Volume 18 Issue 6      Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)     June 2013



Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2013.


The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


All or any prices quoted in articles in this free newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the authors' own collection - or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' -  Internet Edition © 1991 - 2007.  and the  'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition. © 2007 - 2013.  

Krause-Mishler (KM) Standard and Specialized World Catalogs (also including 'Pick' banknote numbers) - and McDonald and/or Renniks Australian catalogue numbers - are used where applicable.

*Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes.)


Please, also, consider my conditional invitation, to make a literary contribution, if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest - and fulfils our stated editorial guidelines. As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in additional presentation. However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication. 

We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has necessitated the following conditions.

If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagiarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbyist collector.  - G.E.P.



Where on-line web-site Links or addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith - however, our readers are advised, that, if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.




1941 - 1945

A few of us, of a more mature age, may still have cause to remember the aftermath of the original Anzac Day (25th. April 1915) with a more poignant, and direct, memory - perhaps, due to the loss of someone we actually knew who was a participant in the Great War - WWI. 

We tend to put these ancient military things in a mental closet and get on with life after the parades are done and the wreaths have been laid on cenotaphs around our nation. Life goes back to 'normal'!

However, we -'those who are left - growing old'- will, eventually, be reminded of other sacrifices and more contemporary conflicts - those anniversaries that unlock that closet door of our more recent memories and spill forth our emotions once more.

In 1939, the old battlefields of Europe were again awash with blood as Germany, and its allies, arisen from the ashes and humiliation of WWI, sought to resurrect itself and dominate the Ancient World once more.

It was inevitable that the European War would eventually spill over - and, this time the escalation had drawn in extra participants and enjoyed alliances that had dramatically changed from those of the earlier conflict of 1914 - 18. It became a World War - in the truest sense - on 7th.December 1941 - but, it took part in several key strategic areas that decided its outcome..

Each anniversary of the start and finish of our own nation's involvement in the South Pacific War 1941- 1945, heralds a rekindling of interest in a time that is fast becoming only remembered by history. Those of us who lived in that region, and were directly involved in those conflicts, are the only ones remaining who can reminisce first-hand over the events that enthralled us in their horrendous grasp. 

Most of the dramatic stories - and some of the most horrific revelations - have been told - some are now drifting into a type of 'folk-lore' and waiting to achieve the ultimate 'Hollywood' accolade of having a movie based on the event. Unfortunately, some of the facts are now becoming fiction - and vice versa!



The American Flag of 48 Stars and 13 Stripes  (1912 - 1959)


PEARL HARBOUR - Sunday 7th. 1941

A rescue boat in the pic. (shown above) - was attempting to pick up traumatized survivors.  One man is about to be plucked from the burning oil covered waters near the stricken U.S.S.'Maryland' and U.S.S.'Tennessee'

Over 2,403 men were killed, 7 major ships were sunk or seriously damaged and 120 U.S. aircraft were destroyed during the surprise air-strike by 380 Japanese war-planes that commenced at 7.48 a.m. on a Sunday morning in December 1941 as many people were having breakfast and thinking about Church Services.

('Pictorial History of Australia at War' - Vol. II - published by the Australian War Museum 1957.)


Within a short time of the attack, a declaration of war was made by the U.S. Congress in these words:

Joint Congressional Declaration of War on Japan

December 8, 1941

JOINT RESOLUTION: Declaring that a state of war exists between the Imperial Government of Japan and the Government and the people of the United States and making provisions to prosecute the same.

Whereas the Imperial Government of Japan has committed unprovoked acts of war against the Government and the people of the United States of America: Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the state of war between the United States and the Imperial Government of Japan which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and the President is hereby authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carry on war against the Imperial Government of Japan; and, to bring the conflict to a successful termination, all of the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United States.

Approved, December 8, 1941, 4:10 p.m. E.S.T.


1935C One Dollar Silver Certificate.

In 1942, a series of 1935A notes (similar to above) was re-issued with a BROWN seal on the front instead of the normal BLUE and the word 'HAWAII' in large open-work letters horizontally across the back in BLACK - specifically for use in Hawaii as the islands were considered at risk of invasion at that time. A series of 1934A notes was also re-issued in higher denominations with an additional word HAWAII set - with the base parallel with the note edge -  in small print in BLACK on the front adjacent to the Seal.



