Volume 9 Issue 3                                                    INTERNET EDITION                                                          March 2004.

We trust that this issue of the Internet Edition will continue to provide interesting reading. The name of this Internet based newsletter is in keeping with the content so, bearing in mind our disclaimers, the Internet links selected are usually complimentary to the featured article in regard to: (1) illustrations and, (2) additional important information. Please also bear in mind that some Internet links are of a temporary nature.



Anyone who wishes to apply for membership to the non-profit making organization, and who is prepared to abide by the rules of the Society and its aim of promoting the study and enjoyment of the hobby of numismatics, should contact the following address for an application form and details of subscriptions: 


Tasmanian Numismatic Society.

G. P. O. Box 884J

Hobart. 7001.



Tasmanian Numismatic Society - Annual General Meeting 2004

The A.G.M. of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society was held at Tolosa Park, Glenorchy on Sunday, 8th February 2004.

The unusual setting was chosen so that T.N.S. members could enjoy a BBQ after the meeting. The Park has been the venue of several previous T.N.S. social events and, with the Summer vacation period still in full swing, it was obvious that it was an ideal, relaxed site to 'kill two birds with one stone' - and the weather was perfect!

Initial preparations for the BBQ had commenced fairly early so it was decided that we would reverse the order of events and eat first. When the group was called into the hut just prior to 1.00 p.m. for what was promised to be "the shortest A.G.M. in recent history' - (but, of course, it wasn't!) - most of us had already attained that stage of contentment that a good meal and refreshments can bring. Being with good friends was also a big bonus!

Our President, Mr. Roger McNeice welcomed members who had made journeys to attend the meeting and delared the meeting open at 1.00.p.m.

The normal formalities were observed and the few matters outstanding from the 2003 Minutes were resolved or carried forward. The matter of a more permanent meeting place was raised, and Roger advised us that the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery have looked kindly on his request on behalf of the Society to consider granting a Meeting-room that could be used on Sunday mornings at an interval to be decided upon.. At present there are some unavoidable delays due to Museum commitments - but it appears that we have again found a 'home'. A big 'THANK YOU' to Roger for his efforts on our behalf!

The time and location of the meetings will be announced in a future newsletter.

Mr Kevin Hogue, our Treasurer, who was unable to attend the A.G.M., forwarded his apologies and reported to Secretary Christopher Heath, that, whilst our non-profit making Society was currently in a viable situation, the increasing administration costs connected with our standing investments, costs of medal issues and certificates/grants awarded as prizes, newsletter production and postage, plus additional charges that are forseen in the near future, must be addressed sooner than later if we are to maintain our position as one of Australia's leading numismatic societies.


With the Tasmanian Bicentennary of European settlement being celebrated this year, it was obvious that commemorative items would be made available to the public. There will be several medallions issues on offer in near future from various sources, and Society members at the A.G.M. were privileged to see several samples of items being produced by our own Tasmanian medal and souvenir token specialists, OZMINT.


After the conclusion of the reports and Business from the previous Minutes had been concluded, any additional nominations, further than those already received, for Office Bearers were called for. As their were no further nominations, whose who were holding positions were re-elected unopposed by the T.N.S. members present.

The Executive Committee of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society for 2004 is:

Honorary Patron:                                                 Mr. Bill Bleathman.(Subject to acceptance)

President:                                                           Mr. R. McNeice OAM; FRNS.

Vice President (North)/Editor/Public relations:       Mr. G. Petterwood.

Vice President (South)/Public Officer/Secretary:    Mr. C. Heath.

Treasurer:                                                            Mr. K. Hogue.

Committee/Internet Webmaster:                            Mr. P. Petterwood.

Honorary Auditor:                                                 Mr. R. Watson. 




Sighted at Campbell Town, Tasmania on Feb. 22nd. was T.N.S. President Roger McNeice and his always charming wife, Jill.

They were working in their OZMINT business capacity, but they told me that they were thoroughly enjoying the relaxed and carnival-like atmosphere of the opening of the Campbell Town Convict Trail and were treating the event as an outing. They also advised me that the limited edition (500 only) of their new officially sanctioned Tasmanian Bicentenary Medallion due for release on April 2nd. 2004 would be sold out within hours due to the unprecedented interest shown at Campbell Town and the advance orders that were being accepted. They were at the right place, with the right product, at the right time.

So, if you left placing your order until the actual medallion release date you may well miss out! 

Inquiries still can be made at: Email: tasmedals@tasmedals.com.au


Tasmedals Pty Ltd - Retail Outlet:
Shop 2, 41-43 Victoria Street
Hobart, Tasmania, 7000
Phone: 03 6231 5281

Tasmedals Pty Ltd - Head Office:
8 Orana Place
Taroona, Tasmania, 7053
Phone: 03 6227 8825 Fax: 03 6227 9898

Don't miss out in the future, if readers want to be kept advised of new OZMINT and any other releases available through TASMEDALS - the address of the Internet site is: http://www.tasmedals.com.au   Trade enquiries welcome.

A brief report on the Campbell Town Convict Cash will be available in our April newsletter.



It appears that T.N.S. associate member, Ian Hartshorn, has taken up a challenge I issued some time ago and has been working very hard behind the scenes to prepare and present a compilation of definitions in the area of Varieties and Errors. He has been corresponding with other collectors, both national and international, who are also heavily involved in this area of numismatics and their comments and suggestions have been considered as Ian has prepared this current Update. Please, bear in mind that this list is a product incorporating past endeavours and will always be a work in progress. It is not meant to be a 'totally definitive' Tems List at this time in its development - but it is provided as an invitation to readers to participate positively. 

