Volume 17 Issue 3        Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)     March 2012



Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2012.


All or any prices quoted in articles in this free newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the authors' own collection - or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' -  Internet Edition © 1991 - 2007.  and the  'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition. © 2007 - 2012.  

Krause-Mishler (KM) Standard World Catalogs - and McDonald and/or Renniks Australian catalogue numbers, are used where applicable.

*Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes.)


Please, also, consider my conditional invitation, to make a literary contribution, if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest - and fulfils our stated editorial guidelines. 

As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in additional presentation. 

However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication. 

We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has necessitated the following conditions.

If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagiarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbyist collector.  - G.E.P.



Where on-line web-site Links or addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith - however, our readers are advised, that, if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.



You may wonder what this 'Numisnet World' Trivia Tribute has to do with money .....!

Not a lot - in this instance - but, it does reflect something about contemporary values.


Movies are, by nature, visual events with sound attached - no matter what the story content, or, the acting ability of those who bring the characters to life. Sometimes, the story holds together and the actors get the visual and sound combination just right - and the public repay them by presenting their accolades in the form of audience participation - and that can mean really Big Bucks!

Along with the usual 'pot-boilers', the better movies are often recycled in the form of CD and Rental to thousands of others who did not chance to see it in a cinema. Some regularly replay as 'stock-fillers' on TV networks each year - some to the point of 'ad nauseum' - but, some others do attract a new audience and re-enthral the older one.

The one I intend to mention is one of the latter - because of the special moments that embedded themselves in the psyche of those who had seen the film, and fallen under its spell, so long ago.


Recent records indicate that the 1992 movie, 'The Bodyguard', starring Kevin Costner (pic. left) with his choice of co-star, singer Whitney Houston (below), is still the # 123 highest grossing movie ever to grace the theatre screen

That's not as high on the list of movies as the producers and their accountants would have liked, of course - but it's still an impressive spot to retain, for so long, on an incredibly large and growing list - and, it was up in the prestigious Top 100 for some considerable time before time caught up with it.

History has shown that the movie was a great success - and, it also meant that a lot of box-office and royalty money has been changing hands over the last 20 years!!

The story-line was fairly basic, the acting was adequate but not outstanding - and, it had harsh critics  - however - the paying public loved the plot, the stars and the music, and all these bits fell into place to make it something special.


Originally written in the 1970's, to star the late Steve McQueen and singer Diana Ross - the story languished when those stars couldn't agree on who should top the bill!

Several attempts were made to resurrect it with other name players, but to no avail - until Kevin Costner read the script and decided to accept the lead as the 'Bodyguard' - with an acting novice, Whitney Houston, to portray the 'star singer' under threat of assassination.

The movie role proved to be a speeding comet for the vivacious 28 y.o. Whitney Houston's career - and she hitched the ride!!

The film included several smash hit songs, performed by Whitney - including the hugely impressive mega-hit  'I Will Always Love You' (written and performed by Dolly Parton - and others - as a country-western hit tune from 1973 onwards) and the other Oscar-nominated songs 'I Have Nothing.' and 'Run to You!' which were also both memorable hits. The movie version of the Dolly Parton's hit song - previously released twice by the writer-singer - and a massive hit each time - virtually became one of Whitney Houston's themes - and her 1992 version stayed as #1 on Billboard Top 100 music charts for over 14 weeks before it was dislodged by an Elton John song.


However, the coin of success - that was tossed so high - had to turn several times on its way back down to earth.

A line of dialogue spoken by singer Rachel Marron, the character played by Whitney Houston, to Kevin Costner's character, bodyguard Frank Farmer, in the limousine scene, on the way to the film's Oscar Award's Night dramatic climax, has been proven to be strangely prophetic.

"When your times up - it's up ... right, Frank?!"

After the recent, apparently accidental, bath-drowning death, on February 11th. 2012, of the 48y.o. troubled, singer-actress Whitney Houston - (born under the rampant Leo star-sign as Whitsey Elizabeth Houston on August 9th. 1963) the original movie is bound to gain a new lease of life - abeit, on the back of the tragedy - and, although the public is not buying the idea just at present, there is already talk of a remake of the film in the future. 


If it does get made - will a new version of 'The Bodyguard'  be a drama with or without contemporary music - or, will it follow in the original's successful footsteps and try to use the existing musical score - who knows? Did we see a unique - never be topped - performance in 1992?

Distributed by Warner Bros., the original movie made $122 million domestically, and $289 million abroad by 2012 - a massive total of near $411 million ...and, it is still steadily earning money with DVD sales and rentals!  In anyone's language, that's a lot of money!