This brief article is not meant to dwell on these 'blood , bullets and the awful brutality' of things past - but some things still need to be told to de-mystify the glory of war - so be warned that there will be references to some of those things that made this war so terrible in our part of the world..

In the main, however, we need to look back and see what some of the people - those who were left at home - were doing at the time of the Pacific War in our near north. 

We - the young and the old, those in reserved occupations, the mothers, the children, the aged - and the infirm - also had 'our war' on the home-front! 

One thing we still all needed during this time was cash money (or its equivalent when official cash was unavailable or unacceptable) .... so, it is this commodity that this article is about to discuss. 


Credit, as we knew it then, was already virtually non-existent at that time except - possibly - at the local grocer, who knew your family personally - and allowed you to quietly 'book' up a few basic items until pay-day!  

Visits to the back-door of the local grocer's shop on a Sunday, or after hours, is still a fond memory that I have!

Basic things like food, footwear and clothing were scarce and costly, severe rationing of commodities was a part of daily life in the early 1940's  - so a few black marketeers, and those that bent the rules a little, flourished and made their fortunes - and, those of us who had little - just had to cope with even less!

Life became a dreary battle to survive from week to week - but - it could be hazardous, and occasionally deadly, for some families who lived in war-zones in the far north of our continent - or other places that had military responsibilities.

Recommended Reading:-

'COWRA BREAKOUT'  Refer:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan09.htm


Our three local Brisbane St. grocers had lots of spare space on their shelves in 1942 - but they helped when they could!


LAUNCESTON - the IRISH end of town 1942.

BRISBANE STREET - between Wellington and Bourke Sts.



(Pic. 1. The kids standing in the middle of the street probably included this writer.)

(Pic. 2. Every building shown in this pic. was removed to make room for a city car-park.)

 (Pic. 3. The terraces where I lived with relatives during WWII - half now removed.)

 (Pic. 4. One of my Aunts and my cousins lived above Lawrence's shop during WWII.)

Pics. by late D.G. WHERRETT - "AROUND EVERY CORNER" - 1942


Regrettably, I do not have a complete illustrated numismatic library to personally draw upon that would cover all the 'money' items from all the nations that were involved in the world's two major conflicts - and, particularly the 'South Pacific War' in this instance - so, whatever bits 'n' pieces  I have in my own collection must suffice at this time - but - if any of the scans do stimulate a few memories of a very difficult time, they will have served their purpose.

I have selected some items of currency from a few of the major participating nations (listed below) to refresh our memories of a few of the less than mundane aspects of day-to-day living during wartime - although there were many 'pretty ordinary' days during the 'bread and cabbage' era of survival at home - wherever that might have been! 

How many of us still remember those days .....!?



Australian National Flag 1901 -


1940 - Men of the 16th. Battery, 6th. Field Brigade (Militia) R.A.A.

(my late uncle is 2nd. man from the left - 3rd.row from the top.)


The Tasmanian Artillery (Militia) 6th. Field Brigade (soon to be redesignated as a Regiment) consisted of several Batteries of volunteer members prior to the start of WWII.  

From the early 1920’s the 6th Field Brigade had consisted of the 16th Battery in Launceston, equipped with 18 Pounders, and the 106th Battery with its 4.5 Howitzers in Hobart - but, in July 1939, a third battery - the 17th - was formed in Launceston from the long waiting-list of volunteers and a part of the existing 16th Battery.

The 17th Battery held its first parade on 13 July - and, by 3 September 1939 - the world was at war!

Immediately, suitable volunteers were inducted into the A.I.F. 6th Division - with a composite Tasmanian-Queensland unit to form the 1st. Australian Anti-Tank Regiment -  that soon to be followed by the formation of the  9th. Division, which incorporated the new A.I.F. 2/8 Field Regiment. The 2/8 Regiment was a composite Tasmanian-Victorian unit - which eventually served with great distinction in the Middle East at El Alamein and in Syria. (see details below)


The following brief excerpt is from 'Gimme the Guns' - 'Recollections of El Alamein' by Charles Gilbert McKenzie  - a wartime biography as related to, and published by, this writer in 2003.

