Volume 10 Issue 3                                                   INTERNET EDITION                                                          March 2005.

We trust that this issue of the Internet Edition will continue to provide interesting reading. The name of this Internet based newsletter is in keeping with the content so, bearing in mind our disclaimers, the Internet links selected are usually complimentary to the featured article in regard to: (1) illustrations and, (2) additional important information. Please also bear in mind that many Internet links are of a temporary nature.



Anyone who wishes to apply for membership to the non-profit making organization, and who is prepared to abide by the rules of the Society and its aim of promoting the study and enjoyment of the hobby of numismatics, should contact the following address for an application form and details of subscriptions: 


Tasmanian Numismatic Society.

G. P. O. Box 884J

Hobart. 7001.



The 'Tasmanian Numismatist' welcomes all our Tasmanian Numismatic Society members and other readers and hopes to bring you a broad range of numismatic entertainment, as well as a little education - and answer a few questions along the way. If you like our Internet Edition or have any positive comments about a particular subject we are always glad to hear from you!

We always encourage readers to contribute medium-sized numismatically based articles that may be suitable for publishing - so if you think that you may have something that fits this broad ranging category, please don't be hesitant in bringing it to our notice. Whilst we cannot promise publication in all instances we will certainly give it our sincere consideration and, if required, we can smooth off any rough edges and undertake editing on your behalf.



Jérôme Remick III

Jerry Remick III - T.N.S. Life Member # 112


It is with the deepest regret we announce that we have just received an email notice, from Claude Bernard of the Société Numismatique de Québec, advising us of the death of our esteemed Tasmanian Numismatic Society Life Member, Jérôme 'Jerry' Remick III of Ste- Foy, Quebec Canada, who was also Governeur of the S.N.Q.

Jerry had firstly been a correspondent, and then a member of our Society, for nearly 40 years. He was the inaugural winner of the Tasmanian Numismatist Editor's Award at its inception in November 1998 - a feat he repeated in 1999 and 2000. The list of his awards and achievements would take up a rather large bloc in any description about Jerry's life.

Jerry was also granted the first International Life Membership of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society Society, on 1st. July 2004, for the immense amount of literary contributions he had made and his unswerving support of the Society during those decades of service. He was a legend amongst numismatists around the world and was actively involved in many other clubs and associations as well as being a prolific author. Many of his Canadian books, in particular, have become benchmarks of excellence.

His death is a great loss to the international numismatic community as well as to our Society and the Tasmanian Numismatist Editor who had regular contact with him until his latest illness.

The members, and his friends, at the Tasmanian Numismatic Society, and the Tasmanian Numismatist, extend our sympathy to his collegues at the S.N.Q. and all of Jerry's relatives and friends world-wide.

"Juste un petit mot pour vous annoncer que Jerry Remick est decede. Nous venons de perdre le plus merveilleux numismate du monde."
Claude Bernard.
- Société Numismatique de Québec - (E-mail 1/3/2005)

"Nous pleurons pour Jerome avec toi!" - Membres et amis du 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society'





Due to circumstances completely beyond the control of the T.N.S. Committee, the A.G.M. was unable to be held due to the lack of an official quorum - and, unfortunately, time was not on our side to make other arrangements at such short notice. The A.G.M. will be re-advertised at a later date for a more convenient time for the many members who had a severe conflict of interests for this particularly busy social and business weekend.

The members' BYO - BBQ proceded at Tolosa Park as planned and those who were able to attend enjoyed a very pleasant outing indeed. An informal general discussion took place and, whilst reports could not be officially tabled, we learnt that our finances are still healthy at this time. Several other relevant points were raised which will now be added to the agenda for the next meeting.

We were advised by T.N.S.member Charles Hunt, that he has recently opened a Home-page which he is developing to cater for fellow collectors who may be interested in the currency of Tonga.  Refer: www.tongan-notes.info


T.N.S. members Charles Hunt and Chris Heath

Chris Heath, recently returned from a trip to New Zealand, reports he now has a perfect record for his marlin-fishing expeditions - 2 trips =  2 marlin.

(His arms weren't long enough to indicate the size of his catch and the obligatory fish photo had mysteriously 'disappeared' - but he did have several 'Export Gold'  promotional Dollar Notes.

Ummm ! - 'Export Gold' is one of the leading N.Z. lager brands, so I suppose some dubious members may well ask "Did he go to sea or was he all at sea?"





Surprisingly, a typograhical error made 12 months ago in regard to a Tasmanian Traders half-penny Token was not picked up by any of our local Tasmanian collectors but by Gerben Postma from the Netherlands who was seeking information about a few bits and pieces he had gathered over the last 40 years.