Ian has advised me that he will be on holiday from March to the end of April, as he will be cycling (pedalling) from Perth to Melbourne - a distance of between 3500 - 4000 kilometers (depending on which roads are taken) - for our US readers that is about 2200 - 2500 miles - so he has requested that we advise those who wish to contact him, please, hold their email comments until his return. All constructive comments should be directed to the author: ihartshorn@optusnet.com.au

After due consultation with those numismatic colleagues who assisted with this compilation, and in the interests of sharing knowledge, Ian has now made this article available to all interested parties. It will be also published in the Australasian Coin and Banknote Magazine - courtesy of CAB editor, John Mulhall.



Our meeting procedures are now relatively informal and we have found that this allows many members, including new collectors who wish to attend, to overcome their fear or dislike for regimen and to participate more fully.

Inactive financial members are once again asked to consider the future of our Society and, to those who are able, please actually attend meetings as soon as the new venue can be made available. The Society cannot hope to survive if it cannot properly fulfill its function of promoting numismatics at all levels.

Without the participation and commitment of our membership, we may find that we have dried up and blown away like some other long-time organisations, of late.

Members, who have been granted Life Membership for Services to the Society over the last 40 years, have reached an all time high and these dedicated friends - who are no longer contributing financially - are also asked to try and introduce a new member of whatever age. Members may even offer a sponsorship to a potential new collector - with an initial full membership, or as an Associate - if they are wishing to contribute towards building up our team.







by Ian Hartshorn

Variety/Error Glossary

The following terms are some that may be encountered when studying mint errors and coin varieties. Many are in general use and included in most quality catalogue glossary lists, but there are some that can be particularly applied to the odd coins we occasionally find in our possession. (Australian coinage) These terms may be new to beginners, and some terms describe a relatively similar event or action. Consideration should also be given to the changing processes and equipment used to produce coins over the years and in the future.

Variety - A product of the Die and the die making process
Error - A product of the Minting process

Note:- There are differing opinions on what constitutes a "variety". Some consider it to be any basic design change/s to the dies. Some believe basic design change/s and coins produced from worn or deteriorating dies, such as die cracks and cuds etc are varieties. And some others couldn't give 2 hoots as it is an example of a particular variety/error they seek.


Adjustment - Reduction of metal in a flan or blank to the specified weight prior to striking, accomplished by filing down the face. Such file marks often survived the coining process and are occasionally met with in coins, especially of the eighteenth century.
Alignment - Alignment refers to the relative positioning of the obverse and reverse designs of a coin or medal. Historically, until the last few centuries, most coins were issued with the sides rotated 180 degrees (ie. the reverse is upside down to the obverse). This is known as "Coin Alignment" or "Coin Rotation" and continues to be observed by some coin issuing nations such as the United States of America. However, most countries in recent times now align obverse and reverse at 0 (or 360) degrees. This is known as "Medal Alignment" or "Medal Rotation". See also the entry for upset error coins
Alteration - The tampering with a feature of a coin's surface such as the date, mintmark, etc. to give it the appearance of being another date, mintmark or variety. An illegal practice
Altered date - refer to "Alteration"
Assay Piece - A sample coin included in an assay, supposedly picked at random from production. Assay is the process of determining the purity of precious metal, or the result of such a procedure.

Bitten edge - see Clipped planchet
Blakesley effect - A weakly-formed rim that occurs opposite the "clip" on incomplete coins.
Blank - An unrimmed planchet or flan. Blanks are now stamped out by machine whereas in early times they were customarily cut with special shears from a cob of metal. Also see Planchet
Blob - An irregular raised feature anywhere on the surface of a coin. It is either a rare form of cud where the die has chipped somewhere in the middle (an effect called spalling) or, more commonly, the result of damage to the die caused by some foreign object or hard impurity in a planchet
Broadstrike - A coin struck outside of the collar, resulting in the coin "spreading" beyond its normal dimensions, with no edge reeding.
Broadstike (uncentred) - Is defined as a "broadstrike" that shows an unequal thickness of spread around the circumference of the coin. Parts of the field design should [usually] be absent, will appear at the outset to be a simple less than 10% off-centre error.
Brockage - A coin with only one design, normal on one side and mirror incuse on the other. This occurs when a coin previously struck adheres to the die and strikes the next planchet to pass through the press.

