Volume 14 Issue 3           Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)              March 2009


Remember - be astute when you are handed change - not all the wonders of numismatics have been discovered yet - and they don't have to be shiny and new! This edition again features an assortment of  'trivia' that I think is of interest and I trust it will prove educational and entertaining to you as well. 

All or any prices quoted in articles in this newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. 

Wherever possible - illustrations are from the authors' own collection or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  local and Internet editions and the  'Numisnet World' - Internet Editions. © 1996 - 2009. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any scan is allowed for educational purposes.)

Please note that the photoscans of numismatic items are usually not to size or scale.


Any comments published in this privately produced newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views of the 'Numisnet World' (Internet Edition) nor its Editor.

Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, the Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations and, (2) to provide additional important information. These items may be subject to copyright.

We trust that this issue of the 'Numisnet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter will continue to provide interesting reading.

PLEASE NOTE - RE-STATED DISCLAIMER: Where on-line web-site addressess are supplied, they are done so in good faith after we have checked them ourselves - however, our readers are advised that if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.





Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2009.


Please accept my invitation to make a contribution if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest and fulfills our stated editorial guidelines. As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in presentation.

However, not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication if common courtesy and acceptable moral standards are not upheld or the subject matter is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, nor if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, in an entertaining way for the average hobbiest collector. - G.E.P.




Tudor Tantrums

by Graeme Petterwood. © 2009.

Anyone, who has ever read this newsletter, soon realises that its Editor - that's me - is like a magpie with his numismatic collecting habits, and occasionally he even gets frustrated - sometimes VERY frustrated - due to his lack of knowledge about everything he has accumulated..


The Confusing Pennies of King Edward I - or was it Edward II - of England

Debauched Henric VIII shows us his battered and debased Testoon

..... and Elizabeth I really looked after her smalls.


When I decided that I should round out my education a little further by accumulating - and studying -  a few medieval coins to fill the gap between my few Greek and Roman pieces and my more expansive Empirical European collection, I must admit that my knowledge left a bit to be desired.

Little did I realize the scope of the information i needed to put some defining labels on 4 - 5  'beat-up' (and that's an understatement) old silver-looking  coins that I had stashed away in plastic pockets under the label  'E' for England. The labels on two of  the plastic coin-slips only stated they were Edward I Silver Pennies - they weren't dated and they were 'cheap'. and certainly a bit nasty-looking.  A couple of other pieces - from the reign of Elizabeth I weren't quite as cheap and they were a bit more legible - but the last piece was one that was so 'chewed-looking' that  I should have been paid to cart away - the only thing I recognised was the Tudor Rose on the reverse

The dealer admitted he 'wasn't really into medieval coinage; so I 'made an offer' and eventually I got an even  better bargain if you call a handful of shrapnel a bargain. Caveat Emptor didn't raise it's ugly head - he had made a legitimate sale and got rid of some badly battered junk he probably had on his shelf since they arrived in Oz.back in the dark ages - and I was a satisfied bargain hunter with some questions to be answered..


Along with the lack of proper major Mints at that time - the 12th and 13th Centuries A.D. - I read that it had also been the practice of allowing trusted 'private' moneyers to produce coinage. This practise continued for a period even after authorized mints were established in key towns and cities.

The name of the moneyer for Edward I was Robert de Hadelie and his name will sometimes occur instead of a mint-name.

It will be broken by the arms of the Long Cross into segments such as - ROBE RTUS DEH ADL  or  ROBE RTDE HADE LEIE. 

As it turned out I didn't have to worry about that aspect - what I had kept me busy enough - but it's another handy fact to know about the way things had been done even prior to the time of my coins manufacture. The breaking up of names is commonplace on medieval coinage.

I had a couple of books that specialized in early English hammered coinage so I thought that the drama of identifying them was going to be a minor affair well within my capabilities - little did I know!


Medieval Mints

Villa or Vil or Vila (Town) Civitas or Civtas (City)

VILLA BERREWYCI - Berwick on Tweed.



VILLA SCI EDMVNDI and several other variations - Bury St. Edmunds.

CIVITAS CANTVR and several variations - Canterbury.


CIVITAS DVREME and several variations - Durham.


VIL' KYNCESTON and variation - Kingston.



VILA NOVI CASTRI and several vaiations - Newcastle.



Did you know that there are at least  34 known varieties in the King Edward I silver Penny?

My trusty old Coincraft's 'Standard Catalogue of English & U.K. Coins 1066 to date' - that I purchased back 10 years ago -  tells me so! 

After searching to identify my two King Edward I Pennies - one actually turned out to be Edward II  - I believe them! 

Having a good book - such as the 'Coincraft' catalogue -  to refer to, is the key to ultimate success in identifying medieval coinage.

The large 'drawn' illustrations in the 'Coincraft' catalogue highlight the differences that would be nearly impossible to ascertain on the actual coins which are notoriously difficult to photograph or scan with the sort of basic equipment that most amateur coin collectors have access to. 