The sales of composer Dolly Parton's enduring hit - 'I Will Always Love You' - may soar even higher than the 2009 recorded 'diamond' level of 4.5 million singles - if - they can find someone with the virtually unique vocal talent of the late Whitney Houston - whose sad, squandered life has now been well dissected and publicly documented.

Perhaps, they will...but, the choice may be second-best for those of us who saw the blazing comet, that was Whitney Houston!



1963 - 2012

Internet Site.

WARNING - *Please note that this linked musical finale video site shares viewer comments - and, it does contain explicit written adult language from some of those commentators.*

Refer:- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oyQdCJwJZck&feature=related





(Scan enlarged)


In 2002, we had asked for readers' co-operation in assisting a 'Miscellaneous Q & A' correspondent check out the origin of some mysterious 'maverick' tokens from a business called 'William Brothers - Direct Supply Stores Ltd.'  

The assorted shaped and sized tokens, shown on the supplied scan, appeared to be made from Tin.

Refer:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june2002.htm

The answers were very slow in coming -  so we asked again in 2003 - mainly for our own un-sated curiosity!

Refer:- http://www.vision.net,au/~pwood/april2003.htm


This time the effort was a little more rewarding, but, it was still lacking in some essential details.

We were advised that several scarce Brass tokens had also been issued, presumably along with the small change Tin items.

There were rumours of denominations valued at Five, Ten and Twenty Shillings -and - it was also reported that a Tin Two Pence token was also known to be in existence.

The trail then went cold - and was almost forgotten, lost in our archives, after we had a partial computer melt-down in the mid -2000's..

However, on 6th. November 2011, another email arrived, unexpectedly. from another  reader, David Girling, of Spain.

The interest was stirred again - the story was found and resurrected - and it was still, painfully, taking shape until mid January 2012.


"Williams Bros were apparently a London based Grocery chain with a shop at 146-158 Holloway Road, London, England. Their tokens were Tin ( 'Bracteated Tin' or I have seen them described as Iron-tinned).  The lower values were uni-faced with the design looking as if it was stamped into the thin metal and showing through in reverse on the Obverse.
These tokens were Loyalty Tokens based on a similar principle to the British Co-Operative Dividend Tokens and could presumably be used for purchases only in the issuing store/s.
Williams Brothers were one of the last shops to issue tokens and I have seen the date ascribed for these as 1930 to 1960.
I hope this is of interest, and a help.
Regards, David Girling
Olivella. Barcelona Province, Spain.

Williams Brothers' Two Pence and Six Pence Tin Tokens.


However, at long last, we have received the crucial 'lock-in' piece in the puzzle - and we believe we have now solved most of the mystery - with the assistance of our most recent correspondent, Terry Prue.

It appears that 'Williams Brothers' (sometimes shown as 'Bros.') were grocers and butchers and had a chain of stores cross south-eastern areas of England - although their businesses have long since changed hands and ceased operations. The old painted name-signs on brick facades are, sometimes, still visible above newer supplanted business fronts.

Terry has recently forwarded a link to a good contemporary 'Les Bailey' photoscan of one of the 'William Brothers - Direct Supply Stores Limited'  businesses in Romford U.K., - as well as a scan of a family heirloom recently acquired - a Five Shillings "William Bros. - Direct Supply Stores Ltd." token, in Brass, which adds to those other scans we had already accumulated.



Five Shillings Brass token.

(Scan supplied by Terry Prue - Enlarged)


The following email from Terry is self-explanatory and, once again, unlocked the pages of this long drawn-out mystery - and, for that, we are very grateful..

"We found a 5/- token from this company in a sewing box inherited from an Aunt - so we 'Googled' it - and found your 2002 newsletter that was asking for more details of who they were.  If you have not covered this in later editions, here is a link to some photos and a few comments about the origins, and fates, of the Williams' stores."


 William Brothers' old store in Romford, Sussex.

Sugar was 'on special' that day - 2 lbs (that's nearly a Kilogram) for One Shilling (10 UK Pence)

Refer 'Les Bailey' ('flickr') site for other nostalgic and historic photos - plus some information.





Lady Hazel Lavery.

1880 - 1935

The Unforgettable Face of Ireland.

developed from an email received from Mr. Terence Browne, Sandycove, Dublin, Ireland.

Re-printed from the Archives of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) - March 2002.


"How does an American woman who never set foot in Ireland until she was thirty four years of age end up as the currency icon after Irish Independence? With the introduction of the single European Currency we are set to loose Hazel Lavery from her last refuge, the watermark on all the paper currency, with effect from  9th February, 2002.." .........


This was the question, and brief comment, received from correspondent, Terence Browne, of Sandycove, Dublin, Ireland in early February 2002, and, for those who mourn the passing of individual icons from European currency, the hauntingly beautiful portrait of Lady Hazel Lavery, which has featured on Irish banknotes since 1928, will be one of those that will be remembered with a passion by older generations of Irishmen and women.