Gerben reported that he was already "packing his bags" for a holiday in Australia on the strength of my article - but thought he had better double-check with the web-site of our friends at  Australian Stamp & Coin Co Pty.Ltd. http://www.australianstamp.com/Coin-web/feature/numismtc/trtokens.htm and then contact me.

The half-penny token was one of the H.J. Marsh & Sons pieces bearing the image of an auxilary steamer and the words "To Facilitate Trade" inside a beaded rim and until he checked he had not known that it was the token bearing a milled edge that was the rare one - and I hadn't helped his excitement with my 'typo' error.

Refe articler: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/feb04.htm

My answer to Gerben's query, regarding the TWO different half-penny "To Facilitate Trade" tokens, was as follows:

"According to Dr. Arthur Andrews, the H.J. Marsh & Sons token that he numbered as A348 - with a milled edge - is quoted as Rare as only a few specimens are known - and probably would have paid for a good part of your 'holiday". The one that Dr. Andrews numbered as A346  - with the beaded rim is relatively common at Rarity 3 and might have got you to the airport by bus. (Page 68 - 'Australian Tokens and Coins' by Dr. Arthur Andrews 1921 - reprinted 1982)

Dr. Andrews wrote his book in 1921 and, since that time, several other major catalogue producers have re-numbered the tokens to suit their own needs or as other varities have been discovered (or dismissed) - which can make it difficult at times when a researcher is trying to cross reference, and it does leave the way open for the occasional error if one's mind is not completely on the job.  I was only firing on three cylinders at the time I wrote the article, it seems.

On checking, I must admit that the way I wrote the original sentence, left some scope for mis-interpretation as  I probably should have included the actual words - 'Rarity 3' - (after 'beaded rim')  for readers other that the numismatists and club members this newsletter usually targets.

The illustration below is of the beaded edge (which Andrews had numbered A346 and Rennicks has listed as R342) which I had inadvertently numbered A348 (R342)

Sorry about the holiday!!  My apologies - but still check the edge of the token you have you still might be lucky if you have a good specimen. The condition of the token is also crucial to its value.."


P.S. The answer I received from Gerben:

"Where can I buy a 19th century coin milling machine?"


A348 (should have read A346) Half-Penny n.d. 27mm with beaded rim ( - Rarity 3) and a variety with milled edge (A348) - Rarity 10

Obverse: As A342 - 345 but omitting street references.

Reverse: An auxilary steamship (MARSH  & SONS South African token reverse) central - HALF-PENNY TOKEN TO FACILITATE TRADE around within beaded rim.


(A342) (R341) H.J. MARSH & BROTHER n.d. Penny. Actual size 34mm.

 (A348) (R342) H.J. MARSH & BROTHER n.d. Half-Penny with MARSH & SONS reverse Size 27mm.

 This line should have read: (A346) (R342) etc. - Beaded Rim.



Marsh & Sons halfpenny token c.1870, South Africa  - Reference Catalogue - Theron C.7
Marsh & Sons were an import firm located in Burg St, Cape Town. Their attractive bronze token measures 27mm diameter approx. The obverse bears the legend MARSH & SONS IMPORTERS CAPE TOWN while the reverse bears a wonderful picture of a three-masted paddle-steamer with the legend HALFPENNY TOKEN TO FACILITATE TRADE. Theron describes this token as 'scarce' and adds that 'an Australian token with an almost identical reverse, the same paddle steamer device but issued for H.J. Marsh & Brother, Ironmongers, Hobart Town, is known. Presumably the Marshes were related, and obtained their tokens from the same manufacturer'.





by Graeme Petterwood © 2005

Remember - be astute when you are handed change - not all the wonders of numismatics have been discovered yet - and they don't have to be shiny and new!

This  edition again features an assortment of  'trivia' that I think is of interest and I trust it will prove educational and entertaining to you as well.

All or any prices quoted in articles in this newsletter, unless stipulated, are my estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Please note that the photoscans of numismatic items are not to size or scale and - wherever possible - are from the editor's own collection.


"From time to time, numismatic groups like to 'beat our own drums' by producing something unique, or different, to draw attention to the fact that we exist - or have something important we need to to 'crow' about."  Feb. 2005 Edition

Amongst my small collection of numismatic wonders are several national and international instances of 'beating our own drums' that I also would like to share with our readers - some of whom may even be able recognise the occasion or the memento. The selection of examples was purely arbitrary and, except for the Gaming Chip Collector's Club token, all items are from the author's own collection of gifts received over the last decade or so.



