Volume 20 Issue 6   Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)    June 2015



Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2015.


The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


All or any prices quoted in articles in this free newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the authors' own collection - or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' -  Internet Edition © 1991 - 2007.  and the  'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition. © 2007 - 2014.  

Krause-Mishler (KM) Standard and Specialized World Catalogs (also including 'Pick' banknote numbers) - and McDonald and/or Renniks Australian catalogue numbers - are used where applicable.

*Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes.)


Please, also, consider my conditional invitation, to make a literary contribution, if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest - and fulfils our stated editorial guidelines. As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in additional presentation. However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication. 

We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has necessitated the following conditions.

If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagiarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbyist collector.  - G.E.P.



Where on-line web-site Links or addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith - however, our readers are advised, that, if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.



The first and foremost thing we modern collectors need to realize is that, historically, all sorts of items have been used as a form of exchange - they were intended to be accepted as a sort of fiscal tender - legal or otherwise -  in communities that needed means of continuing commerce when unusual money emergencies arose! 

However, it is not this polyglot of barter items that I intend to discuss at this time.


Last month, while doing some physical sorting of coins and tokens held in an office storage unit, during an enforced idle period while deprived of electrical power, I came across a couple of battered lever-arch folders in which I had stored a number of paper items that fitted uneasily between numismatics and exonumia.

I knew that they were already listed electronically, but the actual items had been pushed to the rear of my office locker and forgotten.

This odd gathering of paper currency - sometimes referred to as 'Specialized Issues' or, more crudely, as 'Funny Money' - had been accumulated some years previously, and, because the folders had been 'out-of-sight' for quite a while, they caught my attention...and held it!  I actually needed to remind myself about the history of these 'not quite normal ' issues - and why I had decided to keep them!


In the interests of rationality, I decided that, as most of us are aware of the major inflationary instances of last century - that period might be a good starting-point!

Due to the fact that this is a tremendously large area to cover - like other gatherers before me - a choice had to be made about an area to concentrate upon. I had initially chosen the Austrian - German field to ponder.

However, from time to time, interesting oddments came into my possession from further fields - and they may creep into the current conversation, as well!


A fair portion, of the re-discovered notes, were from that early 1900's era and are mainly central European - they were well-worn - and some were decidedly dilapidated! Many appeared to have been professionally printed and signed by authorities - and they designed to circulate, locally, alongside national legal tender issues.

However, there were a few mysterious 'also-rans'  - as well as the almost mandatory truckloads of different 'Gutschein' and 'Notgeld' notes which were mass produced in Austria and Germany and they are usually very economical to obtain from dealers' scrap books!  (That may be about to change!)

Eventually, many large notes were printed on whisper-thin tissue and the small notes on inferior card-paper - with little more than a printed promise of redemption - during a period when the results of the first global war had devastated the economies of a large number of European nations.


As they say - 'A picture is worth a thousand words! ' - so I have decided to let some selected scans of items I have accumulated do just that. Please note that these visual presentations are not shown to accurate scale - and it should be also noted that actual notes from the same sources do occasionally vary in cut size for various reasons of economy at the time of production. The measurements I have shown are of my own samples.

There will be some explanatory references and notations, of course - but the idea is to awaken a few thoughts within our own readers' minds about their collecting habits and encourage a few to, perhaps, widen those thoughts to include the adventuresome prospect of a forgotten corner of the numismatic field to dowse - investigate and cultivate!

WORLD WAR I .. and aftermath!

Folder #1 - Part One.

Notgeld.. Kriesgeld.. Gutschein.. Billet..


Germany - Westfalen 20 Mark Notgeld (Kriegsgeld) - dated 10 October 1918 (14cms x 9cms)





Germany - Cologne 5 Mark Gutschein - dated 18 October 1918 (12.5cms x 8cms)

Germany - Rothenburg State 50 Pfennig Kriegsgeld - dated 31 October 1918 (9cms x 6cms)

 Germany - Krumbach Stadt 500,000 Mark Gutschein (uniface) - dated 11 August - 1 September 1923

Germany - Landau aber(on the) Isar 500,000 Mark (uniface) - dated August 1926

K (14.25 x 9.5 cms) - L.a.I (17cms x 10cms)




Austria - Grunbach b.Freistadt  80 Heller Gutschein - dated 16 May 1920 - 31 January 1921

Austria - Gainfarn Freistadt 10 Heller Gutschein - dated 26 May 1920 - 31 December 1920

Austria - Pernau District 10 Heller Gutschein - dated 15 October 1921 - 31 October 1921

GbF (8cms x 5.3cms)- GF (11cms x 6.75cms) - P (8.3cms x 5.5cms)


This is a huge collecting field and provides a gigantic menu for the most insatiable gatherer!

In most instances there are no known printing figures available and many were not numbered nor were subsequent printings given a new production date.


As mentioned, on occasion, a note may have come into my possession from a collecting area outside of that on which I have usually concentrated. It illustrates the fact that many places and organizations, in other nations of Europe, also had filled a gap in their available official currency with locally produced paper money to tide them over!