Who was Hazel Lavery?

Our correspondent answered that himself in an additional comment in the email - and we also learnt more from edited extracts from correspondence that is available from the Internet amongst the many references to the Laverys'


Quote - "Hazel Lavery brokered Ireland's treaty settlement with the British Empire in December, 1921. Four British Prime Ministers were taken by her; so too the Irish independence movement leadership of Michael Collins and Kevin O'Higgins." ........

It was a nice little intrigue that led to Hazel's selection over all the native beauties. Thomas Bodkin, then director of the National Gallery in Dublin was fond of Hazel and grateful to her for seeking to sponsor his candidacy for the office of Irish ambassador to London. Although she was unsuccessful in this effort on Bodkin's behalf, he engineered that the currency design brief would not be squandered on some squabbling committee. Bodkin secured the Irish Government's agreement to appoint John Lavery, the Belfast artist, to paint an image representative of Irish female beauty. Lavery was chosen as a mark of appreciation for his assistance with the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations in London between October and early December, 1921.  But it was Hazel who did the diplomatic work not John. With Bodkin's full knowledge and consent, Lavery chose to paint his wife. It was not until the papers hit the streets that the natives got to know who had been selected to represent Irish female beauty; a sixth generation American-Irish" ..... Unquote.     


Quote - "The portrait is of Lady Hazel Lavery (nee Martyn) who was a sixth generation Chicago gal (voted the most beautiful girl in the mid-west c.1902). Hazel married the portrait artist Sir John Lavery and, after a decade of flirtatious living (at least), she changed the course of Irish History. She is rumoured to have had a passionate affair with Michael Collins during the first Anglo-Irish treaty talks in London in 1921. 

Hazel drove Collins to Downing Street on 5th December, 1921 and convinced him at the very last moment to sign for peace instead of all-out war. The document was duly signed on the 6th December and the rest is history. 

Hazel was rewarded with the honour of appearing on our Irish currency where she survived to this day in the form of a watermark.  

If you are ever in Dublin you should visit her at the National Gallery.

I would also highly recommend her biography "Hazel - A Life of Lady Lavery"  by Sinead McCoole, Lilliput Press 1996. ........ Unquote.


John Lavery (1856 - 1941), a widower since 1891, first met Hazel Martyn Trudeau, the daughter of a Chicago industrialist of Irish extraction, on a painting trip with her mother to Concarneau in Brittany in 1904. At that time, Hazel was a vivacious 23 y.o. - about twenty-five years younger than Lavery - and she was already the wife of a Canadian doctor, Edward Livingston Trudeau Jnr.

Five months after their marriage in December 1903 - the young Dr.Trudeau died of Tuberculosis and left her pregnant with a small daughter, Alice who was born in late 1904. 

On 21st. July 1909, Hazel (then 29 y.o.) and John Lavery married in London - and, she became his most frequent sitter. 

Lavery was obsessed by her beauty - and he painted her many times in various relaxed casual poses.


"Mother and Child" (Lady Hazel Lavery with her daughter, Alice.)

"The Red Rose" (Lady Hazel Lavery.)

painted by Sir John Lavery


(One painting, in particular, entitled 'The Red Rose' is regarded as one of his best works - although, in fact, it had been over-painted three times with various famous sitters. Started in 1892 as a portrait of a Mrs. William Burrell, the painting was transformed, in 1912, into that of Sarah Bernhardt - and later, for a brief period, to that of Viscountess Curzon.  The final rendition with the face of his wife, Lady Hazel, is the most memorable. )

Refer: http://www.firepowr.com/lavery.html


Hazel was a beautiful and fashionable woman who also liked to draw and paint - in fact, she was quite talented in her own right - and her paintings were used as illustrations in several well known books of the era, including 'A Little Brother of the Rich' by Joseph Medill-Patterson, published by The Reilly & Britton Company, Chicago, 1908.

Patterson was an important working member of the famous Medill-Patterson newspaper families of Chicago and he later went on to found the New York Illustrated tabloid 'Daily News'.  He was also a highly decorated hero from WWI and a politician as well as serving as editor of the 'Chicago Tribune'.

His choice of Hazel, as an illustrator for his book, indicated her talent.

A sample of one of her paintings used as a frontispiece can be seen at : http://vox.popula.com/vintage/covers/draft1.html


However, the most widely known portrait of her is that which adorned the Irish pound note until the 1970s.

It was still found in the watermark of all Irish paper currency until the introduction of the Euro in 2002.. 


The Central Bank of Ireland One Pound Banknote

(Scan courtesy of Terence Browne.)

