Index For This Month:
TASMANIAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY INC.
The Secretary,Our members meet at 8.00 p.m. on the 2nd.Thursday of each month (except January), in our social rooms at the Masonic Club, 181 Macquarie St., Hobart. Tasmania. Visitors are always welcome!
Tasmanian Numismatic Society, Inc.
G.P.O. Box 884J.
Hobart. Tasmania. 7001.
Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome and can be sent to the T.N.S. or directed to:
The Editor,The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ is published and distributed FREE, on a monthly basis, to members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society Inc. and selected associates and institutions. This publication is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society Inc.’ and its aim is to promote the hobby of numismatics in an entertaining and enjoyable way, under the guidelines suggested by the executive committee of the T.N.S.
Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.
Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html
This newsletter and its contents are copyrighted ©,
but anything herein (except as noted below) can be fairly
used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to
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This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article. In the latter case, you must get explicit permission from the author either directly or through the ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ to use that material.
All opinions expressed in material published in this newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society Inc.’ or the Editor.
ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING.
As the official AGM Minutes were not available in time for this publication, the following edited and unconfirmed highlights are supplied for members' information from the Editor's notes.
1. Firstly, even though it had been a relatively quiet year for Society events, it was pleasing to note that our membership had increased slightly and our monthly meetings had again been well attended and progressive.
2. Secondly, the advent of email technology has not been lost upon the Society who realise that many new numismatists are now basically using the knowledge distributed on the Internet as their only contact with other hobbyists - coupled with the fact that the lack of sufficient professional dealers right across the state was a contributing factor in holding back the hobby to a big extent. At present many of our members, particularly those in more scattered areas, were having to refer to mainland sources for information and some supplies. In an effort to promote our State-wide membership drive - and to bring some of these unattached collectors into the more satisfying learning curve atmosphere that the Society can offer - he suggested that more meetings are undertaken in the North of the state and that a campaign be launched, in whatever economical manner possible, to educate the public about the Society and its aims.
3. Thirdly, the Society Bookroom concept was starting
to bear fruit. Several good commercial sources had been secured to enable
our members to enjoy favourable price structuring for educational literature,
accessories, catalogues etc. If members are finding that they have difficulty
in securing supplies of basic accessories contact our Secretary, in the
first instance, who can on-forward your request to our Bookroom for attention.
In closing, the President thanked the executive members of the Committee for their excellent attendance throughout the year, and especially Chris Heath and Kevin Hogue for a job well done as Acting Chairmen during his absences in 1999.
The Secretary, Geoffrey Forrest, reported that a small
growth in new membership had occurred late in 1999 but that the names of
several members had been deleted earlier due to non-renewal of their subscription
by March 1999 for various reasons.
It was gratifying to note however that, this year, the majority of subscriptions had all been paid on time or in advance.
During the time that our President was overseas, on several occasions, our meetings had been chaired by Vice President Chris Heath and also by the very able Mr. Kevin Hogue.
The Society Awards had been made at a semi-informal break during a very pleasant members' annual BBQ held at the home of the President on 12th December 1999. The T.N.S. Bronze Award went to our Treasurer, Charles Hunt for a fine year's work, whilst the President's Award made to Chris Heath reflected the valuable assistance that he has given to the President throughout the last 12 months. Dr. John Chapman had previously been presented with the prestigious 1999 Lockwood Award during the N.A.A. Conference in Victoria. (Refer 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - October 1999)
Treasurer Charles Hunt presented the detail of our financial position - subject to final confirmation and auditing - that indicated we were in an even better situation than we were last year. By judiciously investing we have even increased our capital slightly.
The membership was then advised that nominations for the
election of officers and committee would be called for and, after the suitable
debate, we have pleasure in advising the results.
Patron: Ms Patricia Sabine. (Subject to acceptance.)
President: Roger McNeice. (Elected unopposed.)
Vice President: Christopher Heath. (Elected unopposed.)
Treasurer: Charles Hunt. (Elected unopposed.)
Honorary Auditor: Richard Watson. (Subject to acceptance.)
