Volume 11 Issue 3                                 INTERNET EDITION - Established 1996                               March 2006

The name 'Tasmanian Numismatist' is used with the permission  of the Executive Committee of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' however, any comments published in this privately produced newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society', its Executive Committee or its members. Bearing in mind our public disclaimers,  the Internet links selected by the authors of this  newsletter are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations and, (2) to provide additional important information. 

Any notices of concern to 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' members will be included in the 'Society Snippets' section.

We trust that this issue of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) newsletter will continue to provide interesting reading.




Anyone who wishes to apply for membership to the non-profit making organization, and who is prepared to abide by the rules of the Society and its aim of promoting the study and enjoyment of the hobby of numismatics, should contact the following address for an application form and details of subscriptions: 



Tasmanian Numismatic Society.

G. P. O. Box 884J

Hobart. 7001.



Our T.N.S. Secretary, Chris Heath, wishes to thank those members who have promptly replied to his invitation to add their names to his email address book.  As all our Committee are non-paid volunteers, the use of this technological method is going to help Secretary Chris and others by saving some of their valuable private time. It will also save our Society's limited funds - which come from Members' annual subscriptions - the majority of which are used up each year in the purchase of printing materials and the cost of maintenance occasioned by having to keep our rather mature copier in working order, and of course, the envelopes and postage.

The use of email will get essential local information to you far quicker than previously possible - and any urgent replies back to the Secretary - when required.

If members do have email access and haven't, as yet, made it known to the Secretary, please do so - he can be emailed at: misteeth@bigpond.net.au

As Chris will be away for a well deserved holiday this month, he asks that anyone who wishes to contact him can do so through his email address.


It is with deep sorrow that we have cause to offer our sincere condolences to Chris Heath on the recent passing of his dear mother on Monday, February 13th. 2006. Mrs. Phyllis E. Heath (nee Newman) was in her 87th year.

She was the last surviving daughter of Phillip and Elsie Newman (both dec.)

Phyllis was the beloved wife of Fred (dec.), mother of Jenny (French), Chris and Phillip. She was the mother-in-law of Barry, Judy (dec.) and friend of Marion and Di. She was the loved nan of Kristina and Trevor, Heather and 'Tubby', Mandy, Kat, Anna, Bianca and great gran of Ashley, Emma, Olivia, Joshua, Samantha, Sara, Dayna, Taylah and Brandon.

Mrs Heath was privately cremated on Friday, 17th. February, 2006.


Those of us, in the North of the state, who had the opportunity to know Mrs. Heath, will appreciate the life of this respected, well-known, intelligent and articulate lady. Recently, time had started to take its toll, however, and she was currently living in care at Aldersgate Nursing Home after moving from her own home at Mowbray in Launceston late last year.


As Chris will be out of the country as this newsletter is published, any T.N.S. members or readers who wish to add their condolences may do so by leaving an e-mail at his address shown above, which he will be periodically checking, or contact the Editor who will pass them on.



by Graeme Petterwood © 2005


Remember - be astute when you are handed change - not all the wonders of numismatics have been discovered yet - and they don't have to be shiny and new! This edition again features an assortment of  'trivia' that I think is of interest and I trust it will prove educational and entertaining to you as well. 

All or any prices quoted in articles in this newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Please note that the photoscans of numismatic items are usually not to size or scale, but - wherever possible - they are from the authors' own collections or the extensive picture library of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition.



In fact, the Kreuzers of Austria, the Kroner of Denmark and the Kopeks of Russia are just a few of the wonderful names that once resounded across greater Europe to describe the coinage or currency of times past.

The older the European country, the more likelihood that the names of monetary units will have changed over the centuries.

These days, many European nations are using the Euro system which most of our readers will already be familiar, however, if we concentrate on one of those three nations we started with - Austria - as an example, and then touch on the others in our next few editions, our small tour should be of some interest. In this article I propose to briefly roll some of the Austrian coin names around my tongue once more - and, if I have something available to show, I will include a few scans of some of my more appreciated pieces from a rather average collection of world coins.

The coins I have are not pristine or valuable, nor particularly old  - they just appeal to me as a reminder of what once was.