Fort Worth Coin Club (Texas) - Elongated U.S. Cent - 15th Annual Coin Show in Kahler, Green Oaks. Oct. 2 - 3, 1976.

1988 Medallion - Australia's Numismatic History 1788 - 1988 (37mm Nickel)


The Australia's Numismatic History medallion - featuring the 1823 Macintosh & Degraves Shilling, 1909 Taylor Pattern Florin and 1813 N.S.W. Dump - is from an unknown manufacturing source. They were  provided by M.R. 'Bob' Roberts of Sydney back in November 1997 at a Numismatic Symposium held in Hobart.

I have several of these that appear to be either Nickel or C.N., which is toning (but not as deeply as reflected in the scan), but I have seen a  44mm boxed version in .925 Silver offered for sale on one Internet site for about A$25.00  Refer: http://www.oldcoin.com.au/medals.htm

I would like a bit of history on the base-metal issue - if anyone has any.



Elgin Coin Club (Illinois) 500th Club Meeting Aug. 1st. 1999 (Heavy Card)

Casino Chips & Gaming Tokens Collectors Club - Organised 1988 (Plastic)


It was an honour to receive one of the limited "Good For" Dollar bills produced by the Elgin Coin Club exclusively for their members in 1999. Elgin is situated near Chicago, Illinois and well-known author, world traveller, pilgrim, and recently married, numismatist, Mike Metras claimed it as one of his home clubs. Mike has produced several CD's detailing all sorts of 'Money Matters' as well as 'Works and Words' and we have featured his travels in previous newsletters.

(His CD's are well worth consideration - his adventures in Ethiopia during a tour of duty there with the U.S. Army  is a fascinating insight. into a fascinating country.)

Refer: http://www.worksandwords.com/ if you would like more information.)



1993 Anchorage Coin Club (Alaska) 5th Anniversary Medallions (38mm. Silver & Bronze Proofs boxed pair)

1998 Anchorage Coin Club 10th Anniversary Medallions (38mm. Silver - with actual gold nugget inset - & Bronze Proofs boxed pair )


Back in 1996, when we first ventured onto the Internet with this newsletter, we happened to discover the Anchorage Coin Club of Anchorage, Alaska.

Over a period of time we established firm bonds and then officially recognised each other as 'sister' clubs. During the ensuing years we have exchanged gifts of national coinage and currency to enhance our knowledge of each other's country as well as numismatic articles for our respective Internet newsletters.

Unfortunately, A.C.C. discontinued the on-line ACCent newsletter, but after a recent conversation with an influential member, I believe that consideration is being given to its resurrection. We shall wait and hope........


In the meantime, as numismatists, we should not overlook the wealth of highly collectable items virtually on our own doorsteps. They may not all be made from precious metals nor even be attractively designed at times - but they are reminders that we 'are beating our own drum' and for that reason alone they can justify their importance. Even the wooden nickels, like those shown below, that were accepted as mementos of annual conventions or coin shows, have survived for over 2 decades or more and they tell the world that these coin clubs existed and were proud enough to leave a tangible record behind of an event that meant something to them. These sorts of coin club 'beat our own drum' issues are historical 'documents' in their own right - lets try not to forget that fact - so be proud to have them in our collections.


38mm. Wooden Nickels 1966 - 1977 from various U.S. coin clubs




We have written much about the Reichsbanknotes of Germany, during the period 1920-1924, but we must remember that Germany was a neighbour of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire which was ruled by the Hapsburg emperors/kings prior to that era.

The beginning of World War I (1914 - 1918) saw a coalition of Germany, Austria, Hungary and their allies Bulgaria and Turkey into the Central Powers that had formed with the express purpose of defeating the Serbian empire, and redress perceived wrongs, after the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.

At that time, the tensions in Europe and surrounds could be likened to a clock spring that had been wound to almost breaking-point.

Whether it was justified or not, the assassination of the Archduke and his wife, Sophie, gave the spring that final twist.

The fighting rapidly escalated and, eventually, the major nations of the world - and their allies - were all involved. It had become a World War.

The consequences for the Germanic coalition ended disastrously as history has shown.

At the Armistice, the Allied Powers of Britain, France, Russia, the United States - and every other country, small or large, that had contributed the slighest iota to the war effort - ensured the ruined countries of the Central Powers were then saddled with the crippling burden of total reparations.

As numismatists, most of us are aware of the phenomena of German and Austrian Notgeld and Inflation Currency which occurred between 1914  - 23, but the lead-up to these events is an interesting story in itself and for those who like more than a dash of history with our collectable cocktails, the following facts are for you!