Portrait of Lady Hazel Lavery entitled "Cathleen Ni Houlihan" 

by Sir John Lavery.


The Irish Free State government invited John Lavery to paint his wife's portrait for the Republic's currency as a token of gratitude for the help that  Sir John, and Lady Lavery, gave to the Irish delegation during the negotiations for the Anglo-Irish Treaty in London in 1921.

Another portrait of Lady Hazel Lavery, with her hand to her chin and leaning on an Irish harp, was used on the 10, 20, 50 and 100 Irish Pounds issued by the Currency Commission of the Irish Free State between 1928 - 1937.(see above)

The lower denominations - 10/-, 1, and 5 Pounds - from all the various issuing agencies - continued to feature the 'face only' portrayal. (see above)

The Currency Commission of Ireland 1938 - 1939 issued the 10 pounds with the full design and again in the 1940 - 1941 issue.

The Central Bank of Ireland also had the full portrait 10 pounds and 20 pounds issued between 1943 - 1944 and another issue with variations in banknote text that overlapped between 1943 - 1945 and covered the complete large denomination range. 

Both portrait designs were continued by the Central Bank of Ireland over the years ,until on 4th. April 1977, the public saw the last of the 50 and 100 Pounds issued with Lady Hazel as the featured icon. 

Although there is no printers' names on the Lavery notes, it is known that those issued between 1928 - 1959 were produced by Waterlow & Sons Ltd.-  and those from 1959 - 1976 were from Thomas De La Rue, both located in England.

From February 1976, there was a progressive replacement of the Lady Lavery designs with a more comprehensively 'Irish' series - but her portrait remained as a watermark until the national currency was superseded by the single European currency on January 1, 2002.



Standard Catalog of World Paper Money (General Issues) Vols. 2 - 3 - Edited by Colin R. Bruce II & George S. Cuhaj.


Internet Sources.






The esteem that the majority of the Australian public had for the Monarchy, has often been reflected in the area of issued medals and medallions - from the pre-Federation era until the present day as we pause once more to reflect on our independent position as a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.

It is my pleasure to present a small selection of some of the medallic reminders of Imperial greatness that I have - or have been able to access -  for our readers' perusal.



Minted & leather-cased by SPINK & SON, London

Obverse legend:- "Victoria annum Regni Sexagesimum feliciter claudit XX Iun MDCCCXCVII".( Victoria celebrating 60 years as Queen - 20th. June 1897)

Reverse legend:- "Longitudo dierum in dextera eius et sinistra in Gloria" - (Long life is in her right hand, and in her left are wealth and honour..  


A Diamond Jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 60th Anniversary.

In the United Kingdom, a Diamond Jubilee is held in celebration of a monarch's 60th year on the throne.

Queen Victoria celebrated her jubilee on 20th. June, 1897 - and our current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is presently celebrating her own Diamond Jubilee this year.

The 26mm.Silver medallion (shown above) features the two main effigies generally associated with Queen Victoria - as the dearly-loved elderly monarch, wearing crown and veil, after celebrating 60 years on the English throne - and, as the attractive young woman she was at the beginning of her reign in 1837.

These depictions are commonly called the 'Veiled Head' and the 'Young Head' - and are identical to those used on English coinage of the era - and the Latin text is appropriate for the occasion.


The 'official' medallion was possibly produced by several private mints - including those from Spink & Son of London - and the obverse portrait die of the medallion is that designed by Sir Thomas Brock KCB RA (1847 - 1922), and the reverse die was prepared by William Wyon (1795 - 1851) who were noted sculptor/engravers once employed by the Royal Mint. 

It has been reported that approx. 246,270 of these medals were produced overall - that seems a fair amount - but, they are relatively scarce in good condition outside of the UK.. At least, one well-cared for - but uncased - item found its way to Tasmania - and into the author's collection.


The celebrations to honour Queen Victoria extended to all nations within the British Empire, and many states, cities and towns also joined in by issuing their own memorabilia. Many similar 'authorized' medallions produced by Australian die-strikers, Stokes & Sons - and others, also  flooded out to the public.



Diamond Jubilee - Australia's Celebration (Carlisle #1897/1)

 Obverse - Co-joined busts of the 'Young Head' and 'Veiled Head' and dates.

Reverse Legend: 'Diamond Jubilee - Australia's Celebration' and the stylized Australian Coat-of-Arms enclosed.


Launceston Volunteer Artillery at Paterson Barracks 1902

Practising the Royal Salute for King Edward VII's Coronation. (Gun-crew un-named.)

The Guns would often be re-located to Windmill Hill, overlooking the city, for ceremonial purposes.

(Historic pic. reprinted courtesy 'The Artillery News' - March/May issue 2009)


Obverse - Bust of King Edward VII. Reverse - Bust of Queen Alexandra.