The period from 1700 - 1800 is a reasonably good time frame to study and you will note certain similarities in coats-of-arms due to the fact that nearly every Royal Family in Europe is/was closely related to each other.


Austria has had an interesting numismatic history and, prior to the gradual procession towards a uniform coinage, mints were located in Vienna (A), Karlsburg (GA), Kremnitz (B), Hermannstadt (HS), Klausenburg (KV), Salzburg (D), Graz (GR), Hall (HA), Mantua (GM), Gunzburg (H), Milan (M), Nagybanya (N), Oravicza (O), Prague (C), Schmollnitz (S), Venice (V) and Breslau (W) - various other mintmarks have been used

As you will note, several of the mints named are outside of what we now consider to be Austria - but we must remember our 19th. Century history.

The former, and lot larger, Austrian-Hungarian Empire was a group of formidable states ruled by a very powerful extended royal family, the Habsburgs (often written as Hapsburg) - and it had far-flung military, religious and financial influences in Central Europe and, its family connections, by way of  favourable marriages, also gave the Empire additional power in many Mediterranean areas, the Iberian Peninsula and even as far afield as places like Mexico. Refer: http://www.knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/Habsburg

Our interest is in the main Habsburg family line which commenced in 1657 with Leopold 1 (1657-1705) followed by Joseph 1 (1705-1711), and then Charles VI (1711-1740). The famous Austrian Empress, Maria Theresa, came to the throne in 1740 and, until 1745, she ruled alone, then from 1745-1765 with her husband Francis Stephen, the Duke of Lorraine, as her co-regent under the title of Franz I , then from 1765-1780 as a widow with her son Joseph II who co-ruled until 1780.  Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor


The Empress Maria Theresa had perpetuated the date of her widowhood by having occasional issues of Thalers struck dated 1765 and bearing the portrait of Franz. However, on her own death in 1780 another Thaler with her likeness was struck that proved popular as a trade coin and continued to do so into relatively modern times. This coin has a history of its own that goes beyond this article's scope but, for collectors of Austrian coinage. it should be known.

Refer: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/April2004.htm



Maria Theresa Thaler .833 Silver 1780 Resrike - produced in Vienna sometime between 1957 - 75

Reverse features the Habsburg Double-headed Eagle Coat-of-Arms.


Joseph had not been given much authority while his mother was in control but, after her death he devoted himself to the throne and continued on alone as emperor until 1790. At the death of Joseph, Leopold II was annointed but only reigned until 1792 and during his reign there were rumblings of civil unrest. When Franz II took control, order was restored and he reigned until 1835.

However, the unrest was still simmering and in 1848 -9 a short lived revolution took place and some 6 Kreuzers coins of heavily alloyed .428 and .438  Silver were produced without reference to the new Emperor, Franz Joseph I who eventually ruled from 1848 - 1916.



Francis II (Franz) .583 Silver 20 Kreuzers 1803 - minted in Vienna

1849 Revolution 6 Kreuzer .438 Silver - minted in Prague.



Franz Joseph .520 Silver 1/4 Florin - minted in Vienna 1848


The Habsburgs then held the Austrian Empire together until the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie (picture at left - just minutes before their assassination in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovinia on June 28th.1914) when they called upon their ally Germany, for assistance - and were eventually swept up in the horror of a world war and the ultimate defeat of the Alliance four years later - but that is another story that has already been told.

Refer: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/march05.htm

In the early 1700's the main low denomination basic coinage, Heller and Pfennigs, consisted mainly of Billon (an alloy of 90% Copper and 10% Silver) although some 2 Pfennigs of Leopold I were made in alloyed Silver.This low grade (a little over 50%) Silver was more often used for coins of  Kreuzer denomination and above, although copper Heller and  Kreuzers (and various other local denomination coins were also made) depending on the local state economy. Not all the Habsburg family extended royals were efficient managers.


Austrian Trade coinage in the form of .986 fine Gold Ducats and parts thereof 1/16, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 were available during this period - and, in some of the areas controlled by the Habsburg family, such as the Netherlands, copper Liard coins were also in the range - at the rate of 4 Liards = 1 Sol, and  20 Sols = 1 Florin and some  .919 Fine gold Half and One Souverain d'Or coins were made - at the rate of  7 Florins and 13 Sols = One Souverain.