"It was also during this time that the first of the A.I.F. 6th Division volunteers were being accepted from the 6th Field Brigade and some of our Launceston Battery members were amongst the first to be enlisted - people like Jim Bain TX2004), Max Fotheringham (TX2005), Max Frost (TX706), and John Gunn (TX527).

The Tasmanians were to form 10th Battery HQ and one troop of the 2/5th Field Regiment, which was to be strengthened by a contingent of Queensland officers and other ranks. This composite regiment eventually formed the 1st Australian Anti-Tank Regiment on 17 March 1940 and served in England and South Africa, then fought desperately in Greece, Crete and Syria as well as other South-West Pacific areas such as Dutch New Guinea with great distinction.

I had seriously thought of joining them at that time but my father, who had seen a terrible war at first hand, said:

“No, wait for a while.”

I then decided to put my name forward on to a list of volunteers who would eventually fill a new composite Tasmanian - Victorian 2nd A.I.F. Field Regiment that was in the process of being formed - the 2/8th.

 The 2/8th Field Regiment officially commenced service on 3 May 1940 with its Regimental HQ located in the 15th Brigade HQ’s at Batman Avenue, Melbourne prior to its eventual move to Puckapunyal.

I was officially discharged from the 6th Field Brigade on the 12 May 1940 and officially joined 16th Battery 2/8th Field Regiment 2nd A.I.F. the next day, on the 13 May 1940. "

Other volunteer gunners from the 6th Field Artillery Brigade, including my late uncle, Raymond N. Petterwood (aged 23) - shown below at the breech of an 18Pounder in early Winter 1940 - were accepted by the 22nd Australian Motor Regiment - a C.M.F. (Militia) unit attached to the 12th Infantry Brigade - and they were deployed to New Guinea until the majority of the Japanese Army were driven out in 1944.



By 1942, Australian Motor Regiments were basically Armoured units - Bren gun carriers, Grant III tanks, Matilda II Infantry Tanks etc. - however, due to the Matilda II's superior performance in the New Guinea jungle terrain, almost all of the armoured units to be deployed to the South West Pacific were re-equipped with these vehicles before the deployment. Most saw plenty of action.


1941 Army Cadets on the Home Front.

Some of the un-named older army cadets from my old boy's high school (Launceston Junior Technical School) would possibly have been called upon for military service in the Pacific region - or on the Korean Peninsula - a few years after this photo was taken in 1941.

I had started to attend the junior classes at Wellington Square Primary School - the brick building shown behind the cadets - in 1942. At that time, there were many movements of scholars between schools as families were divided by war service and the consolidation of resources was paramount.  During this period, I was transferred between  3 different schools - East Launceston, Wellington Square - and, finally, Charles St. Primary in early 1945 until 1949.


Driver E. L. Petterwood - the author's father.

31st. Australian Army Service Corps.

Darwin, Northern Territory c.1943 -1945







1942 Ten Shilling note, 1938 One Pound note, 1941 Five Pounds note,1943 Ten Pounds note.

These designs continued throughout the war years and until the death of King George VI in 1952.

 Slight colour variations occurred - as did the names of the official signatories.

(Not to scale)



(left) Japanese National Flag 1870 - 1999

(Slight variation from the central position of the 'Circle of the Sun' was made in 1999.)

 (centre) Japanese Imperial Naval Ensign 1889 - 1945

 (In 1954, this design was re-introduced and adopted by the new Japanese Army and Naval Defence Forces.)

(right) Japanese Imperial Army War Flag 1870 - 1945


Whilst Japan was not an active participant in WWI - it was involved in military activity against China and Russia at that time and had began to flex its military and economic muscles as a major power in the Pacific region as it perceived its global destiny was linked with expansion at all costs.

During WWII, Japan joined the German and Italian military Axis in active military opposition to the Allied Forces.

The history of Japan's entry and involvement in WWII is well documented, and the surprise attack on the American Fleet moored at Pearl Harbour near Honolulu, Hawaii - at 7.48a.m. on Sunday morning 7th. December 1941, was despised as an 'act of infamy' against the United States of America - who until that time were still officially neutral.