The story of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, in Sarajevo is recorded elsewhere in considerable depth but a reprise of a condensed story published in the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (September 1997) is probably  in order to help set the scene for this article.



by Graeme Petterwood. © 1997

Each year on August 5th., some of us are aware that another anniversary has passed since the start of the 'War to end all Wars', known by its few surviving participants as 'The Great War' or by history as - World War I - a sad indictment of those other conflicts that have since followed.

This conflict had escalated from events in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovinia on June 28th.1914, when the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand - heir apparent to the Hapsburg Empire, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess von Hohenberg, gave Austria-Hungary their long awaited excuse to declare war against Serbia, which they did on the 28th. of July 1914.


Franz Ferdinand and Sophie


Born in Stuttgart on March 1st. 1868, into a Czech family of low nobility, Countess Sophie Chotek von Chotkova und Wognin worked as a lady-in-waiting for Archduchess Isabella in Pressburg (now Bratislava - Czechoslovakia).

When bachelor Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, was in Pressburg to visit the Archduchess and her family, he caught a glimpse of lady-in-waiting Sophie, fell in love with her at first sight, and began to call on her - instead of either of Isabella's two eligible daughters.

Sophie was immediately dismissed when the archduchess discovered the reason for Franz Ferdinand's visits and, because of her background and lowly status in the order of things 'royal', she was also rejected by Emperor Franz Josef, of the House of Hapsburg, as being unsuitable for any permanent relationship with the Archduke.

Franz Ferdinand had been third in line for the Austrian throne, but had become the heir-apparent after the deaths of the Emperor's only son, Crown Prince Rudolf in 1889 (by suicide, with his 16 year old mistress), and then Franz’s father, Archduke Carl Ludwig (the Emperor's younger brother) in 1896.

However, by 1899, Franz Ferdinand was so deeply in love with Sophie that he persisted with his entreaties to his uncle, Emperor Franz Josef for permission to marry her.

Eventually, after Franz Ferdinand swore a 'morganatic' oath to the Emperor that his heirs would not claim the line of succession to the throne and Sophie would not assume to her husband's title, the royal permission was granted.


When they married on July 1st. 1900, the Emperor granted Sophie a very minor Austrian title, 'Princess of Hohenberg', to allow her to be accepted at court, but protocol meant that Sophie could not ride in the imperial coach with Franz Ferdinand, or even attend functions with him until all the other higher ranking ladies of the court had entered and been announced first.

Prior to his marriage, the Archduke was known as 'the loneliest man in Austria' and was regarded by many as 'completely lacking in charm and elegance', so it came as a surprise that Franz Ferdinand and Sophie enjoyed a happy, loving marriage and home life.

However, things were difficult at court for Sophie, where she was regarded as little more than a foreign 'commoner' by the other ladies so, as each of their three children were born between 1901 and 1904, the couple became more reclusive except for official duties. (Picture: - Franz and Sophie with two of their children, Sophie, and Max.)

In 1905, the Emperor mellowed a little more and proclaimed that she would, in future, be known as 'Serene Highness', the Duchess von Hohenberg', thus elevating Sophie to a position more in suiting with her husband's rank.

A further elevation was made in 1909 when Sophie was granted the title 'Duchess, Highness ad Personum' and she was allowed the privilege of being addressed as 'Highness', but she still not on a par with her husband, nor could she accompany the Archduke in his vehicle, as this would have been a breach of royal etiquette that the Austrian Emperor would not have tolerated.


In June 1914, Sophie and Franz Ferdinand, who was the Inspector General of the Army, took their fateful trip to Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia, to inspect army manoeuvres, even though the Austrian government was warned by the Serbian Minister to Vienna, Jovan Jovanovich, that there was an element of risk because of dangerous political unrest, involving the Serbian 'Black Hand' organisation, which secretly included many military, political and professional leaders.

Jovanovich was not particularly welcome amongst Austrian diplomatic circles so he chose to advise a friend, the Minister of Finance, Dr. Leon von Bilinski of the warning which, in fact, had originated from Serbian Prime Minister Nicholas Pasic, who did not wish to be directly linked because of his position.

The warning was deliberately vague and low-key as the Serbian Prime Minister knew that the likelihood of diabolical repercussions would be forthcoming against him, personally, if the 'Black Hand' and the other extremist nationalist groups ever became aware that he had acted against their parochial interests.

Serbia and Bosnia, at that time, were seething hot-beds of intrigue, with many groups of murderous political and religious extremists fighting, plotting and counter-plotting amongst themselves!