Denominations were highly varied in the different Austrian states prior to the introduction of the unified system. Pfennigs were available in values of 1, 2 and 3 whilst the Kreuzers came in values of 1/2,  1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 15, 17, 20, 24 and 30. Unified metal composition was not a strong point during this eraa.

Thalers ranged from 1/12, 1/8,  1/4, 1/2, 1 and  2 with some size variations.

In fact, this is one country that the use of a good catalogue is absolutely essential - but, as a rule of thumb the basic table of values is as listed below.


8 Heller = 4 Pfennig = 1 Kreuzer, (3 Pfennig = 1 Groschen)

60 Kreuzers = I Silver Florin or Gulden,

2 Florin = 1Silver Thaler.


In the mid 1750's the coinage was revised and a loose 'uniformity was established across the Austrian States by regulating the coinage denominations to the Copper One Heller, Copper One Pfennig, Billon 1/4 Kreuzer, Copper 1/2 Kreuzer, Copper Kreuzer (although some Billon were made), Billon 3 Kreuzer (although some Copper and .346 Silver were made in the late 1790's), .438 Silver 6 Kreuzer (again some Copper in the late 1790's), .420 Silver 7 Kreuzer, .500 Silver 10 Kreuzer, .250 silver 12 Kreuzer, .563 Silver 15 Kreuzer, .542 Silver 17 Kreuzer, .583 Silver 20 Kreuzer, .250 Silver 24 and 30 Kreuzers.

Thalers were available in denominations of 1/4, 1/2 and One in .833 Silver - whilst the .986 Gold Trade Ducats were produced in values of 1/4, 3/4, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. A few odd issues were obliterated  as well as a few denominations - but it was still a substantial range of coinage. One of the hard to understand

matters regarding Austrian coinage is the constant variation of Silver content in their coins within the same time frame and within the same denomination.

The next major change in Austrian coinage would not take place until 1857 with another rationalisation of denominations.

The introduction of the Silver Vereinsthaler, which equalled 1 1/2 Silver Florins, was fairly short-lived and it was offset by the revaluing of the Kreuzers down to 100 = 1 Florin and a smaller coin, the Copper 5/10 Kreuzer, replaced the larger sized and heavier 1/2 Kreuzer - and even that was reduced in weight in 1877 and other denominations were produced in Copper.


1861 Copper 4 Kreuzer and 1862 Copper 1 Kreuzer - both minted at Kremnitz in Hungary


A further monetary reform in 1892 would finally bring Austrian coinage completely into the decimal system with 100 Heller = 1 Silver Corona, and this was a system that continued on until Austria's fell from grace after WWI. The current coinage range of names started to evolve after 1918 with the formation of the Austrian republic and the introduction of Bronze Kronen in 1923 at the rate of 10,000 = 1 Schilling and then Bronze 1 and 2 and Copper-Nickel 5, 10 and 50  Groschen rated at 100 = 1 Silver Schilling .The basic circulation Schilling, in denominations of 1/2, 1, 2, and 5 were Silver but their fineness varied from .640 up to .800 Fine and the 25 and 100 Schilling were both produced in .900 Gold until the onset of WWII.



1. Lesser Austrian Imperial Arms (1867 - 1915) (Image contributed to 'FOTW' website by Peter Diem*)

2. 1952 Aluminium Austrian 5 Schillings bearing the Republic Coat-of-Arms

Main References:

Standard Catalog of World Coins 1701 - 1800  by Chester L. Krause and Clifford Mishler, Colin R. Bruce Editor  (Krause Publications).

'Flags of the World' Website* Refer: http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/ah).html

Wikipedia Free Encyplopedia. Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coat_of_Arms_of_Austria



TO FOLLOW - The Kopeks of the Kremlin.