Secretary: Owing to personal commitments, our Secretary of the last few years, Geoffrey Forrest, did not re-nominate but offered his services for Committee duties. Nominations were then called, from members present, but as none were forthcoming immediately, Mr. Phil Nichols volunteered to temporarily shoulder the task on the understanding that there would be times during the year when he would need to be absent. His offer was accepted.
Editor/Public Relations: Graeme Petterwood. (Elected unopposed.)
General Committee: Geoffrey Forrest, Tom Williamson, Kevin Hogue - (Southern Tasmania).
Paul Petterwood, Shane Matson - (Northern Tasmania). (All elected unopposed.)
The following e-mail newsflash was received from Martin Peeters of the WBCC about their recent successful visit to the World Coin Fair held in Basel, Switzerland on January 21st. - 23rd.
"I left the Netherlands with Frans Dubois and Jack Hepler
on Friday 00.00 AM and arrived at Basel at 08.00 AM. We had driven through
6 countries! (Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Germany and Switzerland).
Passing through all these borders was no problem at all. Arriving at Basel
we went straight to the Basel Congress Centre were the World Money Fair
was held and we set up the WBCC table. A nice picture of our table can
be seen on the WBCC Homepage. http://www.geocities.com/RodeoDrive/7513/wbcc/wbcc.html
The goal of the WBCC at the World Money Fair was to expose the WBCC to the numismatic world, and meet representatives of Mints and Minters and other WBCC members. Furthermore we had the specially made 2nd. Edition WBCC Bi-metallic token for the WMF. Michael Marotta, editor of Coin World visited our table and was interested in the WBCC CD ROM and the new WBCC Bi-metallic token. The second limited edition (300) WBCC Bi-metallic token had been specially minted for the World Money Fair at Basel. The obverse has the WBCC logo and the reverse has the text: - WORLDWIDE BI-METALLIC COLLECTORS CLUB -WORLD MONEY FAIR - SWITZERLAND - BASEL - JANUARY 21-23, 2000.
A really great moment was on Saturday at 10.00 AM. when the president of the World Money Fair, Mr. Albert Beck, visited us. Because of his work for the event and helping the WBCC to attend the WMF, we presented him a new WBCC Bi-metallic token much to his surprise and delight."
We have been invited to advise members and readers of a commercial site that may be of interest to medallion collectors.
Kim Perrier is a sculptor and miniaturist who has designed and produced an innovative limited edition 74 mm. medallion depicting a topographic map of the planet from satellite data. Manufactured of cast Bronze and Huon Pine, commemorating the year 2000, the scale is an unbelievable 1: 365 million.
For full information, visit the web-site at: http://millennium.mns.net.au
International Phone or Fax: 011 61 8 97612 223
P.O. Box 174,
Serge Pelletier has issued a Press Release featuring a new Canadian Municipal Trade Dollar to celebrate the back-to-Eston (Saskatchewan) Homecoming later this year.
SUPER GOPHER DERBY COMMEMORATED ON TOKEN
ESTON, SK - The Eston Homecoming Committee is happy to announce that it will be issuing a 5-Dollar commemorative token to honour Eston's World Super Gopher Derby, an integral part of their Homecoming Celebrations to be held June 30 - July 2, 2000. The tokens will be issued in June and will have currency value, at participating merchants, until July 1.
The profits from this operation will be used to finance other activities of the Homecoming.
The token features on one side, a whimsical gopher running his little heart out, while the other side shows a grain elevator and wheat sheaf.
"The token truly reflects our community's spirit" said Lynda Hunter, program coordinator, "the grain elevator and wheat shows the importance agriculture plays in our community while the running gopher shows we love to have fun!"
The Lions Club initiated the Gopher Derby in 1972, and
it is held annually, in conjunction with "Sportsarama Days", around 1st.
July. The gophers are not "professionals", they are captured under the
watchful eye of the Humane Society the week prior to the derby, and their
participation must comply with Provincial regulations. Entries come from
across Canada and the United States.
From these entries 64 named gophers are drawn to start. There are eight heats run daily with winners advancing to finals. Once the Derby is over, the competitors are released back into the wild, some with more bragging rights than others.
Part of the proceeds from the Derby are used by the Lions Club, for numerous charities they support in the area.