Along with the photograhic plates - also liberally supplied - the drawn designs certainly helped! Highly recommended publication.

It was virtually impossible to reproduce these items with the amount of clarity I would have liked - but beggars can't be choosers - I have to work with the equipment I have and the clues from the catalogue. After years of looking at these lumps of tortured metal, through a varying collection of stronger magnifying devices, I eventually feel confident that I might have just got the detail nearly right.


Coincraft 1998 Edition - 'Standard Catalogue of English & U.K. Coins 1066 to date."

Page 325 - showing about half of the known subtle differences on the small (19mm.) Edward I Silver Penny.


Did you know that the inconsistent medieval English lettering shapes used in writing the Latin text on these early Edwardian coins can be like a foreign script to the average modern reader?  If you consider the illustrations above  you may see some of those inconsistencies. 

On the actual average circulated coins - which are often discoloured, bent, stretched and creased or so badly worn or struck - the finer details are far harder to decipher than you would imagine.

If patience is a virtue - we will need to become very virtuous!


Viewing comparison - enlarged and enhanced.

An average 19mm. dia.hammered Edward I Silver Penny with a modern milled 19.41mm. Queen Elizabeth C.N  5 Cent.

Thicknesses approx 1mm and 1.5mm. respectively.


Did you know that most of these early hammered coins were not dated at this time, and succeeding monarchs, often with the same name, often kept an obverse portrait design going with only minor alterations or by adding new privy marks that might have only been needed for workplace security reasons?

The coinage of Edward I - usually shown on the coin as EDW - and his son is usually only differentiated by the fact that Edward II had his name spelt out in a more complete form as EDWARD - or sometimes added only an extra letter or two - EDW(A) or EDW(AR ) - on the obverse to give an indication the coinage was his and not that of his father.

The reverses remained virtually identical with 3 pellets inside each quarterfoil of the cross. The mint (or moneyer's) name is around the edge.

Besides being 'Latinised' (refer Mint list above) did you know that the spelling of some place names, where early mints were located, also altered from time to time?


Medieval circulating coinage

Badly worn samples with dies misaligned as usual. (Scans enlarged)

(a) King Edward I - (EDW R)(obverse) - issued 1279 -1307 - 'Long Cross' 20mm. Silver Penny - London Mint (reverse)

(b) King Edward II - (EDWA)(obverse) - issued 1307 - 1327 -  'Long Cross' 19mm. Silver Penny - Durham (spelt 'Dvreme') Mint.(rev.)


King Henry VIII - issued 1547 - Base Silver (.333 alloyed with Copper) 32mm. Testoon (Shilling or 12 Pence) - London Mint

(c) Crowned Tudor Rose (reverse) - King Henry VIII forward facing bust - portrait obliterated by scratching (obverse)


 (d) Queen Elizabeth I - issued c.1581 - 17mm. Silver Three Half-Pence (equivalent to 1 1/2 pence) - London Mint

Coat-of-Arms  (reverse).

 (e) Queen Elizabeth I - issued and dated 1574 - 21mm. Silver Threepence - London Mint

Date over Coat-of-Arms (reverse).


King Henry VIII Silver Crowned Tudor Rose Testoon issued during 1544 - 47

Various degrees of wear - compare with the 'shove-penny' coin shown above (c)


It appears that the debased coins of King Henry VIII were so despised that they were often used - with the monarch's face turned downwards - to play 'shove-penny' - a popular gambling game that consisted of sliding a coin along the ground or pavement and trying to get closest to a given spot - e.g. a wall.

This is an interesting theory, but it does provide a credible explanation of why such large amounts of Henry's later coinage are in extremely  poor condition - mainly on the obverse side that bears the monarch's image.

The Silver content had been gradually debased in consequent strikings from .750 down to .500 and finally, in the third coinage strike - which was done in 1547 - and in a posthumous issue produced during the period up to 1551 -  it reached a low .333

The pinkish colour of the copper, with which it was alloyed so liberally, was evident as the coin wore or was scratched - and the people were not happy about it - no sirree! (See worn sample shown above)


The poor quality coinage actually continued into the short reign of Henry's successor, Edward VI.

The new boy-king was only a 9 y.o. when he ascended the throne.  Edward VI was a sickly lad who died at age 15. 

However, his coinage issues - three in all - are still interesting as they featured two - which were as bad as his fathers - but, the third saw an introduction of some fine silver once more and the new, or revitalised, denominations of Silver crown, halfcrown, shilling,  sixpence and threepence were well designed in comparison to the crude coins of his predecessors. It was a small light at the end of the dark silver debasement tunnel.

A few gold coins such as Half-Angels, Angels, Half Sovereigns and Sovereigns are also attributed to the boy-king but they are scarce and - in the main - very expensive for the average collector to consider.

In the first issue of 1547, a few base silver Half-groats and groats were issued in Edward's name to join the large amount of Henry VIII coins already in circulation  - alongside the posthumous coinage issue - but that was theralding the end of those denominations as they were soon to become redundant with the new quality coin denominations that were being planned and which would commence the rationalization of the English coinage for the next 4 centuries.