Between 1910 and 1914 there had been six attempts against the lives of other lesser Hapsburg nobles and dignitaries, and many dozens of other ill-conceived and aborted schemes. The archduke had once said, 'Everywhere one is in God's hands.......Fears and precautions paralyse one's life. To fear is always a dangerous business.'....... I must go to Sarajevo. The soldiers would never be able to explain my absence.'

Despite Sophie's feelings of unease, and after consultation with the advisors, the decision was made, by the couple that they would go on the inspection tour to give them a chance to celebrate their 14th. wedding anniversary on 1st. July, away from the protocol-strict atmosphere at court, and to act 'imperial' by riding in the same vehicle together for a change!

On the morning of their arrival in Sarajevo, June 28th. 1914, the Archduke briefly inspected the troops at Philipovic camp and then, at 10.00 a.m., his motorcade proceeded into the city for the official greeting by the Mayor and other dignitaries.


The Procession Incident.

The six automobiles containing the Hapsburg noblemen created some panic among the meagre 120 poorly briefed local police and detectives, who were far out numbered by the crowd, during the 4 mile processional drive. There were no troops lining the route to assist in crowd control as there had been on previous visits by the Emperor Franz Joseph, even though 70,000 were stationed at the camp just outside the city.

This was partly due to the fact that the Archduke, being known as a brave man, didn't like to show that he was perturbed enough, by a rumour, to ask for a show of force during his visit.  On previous occasions he had been warmly received by the Bosnian officials, because of his views regarding re-unification and independence, and the crowds had always welcomed him with cheers, so, even though 4 years had passed since the last Hapsburg visit, the Archduke felt that he had no reason to expect their attitude to him would have changed. However, the depth of political ill-feeling to the Austrians, by the Slavic subversive groups, had not been truly assessed by his advisors who had received the vaguely worded threat passed on from Dr. von Bilinski.

As the procession neared the city, an agitated young man in the crowd along Appel Quay, which borders the River Miljacka, asked one of the harassed policemen to point out the car containing the imperial pair.

Immediately, he produced and hurled a hand-grenade directly at the Archduke and Sophie!

In his panic, the bomber had acted too hurriedly and the sound of the percussion cap being struck violently against a nearby lamp-post to arm the bomb, alerted Count Franz von Harrach, who was riding on the running board, and the car driver, Franz Urban, who quickly accelerated forward as he saw the grenade flying through the air.

The Archduke, also reacted quickly - he threw his arm up and deflected the device away from Sophie and onto the folded down top of his car, from where it bounced into the street, then exploded, near the third car in the procession behind them, as they surged forward.

This abortive bomb attempt was made by a member of another anarchist group, called the Young Bosnians, who had been trained in Serbia and then smuggled back into Sarajevo by the 'Black Hand'. Several of the group were suffering from tuberculosis and  were considered 'expendable' on a suicide mission. All were issued with a bottle of cyanide poison and a revolver, some were also armed with percussion stick-handle hand-grenades.

The name of the would-be assassin was Nedeljko Cabrinovic, a poorly educated, sickly, quarrelsome, unemployed and naively idealistic young man, and his explosive resulted in 20 people being injured.

Miraculously, the imperial couple were relatively unhurt except that Sophie was slightly grazed on the neck by a fragment from the hand-grenade.

Cabrinovic had swallowed his poison after throwing his grenade, and then jumped into the river, but the 'out-of-date' poison only made him sick and the river was only a few inches deep. He was caught by the crowd and arrested.


The Fatal Decision.


Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie arriving, with General Oskar Potiorek, and leaving Sarajevo City Hall after the first attempt on their lives.


On their arrival at City Hall, the furious Franz Ferdinand said, 'Mr. Mayor, one comes here for a visit and is received by bombs! It is outrageous!'

As the Archduke paused for breath, the Mayor, Fehim Effendi Curcic, who had been riding in the first of the cars with the Police Commissioner, Dr. Gerde, immediately launched into his address of welcome, either unaware of the events that had occurred behind him, or so nervous that all he could do was to continue on with his planned speech!

As the royal couple recovered from the initial shock, they were assured by General Oskar Potiorek, military governor of Bosnia, that security had been tightened and nothing else could happen. The Archduke demanded that Sophie be taken to safety, but she refused to leave his side!

They bravely decided to continue on with the tour to the Sarajevo Museum and then lunch and rest at the Governor's residence, with the Archduke also asking if they could possibly detour to the hospital and visit one of their injured officers, Lieutenant Colonel Merizzi, who had received a serious head wound.