Many of our U.S. readers are collecting  the range of U.S. State Quarters as they become available each year. For those who are actively putting together the range of Quarters, we have updated the following check list with proposed issue program and the mintage figure information from the U.S. Mint as at December 2005.  Refer: http://www.usmint.gov/mint_programs/50sq_program/index.cfm?flash=yes&action=schedule





JAN 04 1999 DELAWARE  (DE) - Dec 07 1787 774,824,000      
MAR 08 1999 PENNSYLVANIA (PA) -  Dec 12 1787 707,332,000      
MAY 17 1999 NEW JERSEY (NJ) - Dec 18 1787 662,228,000      
JUL 19 1999 GEORGIA (GA) - Jan 02 1788 939,932,000      
OCT 12 1999 CONNECTICUT (CT) - Jan 09 1788 1,346,624,000      
JAN 03 2000 MASSACHUSETTS (MA) - Feb 06 1788 1,163,784,000      
MAR 13 2000 MARYLAND (MD) - Apr 28 1788 1,234,732,000      
MAY 22 2000 SOUTH CAROLINA (SC) - May 23 1788 1,308,784,000      
AUG 07 2000 NEW HAMPSHIRE (NH) - Jun 21 1788 1,169,016,000      
OCT 16 2000 VIRGINIA (VA) - Jun 25 1788 1,594,616,000      
JAN 02 2001 NEW YORK (NY) - Jul 26 1788 1,275,040,000      
MAR 12 2001 NORTH CAROLINA (NC) - Nov 21 1789 1,055,476,000      
MAY 21 2001 RHODE ISLAND (RI) - May 29 1790 870,100,000      
AUG 06 2001 VERMONT (VT) - Mar 04 1791 882,804,000      
OCT 15 2001 KENTUCKY (KY) - Jun 01 1792 723,564,000      
JAN 02 2002 TENNESSEE (TN) - Jun 01 1796 648,068,000      
MAR 11 2002 OHIO (OH) - Mar 01 1803 632,032,000      
MAY 20 2002 LOUISIANA (LA) - Apr 30 1812 764,204,000      
AUG 02 2002 INDIANA (IN) - Dec 11 1816 689,800,000      
OCT 15 2002 MISSISSIPPI (MS) - Dec 10 1817 579,600,000      
JAN 02 2003 ILLINOIS (IL) - Dec 03 1818 463,200,000      
MAR 17 2003 ALABAMA (AL) - Dec 14 1819 457,400,000      
JUN 02 2003 MAINE (ME) - Mar 15 1821 448,800,000      
AUG 04 2003 MISSOURI (MO) - Aug 10 1821 453,200,000      
OCT 20 2003 ARKANSAS (AR)  - Jun 15 1836 457,800,000      
JAN 26 2004 MICHIGAN (MI) - Jan 26 1837 459,600,000       
MAR 29 2004  FLORIDA (FL) - Mar 03 1845 481,800,000       
JUN 01 2004  TEXAS (TX) - Dec 29 1845 541,800.000      
AUG 30 2004 IOWA (IA) - Dec 28 1846 465,200,000      
OCT 25 2004  WISCONSIN (WI) - May 29 1848 453,200,000       
JAN 31 2005  CALIFORNIA (CA) - Sep 09 1850 520,400,000       
APR 04 2005  MINNESOTA (MN) - May 11 1858 488,000,000       
JUN 06 2005  OREGON (OR) - Feb 14 1859 720,200,000       
AUG 29 2005  KANSAS (KS) - Jan 29 1861 563,400,000       
OCT 14 2005  WEST VIRGINA (WV) - Jun 20 1863 721,600,000       
2006  NEVADA (NV) - Oct 31 1864        
  NEBRASKA (NE) - Mar 01 1867        
  COLORADO (CO) - Aug 01 1876        
  NORTH DAKOTA (ND) - Nov 02 1889        
  SOUTH DAKOTA (SD) - Nov 02 1889        
2007 MONTANA (MT) - Nov 08 1889        
  WASHINGTON (WA) - Nov 11 1889        
  IDAHO (ID) - Jul 03 1890        
  WYOMING (WY) - Jul 10 1890        
  UTAH (UT) - Jan 04 1896        
2008  OKLAHOMA (OK) - Nov 16 1907        
  NEW MEXICO (NM) - Jan 06 1912        
  ARIZONA (AZ) - Feb 14 1912        
  ALASKA (AK) - Jan 03 1959        
  HAWAII (HI) - Aug 21 1959        

For those who are wondering why the release sequences of the Quarters are as they are, the reason is that the states are listed in date order of statehood.