The small change 'billet' (below) issued by Chambre de Commerce de Bayonne in the Pyrenees is such an example from among the scores of other Chambers of Commerce scattered across France at that time.

The inscription at the bottom of this 50 Centimes note (shown below) - indicates that it can be exchanged at equivalent face value in legal tender, if presented at the Bank of France* (Echangeable contre des Billets de la Banque de France.)


France - Bayonne Chamber of Commerce 50 Centimes Billet - dated 17 November 1919 (8.8cms x 6.2cms)





1914 - 1947

(2nd. Printing 1988)



For want of anything better!*

*This conservative 184page publication, with its Introduction in English - German text, compiled by Courtney L. Coffing, was printed some time ago as a handy guide and check-list - it was not meant be presented as an illustrated catalogue!

Whilst previously known information - compiled by German-born, Dr. Arnold Keller and Dr .Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht (born in Denmark of German parentage - whose parents married in New York) was used as a basis of this later compilation - it took a lot of extra work by Coffing to bring it up-to-date and put it into a perspective that became a handy work-tool for both Paper and Metal Notgeld collectors ... it is a good early dig into a very complicated area of our hobby.


To quote, in part, from the information supplied from the notes of Dr. Arnold Keller in regard to early German issues:-

"In 1914, 452 localities issued 5,500 notes. ...from 1916 and 1922 notes under One Mark were from 3,658 places and totalled 36,000 notes ... in 1923,  800 places produced 70,000 notes...."  

As you can see, we are talking about a lot of paper from a lot of places ...!

How many un-numbered notes and denominations in an individual printer's production-run for a official issuer is anyone's guess without accurate figures from these sources - many of these print-shops were small local businesses and details were not kept - or certainly not for long - in those chaotic days. 


Using the illustrations of the Austrian and German Gemeinde (District communities) etc. shown above; this short-list, from the hundreds known - gives an indication of the types of Notgeld/Gutschein that were known to have been issued in note or 'metal token coin' form.


WESTFALEN:- Municipal Paper and Municipal Metal

COLOGNE:-  State Paper and Private Paper

ROTHENBURG:-  Municipal Paper, Private Paper and Municipal Metal

KRUMBACH (Bavaria):- Municipal Paper and Municipal Metal

LANDAU-ISAR (Bavaria):- Municipal Paper and Private Paper

GRUNBACH/GAINFARN/PERNAU (Austria):- Municipal Paper only

BAYONNE Basse-Pyrenees (France);- Municipal Paper, Private Paper, Municipal Metal and Private Metal   


This 2nd. edition of Coffing's 'Guide and Checklist of World Notgeld' (published and copyrighted 1988 by Krause Publications) does have some intriguing pics of a selection of the smaller-sized  notes interspersed - in B/W - that are to scale, but this condensed publication is so basic that it lacks many other definitive details - such as listed denominations, or confirmed size details of larger notes - and, without the essential dash of colour in the illustrations, they are somewhat difficult to imagine as attractive collectible items due to this lack of information, and ....panache!  Still handy!


Basic Check List Presentation.

(Numbers represent):-  1. Municipal Paper  2. Private Paper  3. POW Paper  4. POW Official Metal 

5. POW Private Metal  6. Municipal Metal  7. Private Metal  8. Gas Tokens  9. Food; Beer; Consumer goods 

10. Naval; Military Canteen  11. Encased; un-encased Stamps  12. Streetcar Tokens  13. Porcelain  14. WWII issues

15. Concentration, Civilian Internment Camps.


As mentioned, issue production figures, and any sort of contemporary price estimations, were only vaguely considered in the Introduction due to the plethoric issues and the lax nature of original records within this field, and they were only discussed in general terms, by the compiler who was, primarily, interested in gathering and presenting details of the known community issuers (not the job printers) of Notgeld, Gutschein and similar items before that essential history disappeared.


Part Two:-

Emergency Issues, Inflation notes etc. from post WWI and WWII eras are to be presented in a future issue!



JULY 2007 - JANUARY 2015....

Full details of 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  (2007)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  -  (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm  -  (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec09.htm  -  (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2010)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec10.htm  -  (Volume 15 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2011)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jun11.htm  -  (Volume 16 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec11.htm  -  (Volume 16 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2012)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june12.htm -  (Volume 17 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec12.htm  -  (Volume 17 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2013)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june13.htm  -  (Volume 18 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec13.htm   -  (Volume 18 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2014)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june14.htm  -  (Volume 19 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec14.htm  -   (Volume 19 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2015)



(JANUARY - JUNE 2015) 

Issue 1. January 2015:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan15.htm

T.N.S. ANNUAL DINNER & LECTURE 2014 - This brief report from the T.N.S. Annual Dinner & Lecture held in early December 2014, can only give an inadequate idea of the level of comradeship that many of the members of the Society still enjoy. Established in 1963 - just prior to the introduction of Decimal coinage to Australia - the Tasmanian Numismatic Society has proven to be a great learning institution. However, we members - old and new -  are still being educated about our fascinating hobby from invited experts - such as Dr. David Briggs.