"These medallions are found with two different dates, 26th June 1902, and 9th August 1902. This is because the coronation was originally scheduled for the earlier date, but Edward had to undergo an emergency appendectomy operation, so the coronation was postponed until the later date."

(Scan and text courtesy of CHARD - Refer:- http://www.24carat.co.uk/index.html)


The 1902 official English round medallion, struck at the Royal Mint, was issued to celebrate the Coronation of King Edward VII and his Queen Alexandra and it was only awarded to people who attended the coronation, or participated in the coronation parade. It was issued in silver to members of the Royal family, foreign dignitaries, senior government officials and service officers involved in the coronation parade. Selected NCOs and other ranks involved in the coronation parade received the medal in bronze. It was available in two sizes 56mm. and 31mm.

A unknown total number of medals were issued, but  included 138 bronze and 8 silver to Australians.

Refer:- http://www.medallions.co.uk/1902coronationmedallion.html


Another crowned medal (similar to the one shown below) is 42 millimetres in height and 30 millimetres wide with the obverse side having a co-joined profile of King Edward VII and his wife Queen Alexandra. The reverse side has the date of the coronation ceremony (26 June 1902) below the Royal Cypher. (Sample not shown)

Obverse - Co-joined busts. Reverse - Launceston Town Hall and text. (Carlisle # 1902/22 - McNeice #22.)

(Scans courtesy of Museum Victoria's Collection.)


A limited edition medallion (2000 pieces total) in Silver and Gilded Bronze and dated 1902 (shown above) was produced for the Launceston City Council, in Northern Tasmania, by Stokes & Son of Melbourne.. About 40 other Australian corporate authorities also commissioned similar styled medallions.

The obverse of the crowned heart-shaped un-holed medallion (39mm x 27mm.) bore co-joined busts of King Edward and Queen Alexandra and the reverse depicted the Launceston Town Hall and the initials and name of  Mayor Frederick K. Fairthorne.



Obverse - Co-joined busts. Reverse - Legend and State of Victoria's Coat of Arms (Carlisle #1911/23)


Due to the sudden death of King Edward on 6th. May, 1910, the second coronation - within a decade- occurred.

The format of medallions issued for King George V and his Queen, Mary, was similar to that of his predecessor .

As usual, Australian medal-makers were commissioned to produce medallions by those cities and towns who  proclaimed their loyalty to the new monarch.



Various co-joined Busts of the King and Queen. - dated May 1937

(l.to r.) - Australian Celebrations Bronze Maltese Cross featuring text and Coat of Arms 27mm. (Carlisle #1937/1)

City of Launceston Coat of Arms Silvered Bronze 29mm. (Carlisle #1937/22 - McNeice #29.15)

Victoria Coat of Arms and text on Bronze 31mm. (Carlisle #1937/10)



1937 Australian Crown & 1938 Australian Crown coin.

Value 5 Shillings - 92.5% Silver - 7.5% Copper.  (Dia. 38.5mm. Weight 28.27grams)

The commemorative appeal of the 1937 coin was diminished when another Crown was issued in 1938. (Shown above)

(The 1938 coin has attained a much higher market value than the 1937 original - due to a mintage of only 101,000 pieces compared to 1,008,000).



CHARD of Blackpool. A highly recommended commercial site* - Refer:- http://www.24carat.co.uk/index.html.

Tasmanian Commemorative Medals and Medallions' 1853 - 1990 (Volume 2.) - by Roger V McNeice OAM, FRNS.

'Australian Historical Medals' 1788 - 1988 - by Les Carlisle (2008)

Museum Victoria (Coins & Medals 1900 - 1934). Refer:-  http://www.museumvictoria.com.au/coins/




 Blackpool, Lancashire. England.

Recommended Commercial Site.

In 2009, I had my first, very agreeable, direct email contact with the prestigious English numismatic business - CHARD.

Normally, I don't make a habit of recommending international commercial enterprises - unsolicited or otherwise - but, when I do find a good one - I hope I am not remiss either. However, do as I did - take a really good look!  Check it out! 

The company has proven to be extremely helpful to me, on a professional level, by kindly making available selected information for publication in this newsletter. It is purely in the interest of our newer readers, that I have again decided to include the internet address of CHARD's  Index page.


Hopefully, you are just in time for some great specialized personal shopping for 2012 - especially if you live in the U.K. - or, if you can't call in - browse their Internet site for those other special gift selections throughout this Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee year! 


Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee
To commemorate the Diamond Jubilee of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in 2012, Chard have commissioned a magnificent medallion.

It is available in two versions, one with the Young Head reverse, the other version with the Crown design.

Check current Index page.