Merizzi, travelling in the third car, had been the officer in charge of organising the motorcade and his absence, and the lack of a competent replacement, proved to be a crucial part in the problems that were to arise.

Due to the confusion caused by the bombing attempt, and then, with the lack of communication and co-ordination, the information regarding the new return route to be taken by the entourage was not passed on to the car drivers.

The Deadly Wrong Turn.

As they drove back from City Hall and turned onto Franz Josef Street, which was on the original plan to take them to the Museum, General Potiorek called urgent instructions to the driver that he was taking the wrong street and they should be continuing along Appel Quay.

When the car braked, backed up and stopped to turn, it put them directly alongside a section of the crowd that contained, coincidentally, another Young Bosnian gunman, their chief assassin and best sharp-shooter, Gavrilo Princip.

Princip was another sickly, idealistic youth who had been recruited by Major Tankosic to assassinate anyone of note, to achieve their ends - and, as the Imperial visit had recently been announced in the Bosnian press, the Archduke was the ideal opportunistic target!

Tankosic, the local leader of the 'Black Hand', had supplied the Young Bosnians with the explosives and pistols on orders from the chief of the secret society, Colonel Dragutin Dimitrijevic Apis - who also happened to be the chief of the intelligence department of the Serbian general staff.

Apis had been aware of the shaky relationship, complicated as it was, that had been slowly developing between Serbia and Vienna, as well as the knowledge that Franz Ferdinand had been formulating a radical plan to create a stable 'trialism' to unite the three groups that made up the factions in Austria-Hungary, Bosnia and Serbia, but even though the plan had met fierce opposition by the vested interests in all countries, the Archduke had been pushing ahead with it.

Apis, who wanted an independent Slav motherland - with Serbia as the most privileged state, had vowed to stop it!

Coupled with a long festering power struggle with Prime Minister Pasic, who had suspected him of an attempted coup d'etat and treachery on several other occasions - but could not prove it - Apis hoped that any serious diplomatic incident, involving the Austrians, would 'spite' Pasic and topple him from his position, in fact, he did not even believe that the assassination plot would succeed!

Franz Josef Street.

Realising that the bomb plot had failed, Princip and a few other conspirators, armed with their Serbian supplied pistols, had re-positioned themselves back along Appel Quay, on the chance they might have another opportunity to carry out the assassination on the Imperial couple's return journey.

Princip had wandered over from Appel Quay and had been in Moritz Schiller's food shop in Franz Josef Street buying a sandwich, and was chatting with a friend outside when he spotted the car heading in the wrong direction, then stop- not more than 5 feet away from him. It was the 'once in a lifetime' opportunity, and he seized the moment!

Princip fired two quick shots from a Serbian Army issue .38 Browning pistol at the couple's open car as he struggled with a policeman, who had seen him draw his weapon, but couldn't stop him in time. It is believed that the action of Princip's unknown friend - who had held the policeman for a vital moment- gave the assassin just enough time to complete his task! After the shooting, Princip tried to shoot himself but was restrained, he also managed to take poison, but like his accomplice, Cabrinovic, he too was only violently ill. He was rescued from the fury of the crowd and arrested.

His photo, taken after his capture, shows the obvious signs of his treatment by the crowd.


Sophie Dear!

Archduke Franz Ferdinand was hit in the right side of his neck and mortally wounded, his jugular vein severed and his spine shattered.

Sophie was dying from internal bleeding, after being shot by the first bullet that had been fired, which penetrated the right-hand car door, pierced her corset and right side, and lodged in her stomach.

She remained conscious for a few moments, sitting upright, staring at the blood pouring from her husband's mouth and down the front of his light-blue uniform jacket, and said, "For Heaven's sake! What's happened to you!" and then she slumped down in the seat.

They were her last known words as Potiorek, who was seated in the front of the car, turned and tried to hold her up, in the belief that she had fainted, unaware for a few moments of the magnitude of the terrible event that had happened. Potiorek had seen Princip fire his weapon, but thought he had missed.

The Archduke knew Sophie had been shot and, as he struggled to keep alive, his last words to her were, "Sophie dear! Sophie dear! Don't die! Stay alive for our children!"  Count Harrach who was struggling to stem the flow of blood, overheard the final conversations and, then, the Archduke repeated, "It's nothing!" several times before lapsing into unconsciousness.

Their driver, Franz Urban, with the blood-soaked Count Harrach still on the car's sideboard, immediately accelerated back across the Lateiner Bridge and sped the unconscious pair to the Governor's residence, but by 11.30 a.m. both Franz and Sophie were dead from their terrible wounds.