The short reign of Queen Mary 1553 - 4  and then Mary with her consort Philip from 1554 - 1558, was marked with a marked increase of Groats in good silver - but, like Edward VI, she restrained from issuing more Half-groats due to the existing amount of this denomination in base silver.. It was obvious that she wanted to return to the old denomiations but that was not going to happen.

Several small issues of gold coins were also struck during this period including a few Ryals, Sovereigns and  Angels - all are scarce or rare.

The medieval era in England had virtually ended with end of the 14th Century and the growing involvement with the affairs in Europe from the reign of Henry IV onwards. The rise of the Tudors followed - particularly the reign of Henry VIII - with it's momentous events that changed the whole course of history and religion in an expanding world - and the next phase was the start of the glorious Elizabethan era.


Queen Elizabeth I

Queen Elizabeth I of England is a 'larger-than-life' character in our history books - and deservedly so. She was certainly not without faults - she had to be a king in a woman's body - and, as her story has been recounted many times, I will not add to the list.

Her ascension to the throne in 1558, which extended until 1603, also heralded a glorious surge in English fortunes and of course this reflected in the quality of the coinage she authorized.

In 1559, she had the 2nd and 3rd. issues of  base silver Shilling coinage of her predecessor, Edward VI,  recalled and counterstamped with revised values in keeping with their actual silver content - which was as low as 4 1/2Pence (portcullis c/s) and 2 1/4Pence (greyhound c/s) respectively - and, in 1560, she had a good silver issue produced that ensured that the public had true 'value for money' once more.

Due to the amount of Shilling coinage, that was produced to replace the base metal, it took 20 years before another issue in that denomination was made.

Elizabeth recognised the importance of small denomination coinage to the public and this was reflected in the amounts that were produced during her long reign. Gold coinage flucuated slightly in fineness during Elizabeth's reign  but was  never debased to any margin.


Gold coinage issued between 1559 - 1602

Sovereign (value 30 Shillings);

Pound (value 20 Shillings);

Half Pound and Angel (value 10 Shillings)

Crown and Half Angel (value 5 Shillings);

Half Crown and Quarter Angel  (value 2 Shillings and 6 Pence)


The Gold Quarter Angel was replaced by a silver version in 1600 and the Gold  Half Crown was replaced with a silver version during 1601 - 2. 

Both Gold and Silver same denomination coins circulated together for a short period.


Silver coinage issued between 1584 - 89

Ryal (value 15 Shillings);


Silver coinage issued between 1601 -2

Half Crown (value 2 Shillings and 6 Pence)


Silver coinage issued at various dates

Shilling (issues in 1560-1 and 1582 - 1600)

Sixpence (issues 1561 -1602)

Groat (value 4 Pence), (issued 1558 - 1603)

Threepence (issued 1561 - 1564 several size variations)

Half Groat (value 2 Pence), (issued 1559 - 1602 in great numbers)

Three Halfpence (issued 1561 in large numbers - several size variations)

Penny (issued 1559 - 1600 in great numbers)

Three Farthings (issued 1559 - 1600 in great numbers)

Halfpenny (issued 1582 - 1602).


Main References

Coincraft's -  'Standard Catalogue of English & U.K. Coins 1066 to date'  - 1998 Edition

Seaby's -     'Standard Catalogue of British Coins - Coins of England and the United Kingdom' - 25th Edition 1990






In our last issue, our regular readers will have noted that someone whom  I have known - mainly via Internet correspondence - for quite a few years now,.
'HRH Prince John, the Duke of Avram',  has recently produced a new one Ounce limited edition rough-cast One Ducal Platinum coin.



2008 Duchy of Avram

 Rough-cast limited issue 95% Platinum - 5% Cobalt One Ducal coin

John is a man I don't mind considering doing an occasional publishing favour for - mainly because he always asks nicely - and his numismatic ventures are interesting for a certain group of coin and exonumia collectors - myself included.
After my first meeting back in the 1980's, at his then Strahan-based Royal Bank of Avram (pronounced Ov-ram), I have had occasion to meet the Duke on  2 or 3 informal occasions - he is a physically big man in stature and spirit - and not easily forgotten. I have always found him to be an impressive, very affable and persuavive personality - whom some may call  slightly eccentric - but to many others, like myself,  it is the sign of an 'outgoing personality'! 

This can be a feature that annoys some people and it has created a 'for and against'  scenario that, at times, becomes rather torrid.


As most Australians know, the 'Duchy of Avram' is a non-physical micronation created by John back in the 1980's - and the self-styled Duke is an extremely talented entrepreneur - he is a man with a multitude of high scientific and truly earned academic qualifications - and he has even contributed politically to the welfare of Tasmania as an elected respresentative at several community levels.

He is the 'liege' of about 5000 honorary 'subjects' - so the rumour has it - who are classified as 'honorary citizens of the Duchy of Avram' .