A BLAST FROM THE PAST - The removal of $1.00 and $2.00 notes from our currency was considered a big deal back in 1984 and 1988. These notes were the equivalent of our 'old' 10 Shillings and One Pound Imperial notes from the time of Federation. However, the sky didn't fall in!


Issue 2. February 2015:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/feb15.htm

A MISTY WINDOW IN TIME - Over the last 1000 years at , seemingly, regular intervals -  events have occurred that are suitably impressive to have earned a place in written history. Of course, some of those momentous occurrences coincide with lesser instances that connect with us - the grist which is ground and blended to make us who we are. We are sometimes the victims of the whims of Fate - but  we do strive to control our destinies! 


Issue 3. March 2015:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar15.htm

A MISTY WINDOW IN TIME - Part II -  Another piece of a jig-saw, that has intrigued this writer for decades, has fallen into place.... The picture is emerging slowly - and it may be that other hands will need to complete or tidy the finer details of the portrait in future decades - but, at least, a few of the weeds have been cleared. Additional information about William Robert Taylor's less than prestigious reason for coming to Tasmania - and staying forever..


Issue 4. April 2015:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/april15.htm

WE STILL CALL AUSTRALIA HOME! - In 1914, the concept of a World War was unimaginable to all Australians! The next 5 years proved how wrong that could be. For over 100 years now, the facts of our national involvement have been analysed, the data collated and the tales that were told each year by the  actual participants have now become memories and hearsay. However, those tales will continue -as they are now locked in our psyche and are part of the building blocks of history- and our emergence as a free nation. Too soon, this generation will also become history as well!  -  LEST WE FORGET!

'TASMANIAN NUMISMATIST' - Just a reminder that this Editor has now relinquished the position of Editor of the T.N.S. Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter after 20 years, and all correspondence regarding the Society should be directed through the Secretary or the President. As a T.N.S. member, I plan to continue contributing articles .

'THE ROSES AMONGST THE THORNS' - While this article about 'commemorative coinage' does not qualify seriously as a 'Blast from the Past' it is from the Archives of 2013 and is meant to draw attention to a continuing commercial aspect taken by the Mint of making money to look at - not really to use!


Issue 5. May 2015:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/may15.htm

THE MATTER OF CHOICES. - We make choices throughout our lives - and our choices of what we collect within the parameters of our hobby are no exception. That these hobby choices are said to be like the 'ripples in a pond' may sound somewhat trite - but, like other life choices, the selection we make can have far-reaching consequences far beyond our comprehension! So chose carefully!

PRE-2000 CURRENCY TRIVIA - Details, details, details!  What would we do without them? Here are a few good handfuls of assorted trivia for you to peruse -  and, hopefully, they may be of use some day!


Issue 6. June 2015:-

WHAT WAS LOST - IS FOUND! - We all do it at times - misplace stuff in the most obscure of places in our own homes! Recently, I re-discovered - after a frustratingly long search in all the usual places- some lost 'treasures'... of sorts!  In recent years, the interest in NOTGELD and other Emergency paper money items has been revitalised somewhat.... they never will be a real fortune-maker in a money sense... however, some of these items, particularly the hard-to-come-by issues, are now being considered 'historical rarities' instead of scraps of near worthless printed paper.

FOR WANT OF ANYTHING BETTER !* - Long neglected as too hard - this field has suddenly started to stir once more. Unfortunately, information is still not readily available to wannabe gatherers - so all clues are eagerly sought!





The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


The 'NumisNet World'’ (Internet Edition) newsletter has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented free on a monthly basis with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics. Whilst the 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter abides by the same basic guidelines originally suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter, it is a separate, independent publication.

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, email or hand delivered, directly to financial members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions.

All titles and matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society


Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.

Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Editor. 

ALL comments in linked articles are the responsibility of the original authors.

Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, any Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations -  or  - (2) To provide additional important information. 


Some illustrated items - including their designs and packaging -  may be subject to existing copyright restrictions.

In such instances, they may not be replicated or their images reproduced or republished - unless prior permission is sought from, and given by, the originator, owner or licensee of such item, design or packaging.



The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter complies with the Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act.

Under this act, information about individuals can be stored and published only if: the information is already contained in a publicly available document or if personal information has been provided by the individual to whom the information relates, and if that individual is aware of the purposes for which the information is being collected.

All information published by the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter is either publicly available, or has been voluntarily provided by writers, on request from the Editor of the ''NumisNet World'  (Internet Edition) newsletter.

While the ''NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter may hold writers' addresses and other details for the purposes of communication and copyright protection, it will never make such addresses or details available to any member of the public without the permission of those involved.

The 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter also respects the privacy of our readers. When you write to us with comments, queries or suggestions, you may provide us with personal information including your contact address or other relevant information. Your personal information will never be made available to a third party without permission.



All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned. 

The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. Deadline for any literary contributions, or amendment to copy, is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication.


The Editor,

Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.


Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

Email: pwood@vision.net.au