The  consequence, of the bitter and horrific Pacific War that erupted, was the involvement of the U.S. in the European conflict as well - and, the eventual detonation of the first two Atomic bombs in history to be used on a civilian population. These weapons were deployed by the U.S. to force a fanatical Japan into a final  unconditional surrender situation in 1945 after the Nazi regime had already capitulated in Germany in 1944 after the death of Adolf Hitler*(see below)



c.1938 Japanese 50 Sen and 10 Yen notes printed for homeland use.



1945 Allied Occupation of Japan - Yen Currency






Old Chinese National Flag - used in 1941

Flag of the British Colony of Hong Kong - period 1910-1959

For an excellent report of the Chinese-Japanese incidents and wars since 1894 - and particularly those since 1931-45 -it is suggested that our readers should consult the Wikipedia free encyclopaedia.

Refer:- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Sino-Japanese_War

Hong Kong was resumed, in 1997, by the People's Republic of China

It is now managed as a Special Administrative Area.



c.1938 Japanese Over-Printed notes.

The Japanese letters in Red - 'Chun' 'Yung' 'Shou' 'Piao' - signify that this was a military issued note for use in China during the Japanese occupation..


1944 Japanese authorised notes issued by 'puppet' banks.

e.g. 'The Central Reserve Bank of China'



Malayan Flag 1895 - 1946


Already heavily involved in the Middle East and fighting the Germans, Italians and Vichy French, Australia began to withdraw some of its forces -  in the face of the growing Japanese threat in the Pacific region.

In August 1941, the Australian Government had felt sufficiently alarmed to react and had started reorganising regular troops and militia into areas that seemed appropriate. This included Malaya and New Guinea.

They also appointed Lt.General Sir Iven Mackay as CIC (Home Forces) and recommended that the new 8th Australian Division should remain for service in the Australia region.

This was in deference to the wishes of the British War Cabinet of Winston Churchill - and a political stand-off occurred between the Prime Ministers of the two Commonwealth nations - which Australia won!

The deployment of the 8th Division was made to Malaya along with the 27th. Brigade, and the III Indian Corps, as the Japanese threat started to gain momentum towards the latter part of 1941.

Urgent work on defensive positions on the Malay Peninsula and near Singapore were commenced. 


After the Allied euphoric victories at El Alamein and in Syria, in which Australian troops of the 6th., 7th. and 9th Aust. Divisions had played a highly significant role, the surprise attack on Pearl Harbour on the morning of 7th.December,1941, had caught the the 'neutral' United States and the Allies somewhat unprepared - and the rapid gains by the Japanese Imperial Army during the next few days saw many of air-bases in Malaya and the Philippines bombed and disabled by another carrier-borne force of 400 Japanese planes.

A convoy of 160 Japanese ships, carrying thousands of troops, light tanks and other heavier equipment, landed in Malaya on the 8th. December 1941 in a well planned stratagem and were soon controlling most northern strategic areas.

The last-minute strengthening of defences in Malaya had proven to be nothing more than a delay of the inevitable - nor were the newly arrived Australian troops able to organize a meaningful  resistance - some were still awaiting adequate equipment and their heavy weapons to arrive.

The few light anti-tank and medium artillery pieces were placed to defend major roads leading to the south - but they were eventually forced to pull back under heavy fire and the rapidly advancing superior forces.


By 11th. February 1942, Lt. General Tomoyuki Yamashita, demanded the allied surrender - which was initially rejected. However, the situation deteriorated when water, petrol and other military essentials became exhausted as Singapore city was pounded by bombs and Japanese artillery - and a re-negotiated cease-fire took effect on the 15th.February when 180,000 Allied troops (including 16,000 Australians of the 8th. Division) were ordered to lay down their arms.

Malaya - Allied surrender 15th. February 1942.

Lieut. General A.E. Percival signing the Surrender document.

('Pictorial History of Australia at War' - Vol. 1II- published by the Australian War Museum 1958.)


The capitulation and unconditional surrender to the XXV Japanese Army by Lt. General A. E. Percival, the English GOC Malaya was done in good faith - in an effort to save starvation and the slaughter of civilians and military alike! 

However, a surrender treaty didn't stop the Japanese from partaking in some events of utter barbarity that still resonates in some people's psyche even today. The Japanese, at that time, considered surrender as 'cowardly' under their custom of Bushido - and 'cowards' were to be treated with utter contempt.