Citizens and friends of Avram, if they wish, they may even contribute to the Duchy's business ventures - via contributions (in any recognised world currency) to the 'Royal Bank of Avram' - which is a seperate commercial entity with its own administrators - but which maintains obvious and close ties to the Duchy's financial well-being and is  the issuer of 'currency' authorised by the Duke.
In return for their moral support, and any appropriate commercial involvement that is of benefit to the Duchy and it's affairs, citizens and friends may even be granted appropriate titles and awards - as is the norm in other longer established major kingdoms, principalities and duchies..

In the 1980's, the Australian Government tried to shut the 'Royal Bank of Avram' operation down as being illegal - it seized the Duchy's  'currency' and Mr. John Rudge was taken to Court.  However, the massive indictment - based on Australian Constitutional law - was technically flawed, and it was the Duke who won the case and the several costly and desperate appeals that the Government mounted.

It actually cost the Federal Government a fortune, estimated ultimately at about AUD$22 million for the 6 times it tried to prosecute the Duke.

Mr. John Rudge paid his costs of AUD$175 - and, ultimately, his Ducal coinage was returned - and I just happened to be there shortly after the Federal Police delivered the few plastic bags full of 'coinage and currency' to the Strahan premises of the 'RBA'.
Refer:- http://micronations.wikia.com/wiki/Duchy_of_Avram.



reprinted from the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' Volume 6 - Issue 10


1982 Ducal coinage and literature from the Duchy of Avram.


His Eminence, Prince John, The Grand Duke of Avram is a personality who cannot be overlooked when recounting the numismatic history of our island state of Tasmania.

On October 1, 1980, the self-proclaimed Duke of Avram permitted the use of his devices and armorial bearings on a first set of Duchy of Avram notes when a Royal Charter was applied for and the 'Royal Bank of Avram' was formed by a group of like-minded people.

The Royal Bank of Avram and the Duke are separate entities with the Bank having its own charter, rules and regulations, and its own directors.

The Bank states that it is honouring the Duke by issuing the 'Avram' currency under the Duke's coats-of-arms and titles - all of which have been granted by Royal Charter and Letters Patent.  

In 1982 a set of 6 Ducal coins was introduced and this was followed up with second coin issue in 1985. The dated coins featured selected coats-of-arms of the Grand Duke and the denominations were available in 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 75 Ducals.


Prince John's life story, to date, has been recounted in many national and international magazines as well as numerous numismatic papers - particularly when, in March 1985, the Federal Government decided that the issuing of private coinage and banknotes was not a good idea. In that month, Federal Police raided the Duke's residence and seized large amounts of cash and pertinent papers including the Royal Charter and Letters Patent.

Eventually, all the 6 charges in the case brought against the Duke were dismissed in December 1986 and some of his material was returned - but not all - even though the Court ordered it to be. His Grace is still patiently waiting!**

The case did have some positive aspects, however, in that it forced the tidying up of some of the archaic banking laws in Australia. The Duke agrees, in principal, that laws are made with the protection and well-being of the general public in mind but, occasionally, the 'Law is an Ass'. 


In 2000, the Duke authorised the new designs, in the 6 coin Ducal series, to be produced to celebrate the Millennium. 

The Ducals again featured attractive renditions of coats-of-arms enamelled on to goldine plated metal bases and it was envisaged that a limit of only 250 sets would be minted.


** I had the opportunity of first meeting His Grace just after the bags of his original coinage issue, dated 1982, had been returned to him from the Courts and, of course, I obtained a complete uncirculated set - which I still have - and, in recent years, His Grace kindly arranged with the Royal Bank of Avram for another new Ducal coinage set, commemorating the Millennium,  to be sent to me as a numismatic gift.**



 1982 set of 6 Ducal coins - originally impounded by the Australian Government




1985 re-designed set of 6 Ducal coins.

 2000 (Millenium) re-coloured set of 6 Ducal coins - gifted by HRH John, Duke of Avram to the Editor.

Values: 1, 3, 7, 15, 30 and 75 Ducals


Duke John's Ducals.

Listed below were the estimated numismatic values of the Duchy's coinage in U.S. Dollars at uncirculated condition in 1992, and the official mintage figures for the two issues as listed in Krause's  ‘Unusual World Coins - 3rd. Edition.’
The going exchange rate of the 1985 issue, was 1 Ducal to U.S.$0.10 (or about A$0.145 per Ducal - at that particular time). 

The Duchy of Avram - U.S. exchange rate is still the official rate for current issues.

The attractive range consisted of six various sizes coins with face values of 1, 3, 7, 15, 30 and 75 Ducals - bearing different obscure, and slightly off-beat, heraldic devices peculiar to the Duchy, set into various coloured enamelled backgrounds on the slightly domed obverse, while the flat plain metallic reverse reads - DUCHY OF AVRAM.- centred, with the date below the raised lettering.