Eston is located in southwestern Saskatchewan, 203 kilometres
southwest of Saskatoon and 205 kilometres northwest of Swift Current. It
is located at the junction of highways 44, which runs east to west, and
30, which runs north to south. Incorporated in 1916, the town counts about
1200 souls. In the heart of agriculture, being surrounded by the Rural
Municipality of Snipe Lake #259, Eston has an established economic role.
Cereal grains, as well as a wide variety of speciality crops are grown
on some of the most productive farmland in the province. Visitors here
are fascinated by the vast expanse of the prairie, the glorious sunsets
and "twilight time". The fields of green in spring and early summer, later
turning golden awaiting harvest, reach out to the horizons. To witness
some of the interesting contrasts, one need only go some 24 kilometres
southwest where rough benchland marks the division of the arable land and
rough wilderness, a result of glacial rivers cutting through, centuries
ago. A decided "gap" at an elevation of some 30 metres higher than the
town, marks this division which is visible for kilometres.
This is a landmark that served as a guide for the early settlers returning home from trips to Brock, some 50 kilometres away, where they travelled for provisions or to haul their grain. The range of hills continue east on either side of the South Saskatchewan River becoming somewhat less rugged, but interesting. There is evidence of old Red River cart trails as well as
buffalo trails which may be seen on the slopes of the hills.
Eston Homecoming 2000 will be a three-day event held June 30 - July 2. The activities include an Opening Reception, a Sports Day, a Beef Supper, a BBQ Lunch, the annual Gopher Derby and, of course, a fireworks display. More information can be obtained from Lynda Hunter: - (tel: (306) 962-3584 - fax: (306) 962-4224).
Issuing Agency: Eston Homecoming Committee
Designer: Marc Gourdreau
Mint: Eligi Consultants Inc.
Composition Mintage Price in US Dollars.
Brass 1,000 - $6.00
Nickel-Silver 150 - $12.00
Commercial Bronze 150 - $12.00
Gold Plated Enamelled 40 - $42.50
The enamelled token shows the gopher in brown and white.
Those interested in getting some of these tokens should contact the exclusive distributor:
Taxes, shipping and handling are extra. Available from:
Box 11447, Station H, Nepean, ON K2H 7V1. Canada.
Tel: +1-613-823-3844 / Fax: +1-613-825-3092
VISA and MASTERCARD accepted
For more information please contact:
Miguel from Spain is interested in swapping coins. He collects Spanish and bi-metallic world coins and can be contacted at:
Kaska from Poland wants to trade coins and talk to Australian numismatists about the hobby. She has her own home-page at: http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Bistro/5025 or Kaska can be contacted by email at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Michele of Italy has a list of world coins and banknote doubles for trade/exchange for Australian ditto: email@example.com
Make a note in your Internet address book!
Jerry Adams has advised he has, at last, opened up his own homepage, as from 7th February 2000, which will still feature those great stories and information about US tokens that we have found fascinating over the last few years.
Jerry also has some great links to other related token sites including some great commercial connections.
The title of Jerry's new page is "TRADE TOKEN TALES" and it is at: http://www.members.home.net/tokenguy/
For those serious collectors of US tokens, particularly of the West, who wish to contact Jerry, his email is: firstname.lastname@example.org
(This is one of the Editor's most highly recommended sites!)
Another great site worth having a look at for all sorts of worldwide numismatic information has appeared and Rhonda been kind enough to grant us a link space. I will be adding it to the numismatic links available for readers' access at:
We have had another request from César Costa of Portugal in regard to coin swapping. César is still interested in making contact with anyone who wants to correspond and to swap coins. Contact: email@example.com
FROM THE COLUMNS.
PS - Ian has already ordered his copy and has promised to provide us with a review, as soon as possible, after its release.
CAN YOU HELP?
T.N.S. Secretaryor directed to:
G.P.O. Box 884J.
Hobart. Tas. 7001
Honorary Curator Numismatics,Index
Davey St. Hobart. Tas. 7000.
A WORD OF APPRECIATION.
Just after the onset of hostilities on September 30th.