Many of our Allied troops were to spend the rest of the war in abject slavery as P.O.W's under the bayonets and cudgels of the Japanese military - and an awful number suffered brutally vicious deaths.

The danger to Australia was now imminent - and the decision to return our 6th and 7th Division troops to Australia to defend the Pacific area had been truly justified - but it was almost too late!.


The experienced troops, who returned from North Africa, formed the vital nucleus of our homeland defence, along with our American allies, when the war came to Australia when Darwin was bombed with loss of life - and New Guinea was invaded by the rampaging Imperial Japanese forces.

On 19th Feb. 1942 - the first bombs had fallen on Darwin - and in May the Battle of the Coral Sea occurred (this was the first major invasion setback experienced by the Japanese) -  but, by early June 1942, Japanese forces had regrouped and were invading New Guinea - and dread was gripping most mainland Australians.

The early 1940's was to be a very parlous time for those of us who lived in the South Pacific.

For those who lived in Malaya - it had proven to be far worse!




1941 Board of Commissioners of Currency - Malaya

One Cent (Uniface) - 50Cents - One Dollar


c.1942-5 Japanese Invasion Money (J.I.M.) from two of the Japanese occupied countries.

Generic issues from Burma (B) Cents and Rupees and Malaya (M) Cents and Dollars.





During the South Pacific campaign, the small nation of New Zealand - which was already heavily engaged in the conflicts of WWII in all military spheres on the ground and in the air - and -'punching well above its weight' - in the Atlantic War.

Seventeen New Zealand 'coast-watchers' were caught and beheaded by the Japanese in Tarawa - and 118 P.O.W's from the Middle East became casualties when the Italian ship 'Nino Bixio' that they were on, was sunk by a British submarine in the Mediterranean Sea..

For those of us Australians who have New Zealand cousins - and there are many - it was also a time that the news was not always good.


By mid-1942, New Zealand - like Australia - had became an integral 'staging-post' for US. troops to train for - and recuperate from - some of the most vicious Pacific campaigns in world history.

In 1944, the battlegrounds included the 'killing-fields' of the Solomon Islands and New Georgia to Australia's N.E.

However, places like Auckland, offered a safe area far from the horrors of the Pacific battle zones - as it was further south than most Japanese submarines could operate.


New Zealand - Ten shilling Note

Commonly known as a 'Short-snorter' - this local banknote was signed by 'passengers' on a trip or visitors to an area, as a memento - it is clearly dated 25th. December 1943. It was reported to have been signed by U.S. Military personnel - either coming or going 'somewhere'


It is an interesting statistic that almost 1500 New Zealand women married American servicemen during the Second World War - so the possibility is that some of those war-brides may have been related to Australians ......



Philippines National Flag 1898 -

(In time of war - the national flag is traditionally flown with the Red stripe uppermost. The shade of the Blue stripe has varied somewhat with different administrations since inception.)

The American Flag of 48 Stars and 13 Stripes  (1912 - 1959)

(This flag was also used whilst the Philippines was under direct U.S. administration from 1912 - 1946)


Whilst Luzon and other targeted areas with US bases were bombed, on 10th. December 1941, before the invasion by Japanese ground troops, the Philippines had been originally considered as a prime candidate for Japanese expansion and the islands were included within the Japanese 'Co-prosperity Sphere' plans - but - first the American and European population had to be removed - or put to productive use to advance the Japanese war effort at little cost.

The method of achieving the desired result was death or enslavement and starvation - and, in most instances, it was horrifically brutal in its excesses as history has revealed.

For a time, sections of the native Filipino  population were given a more preferential treatment - but that didn't last - and a brutal and blood-thirsty occupation regime was soon established to strip the country of assets and subjugate the population.

The remnants of the American forces, who hadn't escaped, were eventually forced to surrender at Corrigedor after a fighting withdrawal and a hold-out of 28 days


The initial release of J.I.M.- Japanese Invasion Money (P) - in the Philippines Islands, during the Pacific War, consisted of generic styles - although the higher value notes had more elaborate fronts than those used in Malaya and Burma etc. and they were printed on slightly better quality paper.  The backs of the notes were reserved for the denominations and were relatively plain. Subsequent J.I.M. note releases bore both Series and Serial numbers and featured some specific Philippines landmarks.

Japanese Government currency was not to be refused when offered in payment - on pain of death!