The Confederate States of America Treaury employed many women within its workforce due to the shortage of man-power during the war between the States. Whilst many of the more established genteel ladies and their families stated that would rather starve than demean themselves by taking paid employment - there were many others who had no such qualms.

The more affluent, gallant and prominent members of Southern society had been the first to enlist - and many were the first to die.

Tragically, because of the horrendous slaughter that was occuring daily, many of their wives soon became 'well-educated widows from good backgrounds' with young families. As time rolled on and the economic burdens grew, and the wealth started to dry up, the putting of bread on the table was still a neccessity for those left behind and working for the good of the Confederacy, and accepting payment, offered them an honourable way to keep a portion of their way of life intact. The hours were long and the work was tedious to the extreme and they were envied, sometimes unfairly, but clerical work and writing skills were probably the only qualifications they had.


Within the CSA Treasury, raw materials such as good quality banknote paper and ink were in short supply as well as sophisticated printing presses, so economies were of the highest priority and much of the finishing and the handling of notes was performed manually. Notes which were lithographed or printed in close proximity to each other needed to be hand-cropped and the legion of young women were given the task of cutting the sheets apart and signing the notes on behalf of the Register and the Treasurer.

The average rate per clerk was 3200 notes during a working day that lasted from from 9.00a.m. until 3.00p.m. but records show that some more proficient teams managed up to 4500 each. The annual pay for female clerks in 1864 appeared to be quite high at CSA$3000 p.a. which was far more than a soldier's wage -  and they were paid in the ever depreciating paper currency that they had worked to produce. 

By December 1864 a female clerk's total annual wage of $3000 in paper currency would only buy the equivalent of $60 value at 1861 prices

Other women employed in manufacturing had it a lot worse financially but, at least, many of them had a skill they could call upon outside of the workplace to supplement their income without the currency restraints. By 1865, barter had become a way of life amongst the working class.



"The salary scale for female clerks reveals their social locationand influence as well. Privates in the Confederate army were paid $11 a month. In 1862 and 1863, by contrast, female clerks received $65. By 1864 the annual salary of women holding Treasury posts had risen to $3000 in the South's depreciated currency. These women were seen to be worth more than the Confederacy's ordinary fighting men and to have needs and expectations for special treatment that the Confederacy did not wish to gainsay. Clearly, too, they were regarded differently from most other females in national service. Ordinary women performed a variety of government work across the South. Seamstresses for the Clothing Bureau—3,000 to 4,000 of whom took in piecework in Richmond by the last years of war—made $1.00 for a shirt, $1.50 for a pair of pants, or $4.00 for a coat, which might take days to complete. In Augusta the 500 women employed by the Georgia Soldiers' Clothing Bureau made $6.00 to $12.00 a week. Arsenal workers in the same city sewed cartridges for $1.00 a day. Richmond's female ordnance workers, nearly 50 of whom were killed in an explosion in March 1863, confronted danger as well as low wages, and they organized to express their grievances in a strike for better pay. One supporter of their action saw clearly the differentiation the Confederate government made between these female workers and their well-connected and well-born counterparts. "Why is it that … poor women engaged in a perilous and hazardous occupation .. are denied a living compensation for their labour, when so many of the departments are filled with young ladies (not dependent on their pay) with nothing to do, at salaries equal to and, in some cases, better than the best male clerks in the different departments?"

Refer: http://uncpress.unc.edu/chapters/faust_mothersc4.html


Who were those people whose once bold, but now faded, hand-written ink signatures graced the thousands of Treasury notes of a soon to be doomed nation - a nation whose currency was to be defaced* by cut cancelling (shown below) and deemed worthless and eternally unredeemable by the victors, the United States of America?  The defacing of notes in this manner is so commonplace that  collectors treat it as a 'usual' phenomenon and it has little bearing on market value. The other form was the cut-out cancellation were a piece of the note was removed during the process - these notes are not as popular.

A few signatures, on notes in my own possession, that are still legible after 140 years appear to be -   Ball,  Hunter,  Smith, Taylor, Allen, Harper,  Veal,  and Cooper - but there are scores of others that were signed with elaborate flourishes that made them undecipherable.