1914, at Blackboy Hill in Western Australia, and giving his occupation
and age as ‘Bushman -30 years old* - Harry Murray attested and was
enlisted as an infantryman and he took part in the Gallipoli landing on
April 25th. 1915. He survived the landing unscathed but, like hundreds
of others at Anzac Cove, he was eventually wounded twice, once on June
18th. and again on August 8th. - but his actions, under fire, came to the
notice of his superiors.
For his gallantry and leadership he was awarded his D.C.M. (London Gazette Aug. 5th. 1915) and promoted to Sergeant.
During this time he had also transferred from the 16th Battalion to the mainly New South Wales 13th. Battalion, 4th. Brigade, 4th. Division and, after recuperating in Egypt from his wounds, he returned to Gallipoli on December 7th. 1915, and may have been evacuated, with another wound, just prior to the famous withdrawal that occurred a few weeks later.
By January 20th. 1916, Murray had already achieved a full
lieutenancy and, by March 1st. he gained further promotion to Captain.
Shortly after his arrival in France, during mid-September 1916, it was
reported in the ‘London Gazette’ that Captain Murray was again wounded
twice, this time in the thigh and back. In all, he was wounded 5 times
and on his Casualty Form - Active Service B.103 - a notation is said to
have declared - ‘Unfit for further service’ - but it didn’t stop
Harry, who just ignored it and went back into action.
He had actually turned 36 years old when he won the Victoria Cross, on 4/5th. February 1917, at Stormy Trench which was north-east of the village of Gueudecourt in France, and the following citation gives an insight to this gallant man’s actions. When he retired, Harry Murray not only held the V.C., but the C.M.G., D.S.O. and Bar, as well as the D.C.M. He was mentioned in despatches on 4 occasions -and he also held the high French award, the Croix de Guerre.
most conspicuous bravery when in command of the right flank company in
attack. He led his company to the assault with great skill and courage,
and the position was quickly captured. Fighting of a very severe nature
followed, and three heavy counter-attacks were beaten back, these successes
being due to Captain Murray's wonderful work. Throughout the night his
company suffered heavy casualties through concentrated enemy shellfire,
and on one occasion gave ground for a short way. This gallant officer rallied
his command and saved the situation by sheer valour. He made his presence
felt throughout the line, encouraging his men, heading bombing parties,
leading bayonet charges, and carrying wounded to places of safety. His
magnificent example inspired his men throughout. (London Gazette: 10th
Tasmanian Numismatist - The Story Behind the Story. (Vol.4 Issue 2) Feb.1999. Compiled by Graeme Petterwood.
EVANDALE PENNY FARTHING CHAMPIONSHIPS.
R - STANDS FOR ROMANS. by Graeme Petterwood.
I first became vaguely interested in Roman coins quite a few years ago when I bought a handful of battered 'cheapies' from M.R. Roberts' Wynyard Coin Centre in Sydney. I then struggled through the devilish process of trying to identify them with the aid of an old MCMXLVIII edition of Seaby's Catalogue of Roman Coins - found in a market box of assorted books - and a very large magnifying glass.
As promised in our January issue of the 'Tasmanian
Numismatist', I will endeavour to give a simple history of this second
great part of Ancient coinage. Again, I will need to draw heavily on works
that have already been published - so forgive me if my interpretation of
events sounds a little familiar. I have also endeavoured to give details
of the original birth names of the emperors and the other figures in brackets
after the name are the years that the emperor actually reigned.
Like Greek coins, the names and terms used are quite daunting to the beginner so I will start by giving a brief run-down of the most common types before we get to the nitty-gritty - and just a few of the juicy bits!
If your collecting habits include Roman coins you will already know that all the ingredients that create Adults Only 'R' restrictions also encompass your hobby - in abundance!
Violence, Murder, Sex and other Adult Themes are all part of the story of Roman Coins.
Head of Janus
mark of value,
Semis. Head of Jupiter " S 6 "
Triens. Head of Minerva " 4 pellets 4 "
Quadrans. Head of Hercules " 3 pellets 3 "
Sextans. Head of Mercury " 2 pellets 2 "
Uncia. Head of Roma or Bellona " 1 pellet
As trade with the more sophisticated Greek settlements became more frequent the need for a silver coinage that was acceptable elsewhere in the Mediterranean became imperative and, in the 3rd century B.C., various imitations of the Greek didrachms started to appear bearing the name ROMA or ROMANO.