Two issues of 5 & 10 Pesos notes issued by the Japanese Government for occupational use in the Philippines.

The earlier notes bore the 'P' designation followed by a letter presumed to denote the circulation region.


*After the war, an effort was made to recompense those Filipinos who had been forced to accept - under pain of death - the Japanese occupation currency which had become worthless at war's end. It did continue to circulate, in some areas, for a time after the surrender as a 'currency of necessity' -  until regular national notes became available once more.

An organisation was set up to list the claimants and collect the Japanese paper money - however, the class action claim for reimbursement was dismissed by the courts and the notes - bearing the blue ink oval stamp of the reparation organisation - were declared worthless.

Hoards of Philippines J.I.M. currency is still being found - virtually uncirculated - stamped or otherwise - and, currently, slowly sells at numismatic markets for a few dollars per note. Every world note collection should have a few samples to remind us of the era.

During the occupation, many Europeans - including members of the American armed forces and civilians who had escaped incarceration as POW's of the Japanese - teamed with Philippine nationals to form a guerrilla force to actively fight the Japanese Army. The use of local 'emergency' currencies grew to accommodate business transactions in areas not under Japanese control. The notes were to be redeemed when a lawful government was returned to the Philippines.

To be caught, by the Japanese Army, with any of those notes meant brutal forms of torture to extract information - and then summary execution!

Many of the notes were crudely made - often using makeshift printing-plates and whatever paper resources and (mobile) presses or copiers that were available. Some notes were printed uniface to save precious printing ink. 

In most instances, the names of the officials were stamped or stencilled on after the notes had been printed.


Philippines National Bank 'Emergency' various value Peso notes.

Printed by the 'Iloilo Currency Committee' on available paper. Notes vary in quality.

Issued between 1941-1944.



1942 Bohol Province 'Emergency' 50 Centavos note.

Printed on heavy Manila paper by the Bohol Emergency Currency Board.



(N.D.) Ten 'Emergency' Pesos from Mountain Province - printed on lightweight writing-paper



1944 'Emergency Currency Certificate' for One Peso from Negros Island Province.

Printed on heavy sugar-bag paper.


1942 Two Pesos from Negros Occidental Province Currency Board - printed on heavy paper.



Not dated (1944) Overprint - 'VICTORY' - on a Philippines 2 Pesos note (Series #66)

This note was similar to the pre-war (1936) issue.

The original design, dated 1918, featured Rizal and bore the designation 'PHILIPPINE ISLANDS'.

It was altered to read 'PHILIPPINES' in 1936.



Netherlands National Flag used from 1800 - 1942


The former Netherlands East Indies (now Indonesia) was also considered to be an integral part of Japan's 'Co-prosperity Sphere' plans - and a series of elaborate currency notes was introduced after the invasion occurred in early December 1941.

Initially, the occupation currency for Sumatra and Java was issued in Cents and Gulden, but - in 1944 - the Japanese administration printed and issued notes in Roepiah (Rupiah) in an effort to break the colonial ties with the Netherlands. Some of these Japanese notes were still being used and accepted as late as mid-December 1949 in the Nationalist-held areas just prior to the final severance from Holland and the start of Indonesian nationhood..


Generic Japanese Invasion Money in Cents and Gulden.

The 'S' prefix - denotes Sumatra as the Netherlands East Indies (now Indonesia) was once known.


Roepiah Notes issued by the Japanese - no serial numbers.

Due to the sense of 'freedom from the colonial Dutch'  most of the native population initially welcomed the Japanese as saviours.  However - as had occurred in the Philippines - some resistance to the Japanese military government grew.

The Dutch colonialists and other Europeans caught in the situation, were targeted as enemy aliens and were soon being rounded up as prisoners along with all former Allied military personnel.

They, and a few local supporters, who managed to escape the round-up, began to actively fight against the Japanese military in whatever way they could.

As this resistance slowly grew, it created a 'divergence of attitude' with those native population who still actively supported the Japanese at that time - and many forms of utter brutality were condoned when they were perpetrated by the military to curb local dissenters and to incarcerate foreigners in the most dire of circumstances*.