Capped die - Is caused when a struck coin adheres to the upper hammer die. Once the coin is adhered to the die face, the reverse of the struck coin becomes the new die face. When the next planchet is fed into the collar and the strike occurs, the reverse design of the adhered struck coin impresses itself into the new planchet. This struck coin is a brockage strike. The coin adhered to the upper die is known as a die cap.
Clash marks - see Clashed dies
Clashed dies - The obverse and reverse dies, which have come together in the striking process without a planchet in between. Coins produced thereafter from such a pair of dies, usually show mirror-image traces of an obverse design on the reverse, or, reverse design on the obverse.
Cleaned coin - While any coin subjected to a cleaning process could technically be considered cleaned, this term most commonly refers to those, which have been abrasively cleaned. This reduces the value of a coin, and in general, not the preferred collectable coin. If you are considering cleaning a coin, Don't, first seek as much advice as possible.
Clip - see Clipped planchet
Clipped coin - See clipping
Clipped planchet - An error coin struck from a planchet that has a piece missing, usually caused by a malfunction in the blanking press. When a coin is struck on a clipped planchet, the metal flow takes the path of least resistance and tends to flow into the missing area of the planchet. Various types can occur; see below for individual definitions.
----- Types of clips -----
1. Crescent clip - A major crescent-shaped clip that is the result of an incomplete punch that breaks off along the punch line, or a loose blank repunched off-centre on top of the strip
2. Curved clip - A blank punched out whilst overlapping a previously punched area of the metal strip. Due to the metal strip not moving forward enough between successive punchings
3. Multiple clips - a coin which exhibits two or more forms of clip.
4. Nip (clip)- A small portion of the coin missing, when it is caught by the stroke of the Dies striking the next planchet, some rim bruising maybe apparent as the coin is flipped by the action. Caused when the coin is not ejected properly. (contentious, as some participants consider this does not happen)
5. Ragged clip - rare - A blank punched from an unfinished end of strip. Maybe thinner than usual but not necessarily.
6. Rim clip - A very small clip affecting the rim or border, these coins can have a piece missing, and the type of clip being hard to detect. Or the edge of the coin can appear complete, as the metal flow is force out to the collar die, but still showing a weakness on the rim or border at the effected area and at times points opposite the clip.
7. Straight clip - A blank punched from the periphery of the strip, with the ends being the more common. Caused by the punching tool overlapping the ends

Clipping - The practice of removing slivers of precious metal from the edges of coins and passing the reduced-weight coin at original value, retaining the slivers as profit. Graining and edge inscriptions were adopted to prevent this.
Circulation strike - A regular issue coin, struck on regular planchets by dies given normal preparation. These are the coins that the Mint places into circulation.
Collar die - A restraining device used in the striking stage of coin production, which encases the planchet and allows it to be struck centred by both dies; in the case of errors, a fault in the collar will result in broadstruck and off-centre errors.
Counterfeit/Forgery - An imitation of a numismatic item intended to deceive and/or defraud.
Countermark - These are generally applied singularly, and in most cases indiscriminately on either side of the "host" coin, by another government, or to indicate revaluation.
Counterstamp - The coin being counterstamped is placed between new dies and struck as if it were a planchet, such as the holey dollars and dumps.
Cud - A lump on a coin, struck by a die from which a piece has broken off.
Curved based letters - see Fishtailing.

Die break - Where a piece of the die face has broken and lifted from the die, but still in place. A coin struck from such a die will exhibit a die crack like line, around the edges of the broken piece, and that part of the face of the coin effected, is usually incused, or a step down like appearance.
Die cap - see Capped die
Die chip - A fragment breaking off a die. The metal flowing into the resulting hole during striking, creating a raised lump on the surface of the coin
Die clash - see Clashed dies
Die crack - Is were a crack has formed on the die, due to substantial pressure or use. The metal from the planchet filling the crack when struck, leaving fine irregular raised line/s on the face of the coin.
Die defect - An imperfection on a coin caused by a damaged die.
Die progression - A sequence of coins struck from the same pair of dies and exhibiting a progressive change in the appearance of a particular die error.
Doubled die - A common name for Hub-Doubling (see hub doubling)
Double struck - A coin error, when a coin is struck twice by the die
Doubling - A common term used to describe the many types of Hub Doubling and Machine Doubling.

Edge bite - see Clipped planchet
Elongated coin - An oval medalet usually produced deliberately by a roller, using a coin, token or medal as a planchet
Evasion - A close copy of a coin with sufficient intentional differences of design or legend to avoid being in violation of the counterfeiting laws. Also called an Imitation or Freak.

Facsimile - An exact copy of a reproduction/original coin, possibly marked with wording or a device to indicate it is a copy.
Fantasy - Is a piece/object purporting to be a coin, struck with dies that were never officially authorized or using dies that were never used to strike legal tender issued coins
Field - The flat area on the face of a coin that is unaffected by the design
Filled die - A coin struck by a die that which had foreign matter, such as dirt, grease, oil, metal fragments or a combination, filling some part of the design, or sticking to the face of the die, preventing the coin metal from flowing into and filling the design or making contact with the die in these areas; shows as weak or missing design details and/or a rough irregular surface in the effected areas. (See "struck thru" for individual types)
Fin - A varying sized raised fin-like device, a replica of the area under Elizabeth 11's hair and back of neck, usually found above the date on pre-decimal copper coins, that may have been caused by ghosting and or to a lesser extent clashed dies or similar fault transmitted by the working die. (see Spur)
Fishtail/Fishtailing - A distortion of the letters of a legend caused by differential outward flow of metal during the pressing of dies and/or hubs. One specific instance of fishtailing is the curved-base lettering seen on some George V pennies and halfpennies.
Flake/Flaking - see Lamination flaw
Flan - see Planchet
Flipped strike or Flipover Double Strike (US) - a coin which has been struck correctly, and then has not ejected properly, is flipped over so that its reverse is struck a second time by the obverse die, and vice-versa in regards to the obverse side; they can be centred or off-centred.

Ghosting - The impression of the Obverse showing through to the Reverse and vise versa. Caused by the use of soft planchets, over pressure on the presses and worn Dies. Can be light, medium or heavily ghosted, and appears on one side only, usually the reverse. These are not produced by clashed dies, but an occasional Die Clash mark may be observed on these types of coins.