'Romano-Campaniam didrachms', as they are commonly called,
were superseded by a more uniform coin we now call a 'quadrigati'
during the later part of the 3rd century B.C. and these, in
turn, were replaced by the 'victoriate' which first appeared during
the Second Punic War. The next major change was c.211 B.C. when the silver
In the meantime, the bronze As coinage still lingered on, but it had been radically reduced in size and weight with 10 asses to a denarius. In a sign of loyalty to their old coinage the Roman denarius was very frequently marked with the Latin symbol X for the 10 asses it now represented.
The denarius was the main silver coin issued during the early Roman Republican period, although a silver quinarius (5 asses) and a silver sestertius , marked IIS (2½ asses) were produced at infrequent intervals. Gold denarius sized coins such as the 'aureus' were also produced - not as part of the normal coinage issues - but at times of civil strife or emergency when military usage was required and mercenaries or foreign allies needed something more universally acceptable than bronze or silver.
During the remainder of the Republican period and from about c 80 B.C. no further copper coinage was issued except for a brief emission in 45 - 44B.C. by Caius Julius Caesar just prior to his assassination on the Ides (15th.) of March 44 B.C.
the control of Caius Octavius Caepias, later known as Caius Julius Caesar
Octavianus, the era of Emperor was firmly established. Proclaimed Emperor
and then Augustus between 29 - 27 B.C. he re-organised the coinage
by keeping the gold and silver issues under his control but, after 23 B.C.,
he was allowing the Senate to issue other coins with the inscription S.C.
Consulto) and, up until 4 B.C., the responsible moneyers' names were
also included in the legends.
Gold also became part of the regular issue as the Empire prospered under Augustus Caesar and values were set at:
25 silver denarii
Quinarius 12½ "
Silver. Denarius 16 asses
Quinarius 8 "
Orichalcum* Sestertius 4 asses
Dupondius 2 asses
Copper. As 4 quadrantes
Quadrans ¼ as
The sestertii of this time are very well executed,
as are the smaller dupondii and asses, and are considered
amongst the most attractive and desirable of Roman coins.
*Orichalcum was a yellow bronze that differentiated the dupondius from the copper as, but, during the reign of the artistic and decidedly murderous Emperor Nero (Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus) (54 - 68 A.D.), a short series of As, Semis and Quadrans were designed and issued by him in both copper and orichalcum.
was also responsible for the introduction of a new coin, the silver antoninianus,
which had a nominated value of 2 denarii but, in fact, only weighed
the equivalent of 1½ denarii.
As well as 'fiddling as Rome burned', Nero also fiddled the Roman coinage by lowering the weight of gold and silver and, in doing so, started the trend by subsequent emperors of debasing the latter metal until, eventually, the circulating money was nearly completely replaced by bronze. Gordian III (238 - 244 A.D.) produced the last of the better quality silver denarii of the times.
During the reign of the soldier emperor, Aurelian (270 - 275 A.D.), a serious attempt was made to reform domestic affairs including the basic coinage, but like others before him, the emperor ignored the silver coinage and the few denarii he issued had, by then, deteriorated to pure bronze. The silver antoninianus coin had also been gradually debased until it was basically a bronze or copper coin with a silver wash but, even so, it drove the bronze denarii out of circulation and became the main circulating coin by the rule of Tacitus (275 - 276 A.D.).
As the fortunes of the Roman Empire expanded and fluctuated throughout the Mediterranean area and Asia it spawned a number of unofficial mints. With the seat of government so far away, many of the areas under Roman control started to churn out poor, and usually smaller copies, of the antoninianus to meet their coinage needs.
These rough, sometimes even hideous, copies of antoniniani are normally referred to as 'barbarous radiates' and normally depict a caricature of a face, with the radiated crown of the emperor, as the only indication of purpose.
In major provincial and colonial centres such as Alexandria,
produced in silver-washed Billon (a low-grade mixture of copper and silver)
were quite common. A hang-over from the Greek settlement days, coins such
as (debased) silver drachms and other associated silver coin denominations,
plus various small-sized bronze coins, had been in circulation for generations
and would continue to do so until the western Roman Empire crumbled. (Apparently,
little is known about the denominations that these small bronze coins -
which vary from 15 - 25 mm. in diameter- represented.)