They have achieved an immortality of sorts as we, who tend to collect obsolete currency, ponder on their signatures and perhaps even wonder a little about those persons who spent their days laboriously hand-signing those thousands of pieces of paper which have now become historical documents in their own right. Their family names are scattered throughout the old southern states and it would be great to be able to trace one or two individuals back to the CSA Treasury. These people were not politicians or generals - just human beings, like you and I, who had fallen on hard times.

They may even have been part of the old Southern aristocracy but, at the war's end, they had become a small and unimportant residue in the greater tragic scheme of things - and they would be forced into doing what had to be done, within their capabilities, to survive.

No doubt, there would be a list  somewhere of those who were involved within the CSA Treasury workplace in Richmond  but, from where I am sitting, it is nearly impossible to follow their fortunes after the war was lost - and that is a shame, as they have now been swallowed up by history.



 * Most of the extremely thin C.S.A. paper notes were put through a pressure 'cut cancelation' process which made the notes unusable as currency. Note the cross-shaped cuts on the face design of this CSA$20.00 note. (located on either side of the State Capitol building in Nashville, Tennessee)


Just as a last matter of interest, many fake or replica Confederate notes have been produced to cash in our this era of American history. There are Internet sites that give excellent advice about these phonies so take the time to educate yourself prior to buying CSA currency over the Internet. For instance, genuine notes were rarely signed with black ink - colours used consisted of brown, red and blue inks as a rule, and vivid coloured parchment note-paper was never used by the C.S.A. Treasury. Refer: http://www.rebelstatescurrency.com/reproductions.html



 T.N.S. member 363, Jerry Adams, Keller, Texas - submitted 11 February 2006.


"Collecting Confederate Paper Money"

by Pierre Fricke, edited by Stephen Goldsmith.

With contributions by Richie Self, Shreveport, LA.

This compendium of knowledge on Confederate paper money was published in 2005 in first edition.

Mr. Fricke is of Rye, NY, and his email is thus: pfricke@attglobal.net   and his website is thus: www.csaquotes.com


This long awaited treatise will be a 'must have' for any serious collector of Confederate paper money.

At 800 pages, and measuring a huge 11 1/4" x 9" x 2" (29 x 23 x 5 cms) and weighing a whopping 4 1/2 lbs (a little over 2 kgs), it is a mammoth compendium of knowledge that may leave you racing to the hardware store for extra bookshelf supports. Twelve pages of full color illustrations of each type of known CSA note type, and the remaining pages in black and white, and thousands of hours of diligent research have been invested in this book, which sells for US$49.95 plus $5.50 post within the U.S.. 

The book may be ordered through the website of the publisher, Smythe Publishing: URL:  www.smytheonline.com 

 I acquired mine at a coin show in Texas, where I was fortunate to have Mr. Richie Self, one of the major contributors autograph my copy.

Mr. Self is a noted authority on CSA paper currency, and is a most delightful individual.

The currency issues of the Confederate States of America are some truly beautiful paper notes. Each note depicts various scenes and noted southerners, and are all signed - as editor Graeme Petterwood has pointed out - by widows of CSA soldiers. The enormous number of spurious CSA notes, combined with the sometimes staggering prices brought by authentic notes, should pay for this book in a short time, if one is so inclined to collect this series.

I would highly recommend this book, as important, valuable, and worthy of any numismatic library as is borne out by others with a more intensive or specialised interest in CSA notes (see below).


The following is a review done by Steve Feller for the I.B.N.S. Journal:
"This is a superb book. Eight hundred pages in length it is chock full of new information on Confederate States of America bank note issues. The last major works on Confederate notes were the tenth edition of the Arlie Slabaugh, Confederate States Paper Money, published by Krause Publications in 2000 and the Grover Criswell, Comprehensive Catalog of Confederate Paper Money, published by BNR Press in 1996.  This book brings the state of our knowledge up a quantum as we approach the sesquicentennial of America's most important formative event.

In my opinion this new volume is superior to its predecessors.
The book is printed to a high standard and the color plates are of very high quality. The plates include an example of each of the Criswell Type notes as well as some color varieties. This new volume is a work of original research.  In particular, there is a large focus on varieties. 

Mr. Fricke expanded upon the original notes of the late Dr. Doug Ball.  In fact a new numbering scheme, PF numbered varieties, is introduced in this volume. Also, condition census lists are provided for the first time. For example the Type 16 notes have a listing for 17 varieties.