Hub doubling - The imperfect alignment of the hub pressings/blows during the die preparation, resulting in many different types of hub-doubled working dies. Coins struck by these dies will often exhibit a valley affect (a division or notching) on the serifs, legends and/or points of the devices. (Also read Machine doubling)

Imitation - see facsimile
Indented error - When two planchets are in the coining chamber at the same time. The two planchets may overlap each other, be of different sizes, or they maybe a blank and a coin together. See types below.
----- Types of indents -----
1. Indented strike -
Occurs when two planchets are fed inadvertently into the coining chamber, with one planchet partly overlapping (on top of) the other. When the hammer die strikes this combination, the upper planchet will be forced into the lower planchet, creating a depression which is shaped similar to the upper planchet, and shows no design details in the indented area
2. Indented strike of smaller planchet - A scarce type of indent occurs when a planchet intended for one denomination lands on top of a planchet from a different denomination in the coining chamber
3. Indented second strike - Results from a planchet and a struck coin coming together in the coining chamber, the design of the first strike (coin) will be flattened and stretched out, in the indented area. The second planchet showing signs of a brockage

Lamination flaw - Where a piece of metal has peeled away from the coin's suface, caused by a foreign subsance such as gas oxides or dirt which becomes trapped in the metal strip, or if the strip folds over during the milling process.

Machine doubling (MD) - Where the die has bounced or twisted on impact and a second, lighter impression (not strike) could be delivered with the coin shifting slightly, and will exhibit a spreading affect (displaced sideways or appears pushed) of the serifs on the legends and/or devices. (Also see Hub doubling)
Metal flow - The movement of metal during the striking of a coin, in order to fill the design of the Die and create the desired result. Stretch marks/Striations on the surface of the coin, in the fields, can be attributed to incorrectly annealed planchets.
Metal transfer - see ghosting
Misstrike - Used to describe various types of errors. Usually results in coins that have only portion of the design appearing. Coins can appear as struck off center and as a result can still be flat but more often bent at one side so as to give the appearance of a high rim coin or a soup spoon shaped coin.
Mule (Hybrid) - A coin struck from dies not originally intended to be used together.
Multiple strikes - A coin struck more than once, as a result of not being properly ejected from the coining press

Off centre - Said of a coin only partly resting within the coining chamber at striking. Can be missing part or all of any edge reeding/device
Off metal strike - Any coin which has been struck on a planchet that isn't the right metal composition for that type or denomination of coin
Overdate - The date made by a mint engraver superimposing one or more numbers over a previously dated die
Overlapped planchet - see indented error
Overstrike - A totally full impression made with new dies over a previously struck coin, also see "counterstamp" .

Pattern - A pattern struck as a coin/s in order to obtain the final approval of the government or issuing authority before the general circulating coinage is struck. May be struck off metal and can be unifaced or full Obv/Rev arrangement.
Planchet - A rimmed blank, the size and weight of the finished coin, on which a coin design is stamped. Also see Blank
Proof - Coins struck using specially prepared dies and planchets, under controlled conditions. Struck 2 or more times under higher pressure. Designs maybe frosted, coloured or hologram. In earlier times a proof was a "specimen" prepared under carefully controlled conditions, perhaps with polished planchets.

Ram strike - A planchet not sitting properly within the collar, forced into the collar at striking by the die, creating a high rim or raise lip, and at times struck off centre
Restrike - A coin struck from a genuine die at a date later than the original issue.
Rotation - see Alignment .

Scalloped letters - see Fishtailing
Short planchet - see Clipped planchet
Slipped collar - See Ram Strike
Specimen - A coin with a special finish, less than proof in quality but superior to the general circulating coin
Split planchet - A type of lamination error, where the split can leave a coin in two halves, one obverse and one reverse. As some do not break fully open, a significant portion of the coin can be missing or can have the two halves still attached at some point
Spur - A varying sized raised spur-like device, a replica of the area under King George V's chin and his vestments, usually found alongside lettering on older coins, that may have been caused by ghosting and or to a lesser extent clashed dies or similar fault transmitted by the working die. (see Fin)
Striation - See Metal flow.
Struck outside the collar - (term becoming redundant) see Broadstrike
Struck partly outside collar - A coin that only partially sits within the collar, leaving an uneven edge, and/or incomplete reeding. That part of the coin outside the collar, having no restriction to metal flow, will exhibit the traits of a broadstruck coin.
Struck thru ## - A general term describing any number of foreign objects between a die and planchet at the time of striking. Also see Filled die
Struck thru dirt - Devices and/or lettering not being fully struck up. Caused by a build up of dust in the design of a die
Struck thru grease - Incuse marks on the surface of a coin, generally rough and irregular, caused by oil/grease or the like, depositing onto the die, after it was wiped with an oily rag or oil weeping from the machinery
Struck thru lint - Small incuse mark/s on the surface of a coin caused by stray hairs, threads and the like coming between a die and planchet
Struck thru object - An incuse impression of a miscellaneous object, which has found its way between a die and planchet.

Thin planchet - A planchet that is thinner than the tolerances allowed for. Caused by a fault during the rolling of metal ingots (bars) or where the ends of a metal strip have not been trimmed back far enough. These coins generally exhibit a weak or soft strike
Trial piece - A coin struck to test the properties of a die. It may not be a complete design, but, may be struck on different metals

Uniface - A coin which has been struck with a design on one side only. The other side is blank. Normally uniface coins are patterns but ocassionally are found as errors caused by a faulty striking process.
Unique - An item of which one example only is known to exist.
Unpublished Variety/Error - An example of a coin, token or medal with a difference, ie - lettering, metal content, overdate unknown date etc, which has not been listed in numismatic writings or in a journal.
Upset - A variation from the normal alignment of obverse and reverse dies. More prevalent on pre-decimal coins, this was caused by one or both dies rotating in the coining press. Nowadays, it only occurs as a machining error as dies have keyways cut to prevent rotation.