The amount of gold coins issued became very limited but, because of their strategic importance in time of emergency, the quality remained fine
The reign of certain emperors brought innovations - some
as short lived as their innovators - but several are worth the mention
because of their interest to numismatists.
Trajan Decius (C. Messius Quintas Traianus Decius) (249 - 251 A.D.) introduced a bronze double sestertius - which in fact was only a little heavier than the sestertius of previous emperors - but it died when he was killed at a battle with the Goths.
284 A.D. the coinage was regularised by the very astute Emperor Diocletian
(C. Valerius Diocletianus) (284 - 304 A.D.) who, though he was a
capable military commander, was also a very good statesman - and managed
to live to retirement and old age.
Diocletian issued reasonably good quality silver coins - similar to Nero's denarii in size and weight - and also introduced the follis, a largish thin bronze coin with a silver wash. He also continued with the antoninianus which was similar to the new coin - the comparison of values is still not certain between these two coins - but, before long, the follis declined in size and weight but it appears that this may have been done to save user confusion.
A radical change occurred in 312 A.D. when Constantine
I (Flavius Valerius Constantinus) (306 - 337 A.D.) instituted
a new coinage system based upon the gold solidus and the silver
well as bronzes of various weights and sizes - some very small - and
with denominations we are still guessing at.
It took another 36 years or so before the three heirs of Constantine I (The Great) - Constantine II (Flavius Claudius Julius Constantinus) (317 - 340 A.D.), Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius) (323 - 361 A.D.) and his youngest brother Constans (Flavius Julius Constans) (333 - 350 A.D.) - issued a few more substantial sized coins. Before the eldest and youngest brothers argued, and met dire fates within 10 years of each other, the older brother was responsible for a bronze 18 mm coin whilst Constans introduced the larger bronze centenionales which was carried on by the survivor, Constantius. It was also about this time that a silver double siliqua coin known as miliarense made its appearance.
As with other Roman coins the centenionales was destined to shrink in size as time went on and even the efforts by a usurper, Magnentius (Flavuis Magnus Magnentius) (350 - 353 A.D.) - who rebelled and killed his benefactor, Constans, and then unsuccessfully led an army against Constantius II - to bring back a large 30 mm fine bronze follis style coin (thought to be called pecunia maiorina) was not very well received. He also issued a silver argenteus of 20mm.
Another attempt to introduce the larger bronze coin was made by Julian II (Flavius Claudius Julianus) (355 - 363 A.D.) who was a nephew of Constantine the Great and who inherited the divided empire after the timely death of his cousin, Constantius II in 361A.D.
During all this time nepotism was alive and well, and the proof is in the number of Roman coins that feature the wives, sons and daughters of the rulers of the day - but the empire was also starting to crumble away as rebellions against Roman rule erupted in various far away provinces. Gold was still being used to pay the armies and for use by the hierarchy, but the basic bronzes had been reduced to wafer thin or hard-to-handle little coins and silver money such as the seliqua were in short supply and always of dubious quality.
the start of the end of the Western Roman Empire - with the deposition
of the infant emperor Romulus Augustus, (nicknamed Augustulus) (475
- 476 A.D.) by supporters of Odovacar who in turn surrendered the empire
to Emperor Zeno of Constantinople - the main coins being used were the
its divisions, semisses and tremisses, very little silver
and large quantities of various weight bronzes.
As with Greek coinage, the number of gods, celebrations of victories, animals, architecture and other associated designs - including blatant propaganda featured by the Roman emperors - warrants a greater amount of space than we have available. We thoroughly recommend that interested readers go out and buy any of the newer specialised books that give so much more intimate detail of the lives, the times and the coinage of the Romans - you will find them fascinating.
For the record I have decided to include a very short list, stretching over 160 years or so, of the most prominent of the early coin issuing Emperors - plus a few usurpers - and their fate which, in many cases, was ultimately shared by their families and friends.
Pompey the Great.
Murdered in Egypt 48B.C. after splitting with Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar. Assassinated in Rome 44 B.C.