U.W.C Ref No. X1. X2. X3. X4. X5. X6.
DUCALS 1. 3. 7. 15. 30. 75.
1982 Mintage 271 274 273 276 276 269
C.V. US$ 5 8 10 15 22 30
1985 Mintage 250 250 250 250 250 250
C.V. US$ 4 6.50 8 9 17.50 24
SIZE (mm) 13 17 20 22 25 30
WEIGHT (gr)* 2 3 4 6 7 10

* Approximate Weight.


Refer:-  http://www.taedivm.org/coin-avram1.html 

This 'tongue-in-cheek' site also features many good scans and pertinent details of other micronation coinages as well as that of the Duchy of Avram major issues to date. Well worth the time to peruse!


Prince John's micronation of Avram, is currently located near Hobart in Australia - within the island state of Tasmania - but it goes where he goes.

The Royal Bank of Avram has issued a variety of intriguing coinage and banknotes periodically, since the early 1980's, which continues to bring fairly high secondary prices from those dedicated collectors of micronation exonumia and other items of numismatic fantasy.

The Duchy's authorised currency is recognised amongst other micronations such as Hutt River Province (ruled by Prince Leonard) and the Empire of Atlantium (Emperor George) etc. and it is listed prominently in the prestigious catalogue published by leading numismatic printers Krause Publications - 'Unusual World Coins'  - proving that  these items are notable - and very collectable - if you are into exonumeric items like these.



'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Volume 2, Issue 6 - June 1997 (Archived)

'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Volume 6, Issue 10 - October 2001



An illustrated 'Work in Progress' - Part II

Compiled and written by Graeme Petterwood. © 2009.

In our last issue, we saw a few illustrations of coins and banknotes that I had available from 8 of the 53 nations that are currently on the African 'acceptable' list.  As mentioned, most of these nations have undergone various name changes during colonial times and because of the results of World Wars.

Political upheaval, and even genocide has occured - and still is occuring -  in some of these under-developed nations..

The second article in this series covers the next 8 nations of which I had coin (or even a banknote) samples at the commencement of writing  - again I have chosen to link the WIKIPEDIA online encyclopedia (Refer:-  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page ) for those who wish to avail themselves of a little more knowledge of the nations depicted. The nations listed in RED are those of which I have no numismatic samples at this point in time.

The main purpose of these brief essays and scans is to awaken an interest in the neglected numismatist aspect of a forgotten continent.

As mentioned, it is definitely a 'Work in Progress' for the author as well!





KENYA (Formerly part of British East Africa) - Coin, 



MAURITIUS - Coin,  MOROCCO - Coin,  MOZAMBIQUE (Formerly Portuguese East Africa) - Coin & Note.

NAMIBIA (Former German S-W Africa) - N/A,  NIGER - N/A,  NIGERIA (Including former Biafra) - Coin & Note. 

RWANDA - Coin.


THE GAMBIA - Republic. (former British colony)

Area 11,300 sq.kms. Population approx. 900,000

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Gambia

Monetary System:- The Gambia, as a British Colony, used the Imperial Pence system from One Penny through to Two Shillings- however they also  included a 4 Shilling (equal to 1 Dirham) and a unique 8 Shilling coin . 

Now, as an independant Republic, the Gambian currency is based on 100 Bututs to One Dalasi.

With few exceptions - such as a few high value coins bearing the National Arms or celebrating special events - all Gambian coinage is produced in base metal alloys and  features basic rural, floral/fauna or technical achievement scenes. 

Silver - in grade Fine .500, .900, .925, and .999 and Gold - in grade Fine .5833, .900, .917 and  .999, has been used only in high value commemorative coinage.




l. to r. - 27mm. Sailing-boat rev. 1966 QEII Bronze One Penny and a unique QEII 44mm. 1970 C.N (Hippo rev.) 8 shillings;

19mm. 1971 Bronze 1 Butut (Peanuts rev.) &  28mm. 1971 Nickel- Brass 10 Bututs (Francolin bird rev.)


N.D. (1972 - 86) Central Bank of The Gambia 5 Dalasis

(featuring the 1st. President - D. Kairaba Jawara and fishing boat);


KENYA - Republic since 1964. (Portuguse, German and and finally British influences. Kenya had a blood-soaked path to independence - which arrived in 1963. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations)

Area 582,650 sq.kms. Population approx. 20 million.

Monetary System:- 100 Cents = Shilling. The circulation coins of Kenya are mainly alloys such as Nickel-Brass 5 and 10 Cents, Copper-Nickel 25, 50 cents and 5 Shillings - plus some Nickel-plated Steel and Brass-plated Steel 1 and 2 shillings and Brass 5 Shillings. Bi-metallic coinage were first issued in 1994 - 5 in 5 and 10 Shilling denominations. High value commemorative coinage over 100 Shillings and up to 1000 Shillings  is produced in .925 Silver and .917 Gold and normally features the President of the Republic as the obverse and the Coat-of-Arms as the reverse with text details of the commemoration..

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenya



Republic of Kenya

1969 26mm. Nickel-Brass 5 Cents

Featuring the first President of Kenya 1964 -78, Jomo Kenyatta (b.1894 - d.1978) (obverse) with Coat-of-Arms reverse.