521 Lytham Road

Email:- enquiries@chards.co.uk

International Telephone: (44) - (0) 1253 - 343081 & 316238

Int. Fax: (44) - (0) 1253 - 408058

REFER:-  http://www.24carat.co.uk/index.html




P.S. - CHARD - handles a lot more than just coins and medals!

If CHARD's staff, for instance, are asked to supply additional information, or professionally research an item in a reader's collection, an appropriate 'Enquiry Fee' system is in place - and this is properly imposed if a client's query and answer falls into this extended search category. There are wages to pay and costs to be recouped - so this is all good commercial sense - and a valuable 'fact of life' lesson - that needs to be understood, especially by those collectors who are starting out, and those who still need to realize what the term - 'mutually rewarding' - can mean, especially when you happen upon a good retail dealer and go about establishing a quality bond.

It has to work both ways!


Editor's Reminder Note!

I, respectfully, ask our readers not to waste any of our recommended dealers' valuable time with frivolous queries about individual items of trivia - even though most are usually very obliging - remember, they are very busy and professional sales businesses and not free 'Q & A' forums .......so, please, think about it - and don't abuse our hard-won links! 

'Numisnet World'  already has a 'Recent Q & A's' column for such information requests - and will do it's best to assist.



'Numisnet World'


At many local week-end ‘flea-markets’, our numismatic ‘magpies’ will often discover a stall that has, amongst its bric-a-brac, a lonely cardboard box containing various amounts of interesting, well-thumbed through ‘junk’ currency and ‘shrapnel’ coinage.

Some of these come from estate clearances or are souvenirs from a previous era. 

As a ‘magpie’ with years of experience, I have learned to NEVER EVER dismiss these boxes as total rubbish until I have examined the contents thoroughly.  A recent email correspondent is also a ‘magpie’ - or, in grave danger of becoming one.

Our reader has hoarded, at least, one item of numismatic interest that came from a late relative's paraphernalia - or, perhaps from a market.

However, it was decided, that the item needed to be explained before the final decision - to save it or sell it - has to be made.


QUESTION  - "I have some money that has been said to be a $1.00 1930 China Imperial Military currency note - do you know a place that might be interested in it?"

ANSWER - "Regrettably, without further descriptive information - or a scan - it is difficult to give a definite answer to your question. Chinese money can be a real puzzle - even for an experienced gatherer!  Usually these low denomination notes are very dependant on condition to determine market value - usually, they sell for just a few dollars - even if pristine."


After requesting more detail and, consequently, receiving the scans, I immediately concluded that it was Japanese in origin - and, whilst this note did not have the expected official Japanese Military scrip markings across the centre of the note - and - the design appeared too 'new' to have been a military issue from China in the 1930's - it did have similarities to other Japanese war-time issues.

It certainly could have circulated in parts of China, during the time of the 1940's Japanese WWII invasion and  'co-operative sphere' expansion, and, it could have been found there. However, the serial number suggested it was most probably printed, originally, as a Japanese homeland issue note.

At least, I had a more positive starting point for my search.


The reader's mystery note!

N.D. (1943 issue) - Bank of Japan - Nippon Ginko Ken - One Yen (Revised catalog number KM#49a)

Front - featuring statesman Takeuchi Sukune - (Block #24, Serial Number 536734, value characters and two circular Red Seals). 

Back - featuring Ube Shrine in wreath with denomination in characters.

The note is tentatively graded as "about Very Good" - with 'dog-eared' corners and creased edges not extending into the design..

(Original scans courtesy of reader, S. Fouts)


ANSWER - "Thank you, S ...., for the scans - they have helped a great deal. 

The Japanese Imperial Chrysanthemum was the vital clue!

After a catalogue search of Japanese war-time notes - as well as the occupation issues distributed in China, I believe I have found your mystery item.

It is, in fact, a non-dated 1943 issue 'Bank of Japan' - 1 Yen - and it is listed in the recent Krause Publications Volume 2 - Standard Catalog of 'World Paper Money' . It has recently been re-catalogued as KM#49a (formerly KM51).

This note would have been printed for use on the Japanese homeland islands- but, it is possible that some could have reached parts of China with the invading soldiers at that time - even if they are not listed as a Military issue.

The note features the portrait of Takeuchi Sukune on the front - and a picture of the Ube Shrine on the back - in a circular sort of wreath. 

The front background should have a light green-blue tint - with a pink and grey background around the portrait of the famous Japanese statesman.

The Block numbers on this denomination went from 1 - 34, (yours is Block #24) and each Block had its own sequence of Serial numbers - so that meant many thousands of these notes may have been printed.

Quite often, older homeland notes were over-printed and adapted as military money - but this one has no such markings.