Weak strike - A coin exhibiting an incomplete strike (not fully formed) all over, or a partial incomplete strike of the design. Caused by insufficient pressure to push metal into all the nooks and crannies of the die, improper die spacing, or the planchet being thinner than normal. Often an Uncirculated coin will look like a used example. Also see thin planchet
Wrong planchet - any coin struck on a planchet that wasn't intended for that denomination


Major Participants in correlating this list :

I.Hartshorn, J.Himelfarb, D.Hughes, I.McConnelly, A.McGuire, J.Saxton, S.Wren

Main References:
Australian Coins and Banknotes by Greg McDonald
Australian Penny Varieties by Phil Bird
Coin World Almanac
Coincraft’s Standard Catalogue of English & UK Coins 1066 to Date
Coinweb CD - Australasian Currency
Official A.N.A. Grading Standards for United States Coins
Price guide to Mint Errors 6th Edition by Alan Herbert (USA)
Renniks Australian Coin & Banknote Values



noticed by Graeme Petterwood. T.N.S. Member # 339.


During the last few years much has been written regarding 'varieties' in Australian coinage but it is also interesting that world paper money collectors like myself also discover varities in their collections.The notes, from my own accumulation, shown below (not to scale) are probably not that rare but their individuality is certainly absent from mention in the famous 'bible' of paper money collectors - 'The Standard Catalog of World Paper Money', published by Krause Publications.

Some of these differences are not earth-shattering and some probably will have been  recorded in more specialised catalogues, but, for many collectors, the SCWPP is the most comprehensive publication they will ever invest in. World note collectors with a reasonable sized selection will probably have an example or two of things that are not quite as catalogued - nothing much, but just a slight difference that makes the note a little more intriguing.

Quite often it will only be discovered when a second note is obtained and the difference stands out..




Reserve Bank of India n.d. Five Rupee note bearing large letter D under the serial number and the signature of R.N. Mathotra as Governor.


The n.d. Five Rupee note (Third Series) was signed by at least 9 Reserve Bank of India Governors from 1975 onwards.

Large letters are usually printed under the serial numbers on Indian banknotes coupled with the Governor's signature and a list of these combinations has been published in SCWPP since that of Governor S. Jagannathan (June 1970 - May 1975) - who was signatory #8 according to the list supplied in the Catalog.

The list of Governors and their terms in office is comprehensively covered in the Catalog - however, there appears to be an anomaly.

According to the SCWPP signature identification chart, Governor R.N. Malhotra (Term 1983 - 84 ??) is signatory #14

The RBI Five Rupee list states that:

Kr.# 80 ( i )  W/O letter. New seal (in Hindi and English). Sign. #14.

Kr # 80( j ) Letter A. New seal. Sign. #14.

As well as the letter A, other notes are listed that contain both his signature and the letters E; F and G - but none are in the D combination as shown in the illustration. Of course, it is always possible that this is a combination that has existed but not been recorded previously.

Several other authorative Indian sources also differ regarding the date that Governor Malhotra was in office.(See list below).

The SCWPP list also states that:

Kr. # 80 (h) Letter D. Sign. #13 Mammohan Singh. (Term 1981 - 83)  (RBI records the term as being from September 16, 1982 to January 14, 1985)

Kr. # 80 (n) Letter D. Sign. #15 Abhitam Ghosh. (Term 1984 - 20 days).  (RBI records the term as being from January 15, 1985 to February 4, 1985)

While it is believed that some former Governors or Secretaries may have occasionally maintained positions in a temporary role until the next permanent appointment was confirmed, my own conclusion is that there is an error in SCWPP's term of office dating chart and that it could be possible that Kr. # 80 (n) Sign. #15 (Ghosh) would more likely to have given way to Malhotra's signature with a Letter D - and therefore it is not placed sequencially on the list in the correct position.

I alerted SCWPP to my conclusions in mid January 2004 but, at the time of the publishing deadline for this newsletter issue, I had not received a reply to my email.

A list of RBI Governors and Secretaries, and their major Terms in Office, that differs from SCWPP regarding their terms in office, is available with some additional information from Anurag Vershney's Banknotes of India site : http://www.geocities.com/enchantedhorse/  and at the RBI Monetary Museum site: http://www.museum.rbi.org.in/m-person.html


Governors of the Reserve Bank of India and the duration of their major term in office - as listed by Reserve Bank of India Monetary Museum


  The Governors of the Reserve Bank of India from 1935 - 2004

Sir Osborne A.Smith - April 1st 1935 to June 30th 1937;                    Sir James Braid Taylor  - July 1st 1937 to February 17th 1943;

Sir Chintaman D.Deshmukh  - August 11th 1943 to June 30th 1949;    Sir Benegal Rama Rau  - July 1st 1949 to January 14th 1957;

K.G.Ambegaonkar  - January 14th 1957 to February 28th 1957;          H.V.R.Iengar  - March 1st 1957 to February 28th 1962;

P.C.Bhattacharyya - March 1st 1962 to June 30th 1967;                      L.K.Jha  - July 1st 1967 to May 3rd 1970;