The Archduke and the Duchess were both found to be wearing gold and platinum talismans and amulets, containing holy relics and lucky charms and coins, around their necks to protect them from evil.

Even in death, protocol meant that Sophie's coffin had to be set at a lower level and be less elaborate than Franz Ferdinand's - and it was only by direct intervention by the Emperor, himself, that the two coffins were even allowed to lie side by side in state.

Again, because of this strict protocol, the Duchess could not have been buried alongside her husband in the Hapsburg's Capuchin Crypt in Vienna, so, united forever in death, they were eventually buried in the crypts of the chapel of Franz Ferdinand's castle at Artstetten. Neither the Emperor or the Kaiser attended the funeral.

They were survived by their children, Sophie (13), Maximillian (12) and Ernst (10) Hohenberg.



Because of many peculiar circumstances involving both Serbian and Austrian military in the event, there was a great amount of speculation that the situation was more than a senseless murder planned by the 'Black Hand' and carried out by a few Young Bosnian extremists.

With high ranking political and military involvement suspected, blame was being laid on everyone's doorstep, so the chief of the Austro-Hungarian general staff General Franz Conrad von Hotzendorf took the opportunity to pronounce that the assassination had been planned by the Serbian officials.

He wrote, 'This is not the crime of a single fanatic; (the) assassination represents Serbia's declaration of war on Austria-Hungary! If we miss this occasion, the monarchy will be exposed to new explosions of South Slav, Czech, Russian, Rumanian, and Italian aspirations.......Austria-Hungary must wage war for political reasons!'

Previously between January 1913 and June 1914, von Hotzendorf, who had been Franz Ferdinand's right-hand man, had advocated war against Serbia on no less than 25 occasions, but had been held in check by his leader's more moderate attitude.

With his fiery speeches of righteous indignation, and now with apparent justification, the General was listened to by the other army chiefs, and the decision to declare war was made in early July, even though results of the investigations, and details of the arrest of the main conspirators involved in the incident, were still forthcoming from Sarajevo.

At first the invasion of Serbia and Bosnia was going to be made without warning, but Hungarian Prime Minister, Count Stefan Tisza had some scruples about such a rash decision, and persuaded the Austrians to go through with the formality of an ultimatum then the declaration-of-war - after the Austro-Hungarians had secretly upgraded their state of readiness.

The declaration was made in a telegram, delivered by a postman, at about 1.00 p.m., to the Serbian Prime Minister Pasic, as he had lunch at the Hotel 'Europa' in Nish, a town in central Serbia. At first the telegram, plus other telegrams reportedly received in Belgrade from Vienna, was thought to be part of an elaborate hoax, until the Austro-Hungarian guns opened fire on the capital, while the Prime Minister was still waiting on confirmation from more official sources!

Within days, the fuse that had been lit at Sarajevo had reached the point of no-return and the world was plunged into a conflict that would directly claim over 28 million lives.

Australia, as an ally of Great Britain, was soon involved, and of the gross enlistment in the A.I.F. of 416,819 our casualties were 60,284 deaths and 152,171 wounded.



Princip showed no remorse at his trial in October 1914, and his final statement was one that denied that anyone else had been involved in the plot,

'The idea arose in our own minds, and we ourselves executed it. We have loved the people. I have nothing to say in my defence.'

Cabrinovic, however, was tearful and commented, 'We have profound regrets....we did not know that the late Franz Ferdinand was a father.'


Duchess Sophie, Archduke Franz Ferdinand with their children Ernst (1904 - 54), Max (1902 - 62) and Sophie (1901- 90)


Both Princip and Cabrinovic escaped the death penalty because of their age and were sentenced to 20 years in prison. At the time of the incident Princip was just about 20 y.o. and Cabrinovic was 19. Princip died of tuberculosis of the bones in the Theresienstadt prison hospital in April 1918 and Cabrinovic died of tuberculosis in January 1916.




Sarajevo, June 28, 1914 - An Internet article by Michael Shackelford.

History of World War I. Editor-in-Chief A.J.P.Taylor. - Published by Octopus Books Limited. London. 1974.

The Balkan Causes of World War I - Refer: http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/balkan_causes.htm

Recommended Reading

Assassination at Sarajevo - Refer: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWassassination.htm - (many additional links)




As the war progressed to encompass all of Europe by 4th. August 1914, great demands were placed the economy of the German Empire which had actively encouraged their allies, the Austrian-Hungarians, to declare war on Bosnia and Serbia. The hoarding of precious metals, including coinage, quickly became a ‘fact of life’- even up to corporate levels. Prussian Kaiser, Wilhelm II, and his hierarchy, had decided that it would be quicker and more economical to print paper notes or adapt existing or unissued currency than use up any of the metals needed for the war-machine. The Hapsburg emperor, Franz Josef, had virtually no option but to follow suit and make the coalition financially binding as well as combining their military might..