*A collation of reports from 2003 that I have read - and which are still on the Internet - detailed an horrific instance of Japanese wartime atrocities. The details were related, by numerous eye-witnesses (at least 36), who recollected seeing 'stacked' truckloads of Allied military personnel - who had been captured, beaten and tortured by the Japanese Kempeitai (Special Police - much like the Gestapo in function) - then tightly bound  in pairs wherever possible, and crammed into traditional wicker 'pig baskets'  used to carry animals to slaughter.

Some of the prisoners were said to have 'distinctive hats' - and that enabled the witnesses to guess their probable nationality.

Without food or water for days in the tropical heat the general physical condition of all the captives was 'pitiful'- some of these men had also been grievously 'tormented' (seriously wounded and dead bodies were reported) with 'bayonet pricks'  or had limbs broken by cudgels. The cries and moans of the living that were heard by the witnesses were described as - 'most terrible!'

Local people, in Surabaya, who tried to offer humanitarian assistance, were stoned and driven away by the guards - and, at least, one Dutchman, Police Inspector Pieter Gallas, was detained and murdered (reportedly kicked to death) by the Kempeitai, or the truck convoy's guards, shortly after being granted permission to give water to the prisoners.

He did what he could - but, he paid an awful price!

It is believed, by military analysts, that the convoy of 'pig baskets' was deliberately 'paraded' in a display of Japanese superiority over the Western troops and to humiliate and scare the local population - which was starting to see the liberators for what they were.


Surabaya Docks being bombed May 1944.

('Pictorial History of Australia at War' - Vol. 1V - published by the Australian War Museum 1958.)


The baskets - and their piteous contents - were last seen  being loaded aboard ships or barges in Surabaya Docks and  heading out into the open Java sea. The witnesses' reports - that the boats came back empty - were all consistent - so, it can only be assumed that the 'pig baskets' were dumped at sea - and that those who had been enclosed in them were destined to drown , be used for target practice, or be devoured by sharks -  like garbage. 

There were also reports from witnesses who told of beaches, as well as a few coastal river-banks, being strewn with washed-up baskets - containing what appeared to be human remains. 


1943 dated Netherlands-Indies Gulden-Roepiah notes.

(Featuring Queen Wilhelmina.)

This (1943 dated) Cents-Sen and Gulden-Roepiah (Rupiah) series of currency was introduced by the returning Dutch colonial administration immediately after the end of WWII - but it was to eventually fall victim to the country's militant nationalism which had been awakened by the Japanese during their occupation.




We sometimes tend to forget that Lance-Corporal Adolf Hitler was a commendable soldier who had distinguished himself under fire during WWI and had won the Iron Cross (1st. Class) while acting as a Company communiqué Runner on 2nd. December 1914 at Croonaert Wood (renamed Bavarian Wood) prior to Australia's entry onto the killing-fields of Flanders and the Somme in June 1916.

L/Corporal Hitler was also reported to have been awarded an Iron Cross (2nd. Class) for rescuing a German officer and, single-handedly, capturing a number of French troops while under heavy fire on 4th. August 1918 - but specific details are now hard to find that substantiate that claim in its entirety - but, it is known that he certainly was eligible - and, he was in the right spot at that time.

However, it is also historically known that Hitler was also actively involved in the Battle of Polygon Wood (see below) in late September 1917 - (as was my great-uncle Pte. Frederick Robert Fox who won the Military Medal (MM) in the same action on the 23/24th.Sept.) - and, a few weeks afterwards, L/Corporal Hitler was badly gassed and temporarily blinded during the 3rd Battle of Ypres (a.k.a. - Passchendaele) on the night of 13/14 October 1918 - just a few weeks before the war ended.. 

Due to his gassing, Hitler was relieved from active service by the German Army and it is known that his period of recuperation lasted over 3 months - until after the the war had ended.



According to the photocopies of official records I have, my great-uncle Regimental No.1010 - L/Corporal Frederick Robert Fox MM (12th. Battalion A.I.F.), was wounded several times in legs and face during this same campaign, and was mustered out from active service and eventually repatriated from Le Havre back to England - and thence Australia  - on 9th. November 1918, just a few days prior to the Armistice. He had enlisted on 13th. September 1914 and - during his term of 4 years and 198 days of service - he was abroad for 4 years and 100 days.

He had landed at Gallipoli on 25th. April 1915  - so he was truly one of the ANZACS!