B.N.Adarkar  - May 4th 1970 to June 15th 1970;                                S.Jagannathan  - June 16th 1970 to May 19th 1975;

N.C.Sen Gupta  - May 19th 1975 to August 19th 1975;                        K.R.Puri  - August 20th 1975 to May 2nd 1977;

M.Narasimham  - May 2nd 1977 to November 30th 1977;                   Dr. I.G.Patel  - December 1st 1977 to September 15th 1982 ;

Dr.Manmohan Singh  - September 16th 1982 to January 14th 1985;    A.Ghosh  - January 15th 1985 to February 4th 1985;

R.N.Malhotra  - February 4th 1985 to December 22nd 1990;            S.Venkitaramanan  - December 22nd 1990 to December 21st 1992;

Dr. C.Rangarajan  - December 22nd 1992 to December 21st 1995 - (Second term) December 22nd 1995 to November 22nd 1997;

Dr.Bimal Jalan  - November 22nd 1997 to September 6th 2003;          Dr. Y.V. Reddy - September 6th 2003 to date.


Photos: http://www.rbi.org.in/History/Mis_Governors.html



NEW ZEALAND - £1 and £5 Varieties





As Australia and New Zealand share a relatively common heritage and - in a lot of cases - ancestory, it is inevitable that some of each others banknotes find their way into our mutual collections. Some of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand samples shown above were obtained some time ago but it was only noticed recently when a second note was obtained of each of the denominations shown that some slight differences are available for the note collector's interest.

The One Pound note signed by Chief Cashier G.Wilson (1955 - 56) was issued with two styles of Serial numbers, however only one designation Kr. # 159 (b) is noted in SCWPP. It is of interest that Wilson 's term was only from 1955 - 56.

In the Tasman Coin & Banknote Catalog, published by Stirling & Co. Ltd. Auctioneers of Christchurch, New Zealand, both the Letter over Number e.g. J/O followed by the 6 digit serial number and the line of 3 numbers e.g. 005 before the 6 digit serial numbers, as shown in the illustrations, are noted - in that order.

The N.Z. Five Pound note samples shown above are slightly different in that the central logo in one is very 'washed-out' compared to the other and also  there is a noticeable shift in position of the serial numbers positions with e.g. I/X nearly intruding into the 'W' of NEW ZEALAND.

Kr # 160 (a) only notes that  T.P. Hanna (1940 - 55) was the Chief Cashier at the time of that issue.

All notes were printed by Thomas De la Rue & Company, Limited, London.

Main References

Standard Catalog of World Paper Money. Edited by Colin R BruceII & George S. Cuhaj. Published by Krause Publications.

Reserve Bank of India - RBI Monetary Museum   http://www.museum.rbi.org.in/m-person.html

Banknotes of India - compiled by Anurag Varshney (July 2003)  http://www.geocities.com/enchantedhorse/


In the course of this research, I also contacted Alan Herbert, the internationally known 'AnswerMan' and obtained some very valuable assistance. Alan welcomes and responds to a wide range of inquiries addressed to his 'AnswerMan' Coin Clinic column in Numismatic News and Coins magazine or : AnswerMan2@aol.com

He has reminded me that his 6th edition of "The Official Price Guide to Mint Errors." is now available in Australia  in which he  describes the minting process from start to finish and identifies and defines over 400 classes of minting varieties, using the PDS (Planchet, Die, Striking) System that he originated.

Cover price is U.S. $15.00 for this 400 page - soft cover - truly authoritive book.

No doubt Australian collectors of varieties and mint error world coins would find this update an essential acquisition for their libraries.

It is available in Australia through Scott Wren. For local cost and delivery informationmail inquiries: scott_wren2002@yahoo.com.au







Compiled by Graeme Petterwood. T.N.S. Member # 339.


PART 2 - Northern Tasmanian token issuers.

JOSEPH BRICKHILL (Draper & Importer) of Campbell Town.

Joseph Brickhill was listed on the Campbell Town Jury list of Oct 14, 1856.

A solid reminder of this token issuer, is the Brickhill Memorial Church which is located at 109 High Street, Campbell Town. The building was erected in 1880 from the funds left by Joseph Brickhill who conducted a store on the corner of High and King Street, Campbell Town. The original building was demolished many years ago and the site is currently occupied by an agricultural supply business.

Token issued:

A 45 - Penny (1856) 34mm. (Manufactured by Thos. Stokes.)

Obverse: DRAPER / AND /GENERAL / IMPORTER in four lines across the field, JOSEPH BRICKHILL. CAMPBELL TOWN. round within the beaded rim.

Reverse: ADVANCE / TASMANIA / 1856 in three lines in field, ONE PENNY TOKEN. COMMERCIAL HOUSE. round within the beaded rim. - Rarity 1.


(A45) (R56) JOSEPH BRICKHILL 1856 Penny. Actual size 34mm.


E.F. DEASE(Draper) of Brisbane St; Launceston. (See illustration in text)

Mr. Edward F. Dease of Charles Street, Launceston was listed in the electoral roll of 1866. The 'Golden Fleece' store was located on or near the corner of Charles and Brisbane Sts. Launceston, however, the whole area has undergone several major developments over the last 50 years. The famous 'Golden Fleece' store symbol, that still remained suspended outside the premises well into the mid 1900's, is now in the care of the Queen Victoria Museum & Art Gallery in Launceston as part of the commercial heritage of the city.