Brutus. Suicided at Philippi 42 B.C. after his army was defeated.
Sextus Pompey. Taken prisoner and put to death by orders from Octavianus (Augustus) 35 B.C.
Mark Antony. Suicided in Alexandria 30 B.C. after defeat by Octavianus.
Lepidus. Became power hungry and was stripped of most titles and exiled. Died 13 B.C.
Augustus. Died peacefully in 14 A.D.
Drusus Junior. Son of Tiberius - poisoned by his wife, Livilla 23 A.D.
Tiberius. Murdered while in retirement 37 A.D. - probably under orders from Caligula.
Antonia. Daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. Poisoned by her grandson, Caligula 38 A.D.
Caligula. Assassinated 41 A.D. with his wife Caesonia, after years of personal depravity
Claudius. Poisoned by his wife, Agrippina Junior (Caligula's sister and mother of Nero) 54 A.D.
Britannicus. Son and heir apparent of Claudius, poisoned by Agrippina and Nero's orders 55 A.D.
Agrippina Junior. Murdered by the orders of her son, Nero, 59 A.D.
Nero. Killed off all his relatives, including his wives, Octavia and Poppaea, he suicided 68 A.D.
Galba. A strict disciplinarian, he became unpopular and was assassinated 69 A.D. by Otho.
Otho. Suicided after defeat by Vitellius 69 A.D.
Vitellius. Killed by a mob in the streets of Rome after defeat by the army of Vespasian. 69 A.D.
Vespasian. Of humble origin and an industrious ruler, he died peacefully in 79 A.D.
Titus. Son of Vespasian, he took Jerusalem and subjugated the Jews. Died 81 A.D.
Domitian. Oppressive, younger son of Vespasian. Murdered - with the aid of his wife, Domitia. 96 A.D.
Nerva. Appointed as emperor he was a just ruler making many improvements. Died 98 A.D.
Trajan. Adopted by Nerva and made his heir, Trajan was another good ruler and died in 117 A.D.
For 70 years or so - a long period by Roman standards
- the emperors died reasonably peacefully until the megalomaniac, Commodus
Aelius Aurelius Commodus) (180 - 192 A.D.), came to power and the rot
set in again.
From then on the position was virtually a death sentence as, over the next two hundred and eighty years, events such as murder, execution, accidents, 'killed in battle', deposition and intrigue quickly claimed most of the Roman emperors.
The Western Empire finally unravelled in violent fragmentation and the era of the Byzantine rulers commenced - but that is another story!
Greek and Roman Coins. By J.G. Milne. Published by Methuen & Co. Ltd. 1939.
Seaby's Catalogue of Roman Coins. Compiled by Gilbert Askew. Published by B.A. Seaby Ltd. 1948.
Roman Coins and their values. (4th. Edition) By David R. Sear. Published by Seaby Publications Ltd. 1988.
CASUAL PRE-PAID ADVERTISING.
First 60 x 60 square = $10.00. (Each additional square up to 6 squares = $5.00 extra.)
1/4 page across (3 squares) = $20.00
1/2 page across (6 squares) = $35.00
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Full page (12 squares) = $50.00*
1/3 page down (4 squares) = $25.00
2/3 page down (8 squares) = $40.00*
Single insertions in 3 or more consecutive issues - Advert.
rate less 5%
Multiple insertions (2 or more adverts.) in one issue - Advert. rate less 10%
Multiple insertions in 3 or more consecutive issues - Advert. rate less 20%
If an advertiser requests an advertisement to coincide
with a particular event, that advert. would be given priority, whenever
possible, bearing in mind our publishing deadline and conditions. It is
preferable that advertisements be presented in text form only - which we
can stylise with our computer applications -and bear in mind the fact that
we are only a voluntary newsletter, not a magazine, and do not have facilities
to reproduce items to magazine quality.
Advertisements would be clearly marked ‘Advertisement’.
The advert. will also appear in the Internet edition at no additional cost. Any items received too late for a current hard-copy issue - or in the event of space restrictions - would be held over until the next available issue if they are still relevant,
The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ reserves the right to reject any advertisement that does not comply with the normal expectations commonly accepted by the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society Inc.’, the ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ and by law.