 grains) since 1652, to try and keep the ‘silver’ coinage in the colony, the Spanish dollar was ‘upcried’ again by over 22 percent and was valued at about 6/- (72 pence).

By 1692 it was 6/2 (74 pence) and by 1705 it was 7/- (84 pence).

Other silver coinages were also dragged up in value during this time of ‘upcrying’, even the British sterling coinage - enough to create concern amongst British exporters and merchants who were finding it difficult to sell their wares to colonists who would rather keep their locally over-valued silver.

 

In response to these concerns, Queen Anne (1665 -1714) issued a royal proclamation that came into law in 1707 when the English Parliament decided to ratify that the Spanish dollar would be valued at 6/- (72 pence) in the colonies, and that any other silver coins could not be traded at any more than 33 percent above the English Sterling rates for the equivalent coin.

The Americans conscientiously ignored the proclamation in most colonies, except Virginia, until after the Revolutionary War - although rates stabilised to some extent in 1759 with the Table of Coins.

From the start of American colonisation, enterprising people were importing copper and silver tokens and making unofficial coinage to try to offset the official reluctance to issue coin of the realm.

The first coins were minted by John Hull of Massachusetts Bay Colony after authority was given in 1652 by the General Court of Massachusetts.

Hull produced Shillings, Sixpences and Threepences from West Indies bullion with punches made by Joseph Jenks at his Saugus Iron Works. The original issues of coins were very simply stamped NE (for New England) on one side, and Roman numerals denoting value on the reverse, but eventually more elaborate designs, including the Willow, Oak and Pine trees series, were implemented to deter counterfeiters, and a two-penny coin was added to the range. All coins between 1652 -1682, when the coinage was abandoned, are dated 1652 although we know from the records that the Willow was issued between 1653 -1660, the Oak between 1660 -1667 and the Pine between 1667 -1682.

 

In 1659, Cecil Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore, inherited most of the colony of Maryland from his father and he ordered a very small amount of coinage from England, bearing his likeness and calling him ‘Lord of Mary’s Land’ (in Latin).

Lord Baltimore issued a Denarium (Penny), a Groat (Fourpence), Sixpence and a Shilling all showing his family coat-of-arms and values in Roman numerals on the reverses - however by 1770 most of his coins had disappeared from circulation and only a few patched up or holed examples are found today outside of museums.

There were many more issuers, both private entrepreneurs and officially sanctioned businessmen who made coinage for a price for the different colonies.

Mark Newby, from Dublin, brought ‘St. Patrick’ copper farthings and half-pennies with him when he arrived in America.

In May 1682 these coins were officially accepted as legal tender by the General Assembly of New Jersey.  (A small decorative brass insert above the large crown featured on the obverse could, in theory, classify these as early bi-metallics.)

A Royal Patent authorising a tin token ‘farthing’ to be produced under franchise, was granted in 1688 to Richard Holt and was the first issued for the British colonies in America.

Known as ‘American Plantation Tokens’, these nearly pure tin tokens were issued as 1/24th. part Real - based on the Spanish 8 Real or Dollar coin.

 

Another patent to make tokens for Ireland and the American colonies was obtained, from King George I, by Englishman William Wood, who issued half-pennies, pennies and twopences bearing an American rose on the reverse and the monarch’s head as the obverse.

The first twopence issue was undated but subsequent issues in other denominations were from 1722 -1724 and a final issue released in 1733, three years after Wood had died. However, these tokens made from 75 percent copper, 24.7 percent zinc and 0.3 percent silver were not popular and were rejected by the colonists.

Many of Wood’s Irish farthings and half-pennies, dated 1722 - 1724, proved just as unpopular in the Emerald Isle and these ended up in America as well.

The list goes on and on, as each of the colonies endeavoured to address the coin shortages as best they could, by authorising tokens and ‘coins’ to be made locally, buying coinage and tokens from the manufacturers in London and elsewhere, and even utilising tradesmen’s tokens as legal tender.

 

The 13 original colonies of Virginia, Carolina, New York(e), New Jersey, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont, Kentucky, Maryland, Vermont and Pennsylvania were all active in their efforts to overcome the problem, but it would eventually be solved only years after they had became one nation.  

Some of the early efforts were beautifully designed and produced - but many others could only be described as ‘blacksmith’ issues. 

The Americans had to put up with this polyglot of coinage until 1787, when the first few decimal cents and half-cents, stating defined values, were manufactured in Massachusetts, and then, the famous Fugio Cents were authorised by Congress on Saturday, April 21st. 1787 and were coined, in New Haven, Connecticut, from copper bands that had once held French-supplied gunpowder kegs together during the Revolution.

Eventually the first United States Mint issues were produced by Robert Birch in 1792.

 

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'NUMISNET WORLD' - INTERNET EDITION

JULY 2007 - DECEMBER 2013.

Full details of 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  (2007)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm  -  (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec09.htm  -  (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2010)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec10.htm  -  (Volume 15 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2011)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jun11.htm  - (Volume 16 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec11.htm  - (Volume 16 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2012)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june12.htm  - (Volume 17 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec12.htm   -  (Volume 17 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2013)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june13.htm  -  (Volume 18 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec13.htm   -  (Volume 18 - Issues 7 - 12)

 

VOLUME 19 -  JANUARY, 2014 -

Issue 1. January 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan14.htm

HOW COLLECTORS FIND THE THINGS THEY COLLECT! - Sometimes 'Lady Luck' plays a part in how we collectors put together our accumulations.