Tokens issued:

A 99 - Penny (n.d.) 34mm. Upset.  (It is believed that these may have been made by W. J. Taylor.) 

Obverse: ONE / E.F. DEASE / PENNY in three lines with pointed bars between in centre, WHOLESALE & RETAIL DRAPERY WAREHOUSE * BRISBANE ST. * within the indented rim.

Reverse: A ribbon, topped with a pineapple with 6 spike leaves, suspending a fleece with SIC VOS NON VOBIS VELLERA FERTIS OVES round within the beaded rim. - Rarity 3.

A 99a - Penny (n.d.) 34mm. Upset. (As above - a variety with 7 spike leaves on the pineapple). - Rarity 6.

A 100 - Halfpenny (n.d.) 28mm. Identical in style as the PENNY except for the substitution of the word HALFPENNY. - Rarity 4.

A 163 - Halfpenny (n.d.) 28mm. (Mule with H.J. Hall of Christchurch, New Zealand) - Rarity 10.

(It is believed that these may have been made by W. J. Taylor - but it is a disputed opinion as Thos. Stokes has been attributed with the manufacture of H. J. Hall, of Christchurch, New Zealand tokens) 

Bearing the standard E.F. Dease (obverse) used as a reverse and with the more accepted obverse reading * FAMILY GROCER * WINE & SPIRIT MERCHANTS * round within the beaded rim and H.J. HALL in single centre line with top and bottom pointed bars, was accepted and used mainly in Christchurch, New Zealand as well as seen in Tasmania. (A mule that could used by both businesses and the locally accepted obverse then became the main side) - Rarity 7.


Typical style of Tasmanian Tradesmen's tokens - Business details on Obverse with Design and additional text on Reverse.

(A99) (R107) E.F. DEASE of Launceston n.d. Penny. Actual size 34mm


SAMUEL HENRY (Emporium owner) of Deloraine.

The emporium has long been superseded but it is believed to have occupied an area on the Launceston side of the Meander River Bridge somewhere on the Lake Highway, and within the Railway St. block, near the existing Deloraine Community Centre.

Token issued:

A 226 - Penny (1857) 34mm. (It is believed that these were made by W. J. Taylor).

Obverse: A beaded inner circle broken by two straight lines across centre, enclosed SAMUEL HENRY and between the inner circle and the beaded rim DELORAINE above, and EMPORIUM below.

Reverse: A Kangaroo and Emu facing each other, TASMANIA in half circle above and 1857 below. - Rarity 4.


(A226) (R218) SAMUEL HENRY 1857 Penny with basic Kangaroo and Emu reverse. Actual size 34mm.


THOMAS WHITE AND SON of Westbury. **

The White House is still located at the western end of Lonsdale Promenade on the corner of King St. in Westbury, Tasmania. It has been converted to a popular tourist attraction that attracts thousands of visitors each year to see the beautifully recreated atmosphere of Thomas White's days. Perhaps the most famous of all the houses in Westbury, the White House stands on land which was granted to Thomas White on 4th. November, 1841. A few years later, White established a store and domestic residence on the site and, in 1855, it became known as White's Token Store when he had made some penny and halfpenny tokens which could be used to buy goods in the store. Thomas White left the building in 1859.

Tokens issued:

A 620 - Penny (1855) 34mm. (It is believed that these were made by W. J. Taylor).

Obverse: THOMAS WHITE . WESTBURY . round within the beaded rim with AND / SON in two lines in the centre.

Reverse: A Kangaroo and Emu facing each other, TASMANIA in half circle above and 1855 below. - Rarity 3.

A 621 - Halfpenny (1855) 28mm. Identical in style as the PENNY. - Rarity 5.

A 622 - Penny (1857) 34mm. (It is believed that these were made by either W. J. Taylor or Heaton & Sons).

Obverse: Identical in style as the 1855 PENNY. 

Reverse:  Identical in style as the 1855 PENNY except the word TASMANIA in half circle above and 1857 below are in larger letters and numbers than the 1855 version. - Rarity 3.



Genuine - (A 620) (R592) THOMAS WHITE and SON 1855 Penny token          Replica - Thomas White and Son Penny token



** It should be noted by Australian Tradesmen's token collectors, that the well established tourist outlet at the White House has sold 'carded' replica Penny and halfpenny tokens for some years. It is not known who manufactured the re-strike. Unfortunately, because of the cost and the size of the commitment involved, the proprietors were not prepared to withdraw the replicas when originally alerted to the problem in the 1970's. The Tasmanian Numismatic Society has had to continue to warn token collectors over the years. Available in both denominations with appropriate dates, and with only an easily removed paper screed that has been attached to inform the purchaser that the replica token is just that, they could be easily susceptible to misrepresentation by ignorance or intent. These replicas are often turned up at markets and in dealer's scratch-boxes - and it is believed that there are still a few Penny token examples available at the White House for purchase, at A$4.00 each.   

Catalogue value is approx A$250.00 for a genuine Uncirculated Penny example and A$550 for the Uncirculated Halfpenny, so it is an attractive proposition for an unscrupulous - or ignorant - seller to encourage an understandable error in judgement by enthusiastic amateur buyers. The replicas are extremely close in appearance to the originals with only slight varieties noted - if you know what to look for - but, for those who are venturing into this area for the first time, consult a reliable catalogue or get a second expert opinion prior to buying what appears to be a Uncirculated example of this - or any other token. The more noticeably differences in the Thomas White and Son token are: the fullness and rounding of the serif script on the obverse, a slightly curved base on the letter E of WHITE, and in the number and position of the grass tufts to the back of both the Kangaroo and Emu on the reverse and slight difference in the animals paws, feet and stance.