After the main listing there are detailed discussions of 9 of these varieties with 9 illustrations.  Further, the pre-catalog informational section is extensive and useful to the collector.  Each major Criswell Type is discussed at some length and then additional pages are allocated for the aforementioned many varieties within each type and the book is extensively illustrated.
On the whole this high quality book is a must for the paper currency collector as well as for buffs of the American civil war. "


Over the years, political 'Funny Money' has reached great heights or plumbed great depths depending from which side of a political fence you look at it from. One thing, of course, is that the few Australian examples shown below were designed to strike a chord with their viewers - even if you don't agree with the message - and perhaps they may still bring a retrospective smile or grimace to the face of those who remember the era. (Illustrations not to scale)

The following pieces of old paper were collected from various sources prior to 1996 and your Editor does not accept any responsibility for them, nor their satirical political content, except to consider that they are numismatically interesting as a legitimate collectible.

Just for comparison, official Australian decimal paper banknotes of the day are also shown.



c. 1985 - 1996 political 'Funny money'  Authorised by various opposing groups.






Pre- 1996 Australian Paper Decimal currency notes used as models for several political 'Funny Money' designs.




The 51mm Bronze medallion (shown below) was produced by Hafner Mint in Melbourne for the Murray Memorial Committee of Evandale, Tasmania.

It was one of the features that the Memorial Committee organised to celebrate the exploits of a real hero. His full story has already been recorded in other publications , including the Internet Edition, (extracts below) and in the biographical books titled ‘Mad Harry’ and 'Murray VC'.

As a member of the Royal Australian Artillery Association of Tasmania - Historical Wing and an ex-gunner with the 6th Field Regiment R.A.A., I had certainly heard of Harry Murray, V.C. and his early Launceston Artillery connections, but it was only just the ‘bare bones’ of the man - it was time for me to give him some more substance. The idea was initiated after a visit to Evandale’s Local History Centre some years ago  - mainly to check details of one of my own great-uncles from Evandale who also followed in Harry's footsteps - albeit less prominently.

A very pleasant ‘phone conversation with that very obliging local historian, former Lt. Colonel  C. David von Steiglitz - OAM, RFD, ED  of Evandale, who is currently Chairman of the Memorial Committee, made me realise that we were beholding before us a man who deserved all the military honours that had been bestowed on him.



2006 Hafner Mint 51mm Bronze Medallion celebrating the military explots of Lt. Colonel Henry 'Harry' William Murray (1880 - 1966)


On 24th February, a larger-than-life bronze statue of Lt. Colonel Henry 'Harry' William Murraya man larger-than-life - was unveiled in Evandale by Major-General Michael Jeffery AC, CVO, MC, Governor-General of Australia, also a returned soldier and a distinguished man of medals, who stated that he stood in awe at Harry Murray’s exploits, in horrendous conditions, under  fire during WWI.

The statue is of a steel-helmeted man frozen in the action of having just thrown a grenade and with a revolver in his hand. A dramatic sight.

Harry Murray became the most highly decorated soldier in Australia and the British Commonwealth and is claimed as Evandale's most distinguished son.

His awards consisted of the Victoria Cross (VC), Companion of the Order of St.Michael and St. George (CMG), Distinguished Service Order - and Bar (DSO), Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM),. Mentioned in Despatches 4 times (MID****) and the Crox de Guerre along with his entitlement of campaign medals - the 1914-15 Star, the War Medal, the Victory Medal, the War Medal 1939-45, the Australia Service Medal 1939-45 plus the King George VI Coronation Medal and the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal. He was also recommended for the American Distinguished Service Medal for his contribution in training American machine-gunners at the Front but the award process was never completed.

It is interesting to note that Harry Murray is not officially on the Tasmanian list of V.C. winners.

Born on 1st. December 1880, in a cottage at ‘Clareville’, where Launceston Airport now stands, Henry William Murray was the 8th. of nine children born to the wife of a farm labourer, the late Mr. E. K. Murray. The family eventually moved on to a property, ‘Northcote’, near the village of St. Leonards on the outskirts of Launceston, where Harry grew up and was well known as a young man. Harry’s grand-father had been a convict so it is evident he came from relatively humble stock.  Harry’s mother had been a former Miss Littler, and two of her nephews, Harry’s first cousins, would also distinguish themselves during the ‘War to end all Wars’!