LIBERIA - A Republic created by freed U.S. negro slaves in 1822. 

Area 111,370 sq.kms. Population approx. 2.25 million.

Monetary system:-  The system is geared to the United States of America and U.S. currency is official dual legal tender and has been since 1943.. It should be noted that many commemorative numismatic appeal (collector) coins were produced for Liberia by private mints such as Franklin and Pobjoy in the 1990's.  Mintmarked coins have also been made in (B) Bern -Switzerland, (H) Heaton Mint - England, (l) London -England, (s) San Francisco - U.S.A.

A good catalogue should be referenced for Nigerian coins and it should also be noted that many unofficially sanctioned commercial 'fantasy issues' may be in the market place as well  - Caveat Emptor!

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberia


Republic of Liberia

34mm. 1968 C.N. Dollar - Weight 18g


MAURITIUS - Republic (formerly a British colony)

Area 1,860 sq.kms. Population approx. 1 million.

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mauritius


Mauritius - Imperial British Coinage

Queen Victoria 1888 23mm. Bronze 2 Cents; .800 1889 16mm. Silver 10 Cents.

King George VI 1950 24mm. C.N. 1/2 Rupee; Queen Elizabeth II 1971 23.5mm. C.N. 10 Cents (scalloped-edge).


MOROCCO - Kingdom (formerly a French Protectorate)

Area 446,550 sq. kms. Population approx. 22.5 million.

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morocco

Morocco "Empire Cherifien" - King Mohammed V (1927-55) coinage

 1951 25mm. Aluminium 5 Francs (dated AH1370); 1952 27mm. Alumimium-Bronze 50 Francs (dated AH1371)

The dates on these coins are based on the Muslim lunar year calendar reckoned from July 16th. 622 A.D. Similar reverses.



Morocco - King Hassan II

1965 (AH1384) 24mm. One Nickel Dirham


1960 Monetary reform 100 Francs = One Dirham

1974 Monetary reform 100 Santimat = One Dirham


MOZAMBIQUE - Republic (former Portuguese colony and a socialist Popular Republic)

Area 801,590 sq. kms.  Population approx. 14 million.

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mozambique



Banco Nacional Ultramarino-Moçambique - Lisbon (Portugal) issues

1961 100 Escudos featuring portrait of Aries de Ornelas - bank logo reverse

1970 dated 50 Escudos featuring portrait of Joao De Azevedo Coutinho - bank logo reverse.


It is of interest that there was a report of a large quantity of these notes being allegedly o/printed with Chinese characters and passed off in Macao at the exchange rate of Portuguese notes prior to Chinese territorial administration of the area in 1999. The Internet gives numerous instances of graft, some disappearances and even murders - concerning the now defunct Bank of Mozambique.


Republica Popular de Moçambique - Maputo (Mozambique) issue

1986 issue 50 Meticais note featuring military symbolism and training in the Republic Popular de Moçambique


NIGERIA - Federal Republic (Former British territory - a tribal portion seceded as BIAFRA in 1967 but was resumed by brutal force in 1970 with mass genocide. Nigeria was a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1963 but was suspended in 1995 after numerous civil rights violations and corruption. It has had numerous dictators during its history but it regained democracy in 1999 and was acceptd back into the Commonwealth.)

Area: 923,770 sq.kms.  Population approx. 140 million. 

Monetary System: Under the British protectorate, which had occured after the Napoleonic Wars, Nigeria used the Imperial system Bronze 1/2d, Penny,  Nickel-Brass Threepence, Copper-Nickel Sixpence, Shilling and Two Shillings.

As  a republic the introduction of the decimal  100 Kobo = 1 Naira (equivalent to 10 Shillings.) was uneventful with the the use of base metals similar to the previous coinage Bronze 1/2 Kobo, Bronze Kobo, Copper-plated Steel Kobo (1991), Copper-Nickel  5, 10, 25 Kobo, Copper-plated Steel 25 Kobo (1991),

Nickel-plated Steel 50 Kobo and One Naira

It was a member state of the British Commonwealth  until Oct. 1st. 1963 when it declared itself a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations.

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigeria


BIAFRA - Civil war erupted in 1967 with catastrophic results for the Ibo tribe that declared its own independence as the Republic of Biafra.

Biafran coinage was based on the Imperial coinage 12 Pence = Shilling, 20 Shillings = Pound.

The small change consisted of  Aluminium 3 pence , 6 pence, Shilling, and 2 1/2 Shillings.

A base-Silver One Crown (rare) was issued in 1969 and a .750 Silver Pound coin was issued as well. 

A Short series of .917 Gold coins were issued to commemorate the 2nd. Anniversary of Independence in 1969 . Actual Gold Weights (in ounces) were:

One Pound coin =  .1177,  Two Pounds coin =  .2354., Five Pounds coin =  . 4710, Ten Pounds coin  = 1.1776, and a 25 Pounds coin  = 2.3553

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biafra



1967 Biafran One Pound

The self-declared nation of Biafra was only in existence for about 31 months after its break-away from Nigeria.