Comparison Valuations - (E.F. Condition) CoinWeb- last valuation 1997. Renniks C.V. 2000.  Coin Trends Auction 2004 - estimated in US$'s.

J. Brickhill             (A45) Penny 1856 $25 (1997) $100  US$70.00       (A$90.50)
E. F. Dease          (A99) Penny n.d. $75 (1997) $175   -
  "                         (A99) Penny (Variety) n.d.   -  $500   -
   "                      (A100) Half-penny n.d. $125 (1997) $220    -
    "                     (A163)   " (H.J. Hall Mule) n.d.    - $500 (1981)    - 
S. Henry             (A225) Penny n.d. $125 (1997) $220 US$170.00    (A$219.50)
Thomas White     (A620) Penny 1855 $75 (1997) $175 US$60.00       (A$77.50)
  "                       (A622) Penny 1857   $75 (1997) $175 US$95.00      (A$122.50)
   "                      (A621) Half-penny 1855  $200 (1997) $350     -


Please note.

Where prices of a Tasmanian issuer's token range are not shown in the tables supplied in this newsletter, it means that none were included in the sources used to ascertain current market estimates. While tradesmen's tokens are more leniently graded than coins, their condition is not quite as important as their rarity and prices are reflective of this.


It should also be noted that Thomas Stokes purchased W. J. Taylor's plant and dies in 1857 and is believed to have issued many of the 'mules' known to collectors. It is apparent that Stokes and Taylor had some sort of business relationship prior to that time and Stokes may have been using some of Taylor's dies under arrangement.

The average condition of these tokens is usually down at the lower end of the condition scale at Very Good and buyers and sellers would usually expect to negotiate at between 1/20th and 1/10th. of the values shown above.


It appears that quite a lot of other acceptable tokens also made their way to Tasmania from mainland colonies and New Zealand, and were circulated as coinage until the Colonial Government controlled from England gradually managed to get the official coinage problem under control and, in Tasmania during 1876, an Act was passed to declare the copper tokens illegal and the British bronze coin of the realm the only legal coinage.

The demonetisation of these tokens took place in a piecemeal fashion in each of the Australian colonies and Tasmania was one of the last to declare them illegal in 1876 when the Imperial Coinage Act was proclaimed. Many of the tradesmen's tokens were eventually sold off as bullion and an interesting contemporary Tasmanian numismatic chapter almost came to a close after about 50 years - but not quite!

An interesting series of three non-dated 30mm. metallic 'gift tokens'' (Copper, Nickel and Brass) were produced in  2002 for Hobart based company Ellison Hawker Bookshop with values of $5.00, $10.00 and $20.00. (To a numismatist - if not the public - they fit into the broad category of a traditional tradesmen's token as they are a variety of the 'redeemable at store' advertising pieces of the mid 1800's. They look like a token, work like a token, so ....!)


Ellison Hawker Bookshop 'redeemable in merchandise' Gift Tokens  $20 Brass - $10 Nickel - $5 Copper



Main References - including some illustrations and descriptive texts of tokens.

Australian Stamp & Coin Co Pty.Ltd. http://www.australianstamp.com/Coin-web/feature/numismtc/trtokens.htm

Australasian Tokens and Coins. by Dr. Arthur Andrews. (Originally published 1921 - reissued Sandford J. Durst 1982).

'Tasmanian Numismatist' Volume 6 Issue 6 (Nov - Dec 2001)

Internet Edition http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/Nov2001.htm

'Tasmanian Numismatist' Volume 7 Issue 4 (July - Aug 2002)

Internet Edition http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june2002.htm


Recommended Reading/Additional References:

Tasmanian Promissory Notes. by Roger V. McNeice. (Hawthorn Press 1971).

The Macquarie Book of Events. Edited by Bryce Fraser. (Macquarie Library 1984).

The Pocketbook Guide to Australian Coins and Banknotes (10th. Edition) by Greg McDonald (2003).

Early Colonial Coinages. Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition. (April 1998). Edited by Graeme Petterwood. 

New Token Releases. 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition'. (May 2001). Edited by Graeme Petterwood.


CoinWeb - Australasian Currency. July 2000 Compiled by Alan Austin. 

Renniks Australian Coin & Banknote Guide 13th. Edition. (1981) by Dion H. Skinner.

Renniks Australian Coin & Banknote Values 19th. Edition. (June 2000) Edited by Ian Pitt.

Various tourist-oriented documentation, Deloraine Museum History Room and other public records.

Coin Trends. http://www.coinmall.com/cointrends/



The majority of my own Tasmanian tokens are stored in stapled 2 x 2 cardboard foldovers with reflective cello windows and being dark bronze or copper and over 140 years old doesn't help either in my attempts to scan some of those for this article. It has proven to be rather difficult without the irksome task of removing them, or using specialised equipment I haven't ready access to.

I would particularly like to thank the Australian Stamp & Coin Co Pty.Ltd.  whose assistance was kindly, and unhesitatingly, provided when I requested to use their comprehensive archives to obtain reproductions of many of the tokens depicted.

Australian Stamp & Coin Co Pty.Ltd.

Shop133, Forest Hill Chase,270  Canterbury Rd. Forest Hill 3131     (see map)

International Phone: 613 9878 3411 Fax: 613  98783877

Email: sales@australianstamp.co






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