However, as several different design styles and denomination notes bearing the same image of T. Sukune, were printed for specific use in China - it is feasible to imagine that this note could have been passed to make a purchase - I wouldn't think too many questions would have been asked at that time!."


In its worn condition, the reader's note is listed as worth about 50 US cents retail, in Krause's Standard Issues World Paper Money' catalogue .

I feel that, in today's market, that price is a little bit mean - a Dollar or two, might be a more realistic ask from a J. I. M. note collector - although, there are a lot of these notes in better condition still in cardboard boxes at local markets - if you can find them!

However, even in good clean, unwrinkled, whole condition - it would still only be worth about US$10.00

An interesting piece with a story to tell - even if it is not worth a fortune!



With a few exceptions - like the Philippine Peso notes (shown below) - most  WWII issues of Japanese Invasion Money were for use by the general public in the dominated areas after national currencies were banned - (these de-facto notes were also commonly referred to as J.I.M.) - had no Serial numbers.

The early low denomination J.I.M. notes were mainly printed from of a compilation of printing plates featuring generic designs that could be 'mixed and matched' to suit requirements. If you collect these notes this will be a feature you cannot miss.

1943 Sumatra (Netherland-Indies) low value Cent and Gulden denominations - 'J.I.M.' note reverses.

Generic reverse designs of many Japanese Government invasion currency notes were like these - but colours varied..

The back of the notes usually featured the denomination in number form enclosed in a fairly simple guilloche, although, some were more elaborate - depending on the denomination, and the importance of the area in which they were to be used. (Note - Scans are not to size but for viewing purposes only.)




Various Japanese Invasion Money notes.

Printed for use in Burma (B), Malaya (M), Sumatra (Netherlands-Indies) (S) and Oceania (OC).

Various Area Letters - but no Block or Serial Numbers.

(Please note that not all denominations mentioned are illustrated.)

Burma  - KM#9 - 17, in Cents and Rupees (missing 10Cents KM#11and One Rupee KM#14)

Malaya - KM#M1 - 8, in Cents and Dollars ( missing 10Cents KM3M3 and 50Cents KM#M4)

Sumatra - KM#119 - 125, in Cents and Gulden (missing One Gulden KM#123 and 5Gulden KM#124)

Sumatra - KM#126 - 133, in Roepiah (missing 100 Roepiah KM#126; 1000Roepiak KM#127) - revised design issue (missing 1/2 Roepiah KM#128; 5Roepiah KM#130; 100Roepiah KM#132; 1000Roepiah KM#133.)

Oceania - KM# 1 - 4, in Shillings and Pounds (missing 1/2Shilling KM#1; Ten Shillings KM#3 and One Pound KM#4.)


N.D. 1942 Generic-style notes for Philippines use.

Between 1 - 10 Centavos were similar to Burma and Malaya.

*Note the ink-stamp on some of these notes.

The stamp has not altered the numismatic market value of these notes in a dramatic way - it was applied by an organization that endeavoured to obtain some reparation for the notes, that had been in forced circulation, during the Japanese occupation. However, many of the notes bearing the stamp are in pristine condition and bear no obvious signs of circulation. The claim was eventually unsuccessful - due to the fact that the alleged destruction, of the huge stockpiles of unissued notes, could not be verified. The abundance of supply has had a permanent effect on the price - although some notes are scarce.


N. D. (1943 issues) Japanese notes for Philippines Islands use.

 1 Peso (KM# 109a), 5 (KM#110),10 Pesos (KM#111) and 100 Pesos (KM#112) - (also showing generic reverses.)

The Philippines had a large issue of low denomination generic-styled Invasion notes distributed in 1942 and 1943.

Low denominations were similar to those issued in Burma and Malaya, as it saved altering the printing plates too much - from One Centavo up to 10 Centavos (KM#102 - 104) - however, from 50 Centavo to 10 Pesos (KM#105 - 108) the notes were a little more elaborate with the adapted and resized  generic Plantation scene - as used on some other invasion notes.  The old 'mix 'n' match'  principle!

A more elaborate series of reasonable quality (engraved plates) Peso currency, featuring the Rizal Monument in Manilla, were issued in 1943 with Serial and Block numbers from One Peso up to 100 Pesos  (KM#110 - 113).

The  500 Pesos Rizal (KM#114) and a stand-alone text design 1000Peso note (KM#115) were the only inflationary issues in 1944.(Samples not available.)


N.D. (1938 - 45 issues) Japanese Military Currency - Japanese Imperial Government

Most are over-stamped in large Red Military characters to that effect. No serial numbers.