During the 1916 - 18 issue period, both Austria and Hungary used some the same notes ranging from 1, 2, 5, 25, 200 and 10,000 Kronen  with Austria using the low Block Numbers and Hungary the high. Some Hungarian denominations, printed in Budapest, also incorporated a Series letter and number and were held over from release until 1919. All notes issued under the authority of the Austrian-Hungarian Bank were bi-lingual.

After the war, the same system continued on for a few years in an effort to utilise existing resources and to rationalise a chaotic financial situation.

In 1919 and 1920, two series of slightly earlier Austro-Hungarian banknotes were overprinted with a German-Austrian authority stamp and re-issued. They ranged from 1, 2, 10, 20, 50, 100, and several different old 1000 and 10,000 Kronen notes but the overprint stamps were not shown with a re-issue date and some had a additional handstamped message added later "Note Echt - Stempel Falsch" ("Note genuine - overprint forged")

Evidently, the value of the note had been updated with the overprint and some enterprising Austrians tried to take advantage of the situation - or get rid of their older notes before they became worthless - so they added their own overprint. This was just at the beginning of the hyper-inflation period for the former Central Powers.




German-Austrian Green 1919 O/P (Pick # 49) on 1916 Austrian-Hungarian 1 Krone banknote (Pick # 20)

German-Austrian Green 1919 O/P (Pick # 50) on 1917 Austrian-Hungarian 2 Krone banknote (Pick # 21)


German-Austrian Red 1919 O/P (Pick # 61) on 1902 Austrian - Hungarian 1000 Kronen banknote (Pick # 8)

There are several o/p variations with this note. This one has a II Auflage (2nd issue) and block and serial number in Red.

During the war, a system of metallic tokens and notgeld was introduced into circulation, and, like the Austrian and German Governments, many of the small rural or semi-rural councils found that it was far easier to use a printer to make the notes than to go through the costly process of obtaining suitable metals and then making ‘coinage’. Soon the practice became widespread throughout the Hapsburg Empire, with many businesses also printing their own notgeld , also known commonly  as gutschein, as the official metal coinages disappeared rapidly from the banks and the pockets of the public. Even after the Great War was over, the practice of issuing notgeld continued because of the hyper-inflation that had built up in the defeated German - Austrian Empire, when it was forced to pay the crippling compensation payments in hard currency, for it’s ‘aggression’. Austria followed Germany in having hundreds of sources of Notgeld - Gutschein when official currency became virtually worthless. At a local 'self-contained' level the buying power of these notgeld retained their buying power a little longer than the legal national currency.




Austrian Gutschein (in Heller denominations) issued by the Municipalities (Gemeinde) of Pernau, Grünbach bei Freistadt and Gainfarn

Reverse text usually confirms the municipal authorisation and issue date - and the time span that the value of the Gutschein is redeemable.



Austrian imperial issue Bronze 2 Heller coin 1913 (dia. approx 19mm)

The Austrian Heller was worth 1/100 of a Krone at that time.


In 1921, a series of Hungarian Branch offices of the Austrian-Hungarian Bank issued Treasury notes ranging from 1000, 5000, 10,000 and 100,000 Kronen and, in 1922, the Austrian Government made its first issue of 1, 2, 10, 20, 50, 100, 1000, 5000, 50,000 and 100,000 Kronen.

During the inflationary period 1922 - 1924, notes with values of 10,000, 100,000, 500,000,1,000,000 and 5,000,000 kronen were issued by the Austrian Government.






Austrian-Hungarian Bank low value Banknotes issued 2nd. January 1922

2 Kronen - Uniface reverse (Pick # 74), 10 Kronen - ornate Floral reverse (Pick # 75) and 100 Kronen- ornate Floral reverse (Pick # 77)


On 2nd. January 1925, a major monetary reform took place and the Groschen and Schilling replaced the Heller and Krone with one Schilling equalling 10,000 Kronen.

Austria had became an independant republic in 1918 - but these were turbulent times and they would eventually lead Austria into another disastrous coalition with Germany's Dritte (Third) Reich in March 1938.



Standard Catalog of World Paper Money (Vol. 2) - by Albert Pick. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer, Editors

A Guide and Checklist of World Notgeld 1914 - 1947 - by Courtney L. Coffing (1988)




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