Harry had moved to West Australia and found work in the timber industry as a Bushman, and it was there that he enlisted on 13 October 1914, at age 34 - although he gave his age as 30 on his Attestment form because he thought he might be rejected as being too old for combat.

He started out as a machine-gunner with 16th Infantry Battalion A.I.F. and 20 days after his unscathed Gallipoli landing, he and his best friend Percy Black had already been wounded by the Turks while maintaining their machine-gun under murderous fire - and he had been promoted to Lance Corporal.,.

Murray rose extremely rapidly through the ranks due to his own personal bravery and dedication to duty. On August 8 he was wounded again, and, on August 13 1915, he was promoted from Lance Corporal to Sergeant to Second Lieutenant in the one day of bitter fighting. and by March 1st. 1916 in Palestine he gained further promotion to Captain.

Along with other A.I.F. forces he eventually ended up in Europe fighting the Germans under the most terrible of conditions.  Shortly after his arrival in France, during mid-September 1916, it was reported in the ‘London Gazette’ that Captain Murray was again wounded twice, this time in the thigh and back.

In all, he was wounded 5 times during his great adventure, and on his Casualty Form - Active Service B.103 - a notation is said to have declared - ‘Unfit for further service’ - but it didn’t stop Harry, who just ignored it and went back into action.

He had actually turned 36 years old when he won the Victoria Cross, on 4/5th. February 1917, at Stormy Trench, which was N.E. of the village of Gueudecourt in France, and the following citation gives an insight to this gallant man’s actions that earned him the right to wear the V.C. with pride.

CITATION: For most conspicuous bravery when in command of the right flank company in attack. He led his company to the assault with great skill and courage, and the position was quickly captured. Fighting of a very severe nature followed, and three heavy counter-attacks were beaten back, these successes being due to Captain Murray's wonderful work. Throughout the night his company suffered heavy casualties through concentrated enemy shell fire, and on one occasion gave ground for a short way. This gallant officer rallied his command and saved the situation by sheer valour. He made his presence felt throughout the line, encouraging his men, heading bombing parties, leading bayonet charges, and carrying wounded to places of safety. His magnificent example inspired his men throughout. (London Gazette: 10th March 1917.)

He had an ability to bring out the best in troops under his command. and he became (affectionately) nicknamed 'Mad Harry' - it was said that his Company would follow him anywhere and die for him to a man.

Harry enlisted again during WWII and, by putting his age down once more, he was accepted - but he was ruled ‘not suitable for combat’, however, because of his record and his determination to serve, he was given a command in Queensland’s home defence units.

Eventually, he was discharged, on 8 February 1944, after being commanding officer of 26th Infantry Battion AMF and the 23rd Queensland Regiment, Volunteer Defence Corps, due to ill-health from the results of his WWI wounds.

Time had caught up with Harry but it didn’t slow him down much and he contributed much to Australia in his civilian capacity over many years

On 7th January 1966, in Queensland, Harry was a passenger in a car that was involved in a crash. He was taken to hospital where he suffered a heart attack brought on by the trauma and he died the same night. He was 86 years old.


Harry was an unassuming and  humble man - a genuine hero in the true sense of the word.. He often said that his 6 years of  training with the Launceston Artillery from 1902 – 8 gave him the discipline and sense of duty that he displayed throughout his military career and it is because of this connection, as a fellow Tasmanian ex-gunner, I salute Lt. Col. Harry Murray as our 'bravest of the brave' and I was honored to be invited to the unveiling of his statue.



Main References.

The Examiner ‘The Great War. The Anzac Tradition.’ Copy of article dated March 1917, (reprinted April 25th. 1989).

‘Tasmania in Focus.’ Southern Cross Television interview featuring local historian Mr. C. David Von Steiglitz. (1998).

Australian War Memorial. AWM on-line Internet site of V.C. winners.(Details originally extracted Jan.1999)

Mr. C. David von Steiglitz. Personal recollections and documentation. (Jan. 1999)

Various pamphlets - produced by the Murray Memorial Committee, Evandale 2006.






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