Top and Centre - 100 Yen (KM#M29*) & 10 Yen (KM#M27*)

*These notes were specifically for Military use in Hong Kong and Hainan Islands*

Bottom - 5 Yen (KM#M25) & 50 Sen (KM#M14)

N.D. (1930 issue) Bank of Japan

(Convertible notes) Homeland Issue. Nippon Ginko Dakan Ken - 10 Yen note (KM#39) - with Serial and Block numbers.


N.D. (1938 issue) Japanese Military Currency - Japanese Imperial Government

This later version of the 1930 note - minus Serial and Block numbers, and some text positional changes - was issued for Hong Kong use.

It was printed on slightly inferior paper with text changes below the Imperial Chrysanthemum. Several varieties exist.

The note bears four large red characters - for 'Military Notes' - overprinted across front and  reverse. (KM#27)


  Chun Yung  Shou  P'iao


Main Reference:-

'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money' (12th.Edition)- published by Krause Publications - edited by George S. Cuhaj.




'NUMISNET WORLD' July 2007 - December 2011

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Issue 1. January 2012:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan12.htm

THE LURE OF EXONUMIA -  Old father 'Numismatics' may be shown as a fairly frugal, staid and patient, comfortably plump gentleman relatively set in his ways - whereas, his elder son - that inquisitive and brash, young-at-heart - 'Exonumia' - will always remain keen, lean and hungry, as he tries to satisfy his gnawing need for something different. He is the human part of the greater hobby - and, he runs on nervous energy, at times.

There is rarely a 'state of complete satisfaction' - as the adventures of discovery unfold!


Issue 2. February 2012:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/feb12.htm

COLLECTOR'S MILLSTONE? - I use this word - 'plethora' - a lot these days, as the outpourings from Australia's Mint reaches pest proportions for collectors who need to make budget choices. It is becoming painfully obvious, that a split in the collecting habits of Oz numismatists is just around the corner -  and, it will divide the men from the boys, down financial lines, into hobbyists and investors - and, possibly, art-lovers who collect might even get a say!

BUY THE BOOK! - Never have so few words meant so much in today's volatile numismatic market. Greg McDonald's 'Australian Coins and Banknotes'  Pocket Guide - is again proving its worth with this information-crammed 19th. Edition.

U.S. STEEL CENTS. Have they a FUTURE? - Costs of manufacture are escalating in all industries - and that includes making our money. The future for small change looks grim as many nations are now rationalizing their hard cash.

THE FINISH OF THE FINNISH MARKKA? - All over central Europe this month - hoards of old national currency are going to surface as the deadline for final exchange with Euros draws near - not all nations will be involved - but those that are will feel a pang of  nostalgia - and more than a little unease.


Issue 3. March 2012:-

TRIVIA TRIBUTE - The multi-million dollar movie 'The Bodyguard' (1992) starring Kevin Costner was also the catalyst for the late Whitney Houston's acting career. With her truly remarkable voice - coupled with her undoubted good looks - she captivated the theatre audiences 20 years ago with the movie adaptation of the enduring hit song "I Will Always Love You" which was originally written and recorded, in 1973, by Dolly Parton, as a C&W song. Goodbye, Whitney!

A LONG SEARCH IS FINALLY OVER! - At long last, we have sufficient scans available - and enough information courtesy of our correspondents -  to complete a puzzle that has keep this editor awake and guessing for a nearly a decade. We now know about their tokens, and - the who and what - former English company, 'WILLIAMS BROTHERS - DIRECT SUPPLY STORES Ltd.' - actually  were!

A BLAST FROM THE PAST - Lady Hazel Lavery. - American-born, Irish beauty - Hazel Lavery (nee Martyn) - will be remembered as the face on Irish currency before the Euro took over in 2002.  The reminiscence is in order now a decade has passed her by.

THE ROYALS - This year is the Diamond Jubilee of the Coronation of H. M. Queen Elizabeth II, and, we look back at other medallions that have reached our shores - or been made by our own Australian medallists - to commemorate other Royal events and anniversaries.

CHARD - A timely reminder, acknowledging how important it is that collectors and dealers work together to ensure the on-going success of our great hobby!

RECENT Q & A's - A mystery 'Chinese' note - that - courtesy of Krause's ' World Paper Money'  - turned out to be a Japanese One Yen issue from WWII.

JAPANESE INVASION MONEY - The ingenuity of the Japanese was highlighted by the issuance of the much maligned J.I.M. paper currency during WWII in South-East Asia. By enforcing its use - the invaders controlled the economy of the region. Now looked upon by most collectors as just the tail-end of the catalogue 'add-ons' to many official national post-war currencies - this cheap, and very easy  to obtain, stuff has a still notched a place in numismatic history. Some J.I.M. notes are now becoming scarce in certain denominations - and harder to find - as we rustle through the market junk baskets  .....!





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Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

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