The brutal genocidal civil war with Nigeria claimed 2 million casualties - mainly civilians.

The Biafran monetary system was based on the Imperial model of Pounds, Shillings and Pence.



2006 Five Naira note featuring Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (1912 - 1966) obverse - and Nigerian ceremonial drummers reverse.

Monetary system 100 Kobo = 1 Naira.


Please note that accessing any linked site is at the readers' personal option and own discretion.


Refer: http://www.crimes-of-persuasion.com/index.htm

Due to the various fraudulent money schemes currently eminating from Nigeria I have decided to include this warning to alert readers to the sort of scams now circulating. Most Nigerian scams originally included U.S. dollars and Euros - in name only  - however new sophisticated ones are appearing regularly - it is a cleverly-crafted growth industry that appeals to the GREED in all of us!

Millions of dollars of fraudulently obtained money is now being 'laundered' through large financial institutions to gain some sort of legitimacy and to gain access to the type of official documentation that can be used to set up the next fraudulent scheme.

This has become 'big time' crime - so it pays EVERYONE to beware!


RWANDA - Republic (formerly a German protectorate - lost to Begium during WWI reparations.)

Rwanda only became an independent nation along with neighbouring Burundi in 1962 after the U.N. sanctioned elections were held. 

Area 26,340 sq.kms. Population approx 7.5 million.

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rwanda



Banque Nationale du Rwanda

 1969 21.5mm. Aluminium One Franc

To follow:






Main References.

'Standard Catalog of World Coins' by  Chester l. Krause and Clifford Mishler - Colin R. Bruce II (Editor) - Krause Publication 2001

WIKIPEDIA - the online encyclopedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

All Illustrations are supplied from the author's private collections  © 1996 - 2009.

Arabic Numerals and alphabets

Refer:- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_numerals.

Refer:- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_alphabet




Jérôme - 'JERRY' - H. Remick III

1926 - 2005

At times in our lives, if we are lucky, we occasionally meet - in person or through another medium - someone, who leaves such an impression, that the memory stays with you for ever.

Numismatist extraordinaire, Jérôme H. Remick  III,  was such a person.

This issue - of March 1st. 2009 - dedicates this small space in remembrance of a true servant to our great hobby who passed away on this day 4 years ago after years of debilitating illness .

Many of our newer readers will have never known of the man or the depth of his numismatic contributions both in his adopted home in Canada or, indeed, wherever coins are collected in this world. 

He was not a one-faceted individual - but he he was not too complicated either - with Jerry Remick, it was always fairly straight-forward, when he made a friend it was for life - and he would back his friends to the hilt.

Jerry was an active, although non-present, member of a multitude of coin clubs - many, in fact, had extended him Life Membership for his generous literary, and financial, contributions over a very long period of time.

In fact, he was an extremely generous man with his finances and he established some enduring endowments, in other areas as well, that have changed lives for the better - Jerry  fought hard for his causes even when his own health began to deteriorate. 

I know, from our correspondence, that he suffered severe physical hardship in later years.

I first became aware of Jerry Remick through my own association with the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' in 1991 - and he had already been an absent  Society member for many years - when I first joined the ranks.

To me, Jerry Remick was only a respected name that often arose in conversation, and, it wasn't until some years later, in 1996, when I became Editor of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter,  that I actually 'met' Jerry - and it was always through wobbly-handed, ink-corrected notes that were initially performed on his faithful old portable typewriter.  Jerry never did instal the Internet or have an email address of his own.

He was of great assistance to me in many ways, particularly with Canadian and North American news - and we became friends - literally.

In 2001, Jerry was granted Life Membership of the T.N.S. for his years of Honourable Service - even 'in absentia'.

As well as his numismatic expertise, which was forthcoming through his many published literary contributions , Jerry Remick has also left his great legacy of friendship to us - and that will live, and be passed on, by those whose lives he touched. 

Adieu, Jerry! Bon Chance, mon ami! - Editor Graeme Petterwood.


The following link is one that was submitted some years ago by another friend of Jerry's in the Canadian Geological Foundation - but it is still relevant and tells the story of a person with whom friendship was an easy task - whether you were standing by him or thousands of miles away. 






- and the GREGORIAN versus the JULIAN CALENDAR!

Thankfully, we have a few regular readers, like Yossi Dotan, who read these columns with careful interest and point out possible - and definite - discrepencies so that we do go back and check -  and get it right - eventually.

From time to time I must admit to - shock! horror! - a mistake or at least a 'dubious fact'.

Sometimes the cause is not mine personally, but something which I have passed on in error through my own ignorance or carelessness in checking a 'fact'. 

In this instance, however, I plead guilty to my enthusiasm for 'getting words on paper' - and even more for the carelessness of 'fast fingers - slow mind'.

As Arabic dating started prior to the 1500's, it would have been originally geared against the Julian solar calendar, if anything - but things did change.