A 'not-quite-random' phone call in mid-December 2013 put me in touch with another numismatic gatherer who was searching for information about some of his 'stuff'. A mutually beneficial exchange occurred - which gave me the chance of making another potential friend with a compatible interest  - and, as a bonus, I was also able to add a few pieces to my collection.

THE FACES OF MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATÜRK - A fast scan over a few of the portraits of Turkey's famous leader!

 

Issue 2. February 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/feb14.htm

TASMANIAN TRADESMEN'S TOKENS REVISITED 2014 (Part 1.) - This is one of those subjects that are treated as essential reading for collector's of our local tradesmen's tokens. Readers and collectors have now access to several excellent sources of literature - but, a general nudge may encourage a newcomer's start on a long journey into this intriguing facet of numismatics.

 

Issue 3. March 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar14.htm

CHINA - THE MODERN ERA (Part 1.) - The giant that is - CHINA - awoke during the early part of the 1900's and flexed its muscles. This two part article cannot cover the political upheaval and agony of China as it found its feet and strode into the modern era. We will touch gently upon some of its more modern numismatic history in an effort to stay reasonably contemporary with how it is all developing.

TASMANIAN TRADESMEN'S TOKENS REVISITED 2014 (Part 2.) - The continuation of the reprise of the story of Tradesmen's tokens in Tasmania. This part covers the north of the island.

THE CHANGING FACE OF MONEY! - Over the last two decades there have been some momentous changes to international currency and coinage with the overwhelming onslaught created by electronic technology now that the 'BITCOIN' has materialized in tangible form.. However, political changes have also played a decisive part with new states appearing and some old ones disappearing.

 

Issue 4. April 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/april14.htm

ANZAC DAY 1915 - 2014 - The Allied landing at Gallipoli. on 25th. April 1915 is again commemorated by this newsletter.  As Editor, I have been somewhat selfish by honouring my Great-Uncle Fred Fox for some years. From reading various records, I feel that the story of this one man's war  - a period of 4 years and 198 days on overseas service - was probably a typical example of the experience that thousands of other Australians had as well! 

AN INDIVIDUAL'S VIEW - THE "A - Z" - OF PAPER MONEY! - There are notes that sometimes get overlooked in favour of the 'pop' selection from major nations. This thumb-nail literary sketch - with a few pictorial examples - allows us to fill in some of the gaps between A - Z . As space and time permits, we will feature a few more!

 

Issue 5. May 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/may14.htm

CHINA - THE MODERN ERA (Part 2.) - The inscrutable face of China changed dramatically after WWII with the rise and rise of the Communist regime. Chinese resolve and practicality kicked in and now the giant has stirred economically and the world will never be the same as it was 50 years ago..

PRESENTS by POST...and the POKIES - plus a PARTY POSTSCRIPT - Indulge me a little as I relate a few personal poppets from early April!

AN INDIVIDUAL'S VIEW - THE "A - Z" - OF PAPER MONEY! (Part 2.) - The conclusion of the A-Z of the editor's accumulation of world banknotes.

A selection of illustrations of not-so-well-known national notes.

COIN SHORTAGES and the AMERICAN COLONIES - Like Australia and other English outposts of past eras, the fledgling American colonies had problems with the shortage of specie at the everyday level - They also did what they had to do to concoct a supply of small change!

 

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'NUMISNET WORLD'

(INTERNET EDITION)

COPYRIGHT.

The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.

 

The 'NumisNet World'’ (Internet Edition) newsletter has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented free on a monthly basis with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics. Whilst the 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter abides by the same basic guidelines originally suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter, it is a separate, independent publication.

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, email or hand delivered, directly to financial members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions.

All titles and matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society

 

Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.

Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Editor. 

ALL comments in linked articles are the responsibility of the original authors.

Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, any Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations -  or  - (2) To provide additional important information. 

 

Some illustrated items - including their designs and packaging -  may be subject to existing copyright restrictions.

In such instances, they may not be replicated or their images reproduced or republished - unless prior permission is sought from, and given by, the originator, owner or licensee of such item, design or packaging.

 

PRIVACY PROTECTION

The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter complies with the Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act.

Under this act, information about individuals can be stored and published only if: the information is already contained in a publicly available document or if personal information has been provided by the individual to whom the information relates, and if that individual is aware of the purposes for which the information is being collected.

All information published by the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter is either publicly available, or has been voluntarily provided by writers, on request from the Editor of the ''NumisNet World'  (Internet Edition) newsletter.

While the ''NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter may hold writers' addresses and other details for the purposes of communication and copyright protection, it will never make such addresses or details available to any member of the public without the permission of those involved.

The 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter also respects the privacy of our readers. When you write to us with comments, queries or suggestions, you may provide us with personal information including your contact address or other relevant information. Your personal information will never be made available to a third party without permission.

 

DISCLAIMER

All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned. 

The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. Deadline for any literary contributions, or amendment to copy, is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication.

 

The Editor,

Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.

Australia.

Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

Email: pwood@vision.net.au

 

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