My long-time numismatic acquaintance, Yossi, spotted the 'obvious' that the Gregorian calendar, not the Julian,  is the 'Christian'  era calendar. 


Dear Graeme,

Every 16th of the month I read the current issue of 'Numisnet World' – always interesting – keep up the good work!

In writing about the Arabic dating, you state that the Arabic AH lunar calendar is 3.03% less than our Julian 'Christian era' calendar of 365 days.

You also write -  "Not everyone bases their idea of time on the Christian era 'Julian' solar calendar."

I found the site http://www.tondering.dk/claus/cal/node3.html  from which one can see that  - "the Julian calendar was introduced by Julius Caesar in 45 BC. It was in common use until the late 1500s, when countries started changing to the Gregorian 'Christian' calendar".

Regarding the Gregorian calendar, it says that it -  "is the one commonly used today. … It was decreed by Pope Gregory XIII in … 1582."

 In view hereof I suggest to refer to our calendar as the Gregorian rather than the Julian calendar.

 Kind regards,



Thanks Yossi!  I stand corrected.... and, by the time you read this, I hope to have corrected the slip.

P.S.  - For information about Yossi Dotan's book - 'WATERCRAFT ON WORLD COINS - VOLUME I - EUROPE, 1800-2005'

Refer:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/oct07.htm





The detail of contents of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' and 'Numisnet World' - Internet Editions can be seen at the following links. Copies of articles are usually available by email, upon request from the Editor or the original author - or, if directly accessed, subject to those copyright provisions laid down in our current terms of use.  Articles will not be posted by mail services.


Early issues of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition', from 1995 - 1999. were permanently archived in 2000 and articles are not linked directly.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug03.htm  - 1995, 1996 - 1997 (Volumes 1 and 2) Archived. Content detail only. (Articles can be emailed).

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/ept2003.htm  - 1998 - 1999 (Volumes 3 and 4) Archived. Content detail only. (Articles can be emailed).


By refering to the the 'Newsletter Archives' or 'Search' function located on the Home Page, you can directly access all Volumes.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html  - January 2000 (Volumes 5 - to date).

In January 2006 it was decided to grant each new issue its own URL link. which would henceforth appear in the current Index for fast find:

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar07.html  - 2006 (Volume 11)

The final Index of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition'

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - 2007 (Volume 12 - Issues 1 - 6)


 'NUMISNET WORLD - INTERNET EDITION' July 2007 - December 2008

Full details of initial 'Numisnet World - Internet Edition' (2007)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World - Internet Edition' (2008)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm  - (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)



'NUMISNET WORLD - INTERNET EDITION' Volume 14, Jan. - to date 2009

Issue 1. January 2009:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan09.htm

The Numbers Game - Some tattered pieces of virtually worthles paper money that have numbers that we collectors  tend to notice.

Bank Note Varieties - and other things! - At first glance, they look the same - but then those 'little differences' become noticeable and we take a second look..

The Story Behind the Story - Cowra Breakout revisited. - A war story that took place within Australia and had been archived for more than half a century..

Fake Pounds Circulating in Great Britain - "Large quantities of fake One Pound coins are making life miserable for English shoppers" - E-Sylum.


Issue 2. February 2009:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/feb09.htm

The Nations of Africa (Part I) - An illustrated series that will feature some of the 53 nations that make up Africa - the numismatically forgotten continent.

Reserve Bank of India Anomaly?. - A small sequence inconsistency amongst RBI  Five Rupee notes from 1984 that needs an explanation - or did I miss it?.

The Philippine Islands 1941 - As the Pacific war descended upon it, the Philippines Emergency Currency Committees, in different provinces and cities, churned out million of Pesos to keep their economy alive. Much of it was 'rough and ready' currency printed under difficult circumstances - but it served its purpose and heralded the end of an era!

Blast from the Past.1999 - A gentle reminder, from an  Anchorage Coin Club member's article, about the common sense we need when we start becoming too blasé about our our collection and the way we go about maintaining it.

Internet News and Q & A's - It's a case of getting personal with people about their numismatic problems, and we learn of a new Platinum Ducal release from the Duchy of Avram.

Reminder - Change of P.O. address for the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society'.


Issue 3. March 2009:-

Medeival Madness -Tudor Tantrums - a closer look at my 5 medeival coins and the mysteries and frustrations they evoked.

Another Sort of Royalty - Avram - continuing our chat about HRH Prince John, His Grace the Duke of Avram and some of his previous Ducal issues.

The Nations of Africa (Part II) - An illustrated series that will feature some of the nations that make up Africa - the numismatically forgotten continent.

In Memorium - Jerry Remick III - numismatist extraordinare 1926 - 2005.

Correction (The Nations of Africa) - A reader reminds us that the 'Gregorian' solar calendar is the Christian era calendar that many of us now use.





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The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, or hand delivered, directly to members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions. All matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society.

Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.

Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Editor. 

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The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. Deadline for any literary contributions or amendment to copy is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication.


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The Editor,

Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.


Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

Email: pwood@vision.net.au