Approaches to Polygon Wood - 25th. September 1918.



L/Corporal Adolf Hitler (1889 - 1945) - 1914 German Iron Cross

L/Corporal Fred Fox (1896 - 1968) - 1918 Imperial Military Medal

These two young soldiers, who were on opposite sides of the battle-lines, were both decorated for bravery, both promoted to Lance-Corporal - both were wounded during the final throes of the War - and both survived this terrible conflict.





'NUMISNET WORLD' July 2007 - December 2012

The detail of contents of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' and 'Numisnet World' can be seen at the following links. Copies of articles are usually available by email, upon request from the Editor or the original author - or, if directly accessed, subject to those copyright provisions laid down in our current terms of use.  Articles will not be posted by mail services.

Early issues of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition', from 1995 - 1999. were permanently archived in 2000 and articles are not linked directly.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug03.htm  - 1995, 1996 - 1997 (Volumes 1 and 2) Archived. Content detail only.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/Sept2003.htm  - 1998 - 1999 (Volumes 3 and 4) Archived. Content detail only.

By referring to the 'Newsletter Archives' or 'Search' function located on the Home Page, you can directly access all current Volumes online.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html  - January 2000 (Volumes 5 - to date).

In January 2006 it was decided to grant each new issue its own URL link. which would henceforth appear in the current Index.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar07.htm  - 2006 (Volume 11)

The final Index of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition'

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - 2007 (Volume 12 - Issues 1 - 6)


Full details of 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  (2007)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm  -  (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec09.htm  -  (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2010)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec10.htm  -  (Volume 15 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2011)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jun11.htm  -   (Volume 16 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec11.htm  -   (Volume 16 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2012)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june12.htm  - (Volume 17 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec12.htm   -  (Volume 17 - Issues 7 - 12)




January - to date, 2013


Issue 1.  January 2013:-   http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan13.htm

DISAPPEARING WORLD BANKNOTES (ROUND 1) - Over the last two decades or so, the world has become very much smaller, numismatically speaking! The formation of the Euro zone - and the break-up of several major power blocs  - can be likened to tossing a handful of stones into the currency pond. The waves and ripples are still bouncing from shore to shore, and some weaker currencies have been submerged and drowned - or in desperate need of salvation. It is a time for reflection by note collectors, as some prized collectables are being relegated to the 'also rans' sections of our albums - with the knowledge that we will be unlikely to see another national issue - as these states disappear into history.

A FEW 'TAG ALONGS - A few extra interesting pieces of paper that we sometimes overlook in the larger picture.

CASH FROM THE ORIENT! - TASMANIA'S CHINESE CASH - Over the years, the story of the CASH coins has been told on numerous occasions - however, we continue to get regular inquiries - "I have an old brass coin, a bit bigger than a 10 cent coin, with a hole in the middle - it has Chinese writing on it!  What is it?"  The purpose of this newsletter has always been educational - so - we have reprised the archived stories once again for that reason.

WANTED KNOWN - The 2013 schedule for the 'COIN & STAMP PLACE' 'travelling' coin and stamp shop locations  is now available. Contact them if you need to reserve any of the 2013 essentials or need them to bring something special along to the venues.


Issue 2. February 2013 :-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/feb13.htm

DISAPPEARING WORLD BANKNOTES (ROUND 2) - Concluding our perusal of some of the paper banknotes of 'yesterday' - or from those odd corners of the world that don't always attract a lot of numismatic attention.

A NUMISMATIC HOUSEHOLD HINT! - It's OK to allow non-collectors to touch your coins 'n' stuff - as long as you select the pieces that you hand to them! Be prepared - have a 'goodie-bag' ready to absorb that first impulsive reach and touch before you have a chance to educate them. .

T.N.S. MEETING - A general meeting will be held on 11th.  April  to discuss the 50th Anniversary celebration arrangements and to meet new members..


Issue 3. March 2013:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar13.htm.

A TIME TO REMEMBER - In 1988, something marvellous happened to the way the production of Australian currency notes was heading. The introduction of polymer substrate for use as the material for our folding money burst upon the public with a near unique note for its time. The Bi-Centenary Ten Dollars was as Australian as it could get in depicting our heritage - both Aboriginal and European. It was soon known as 'fantastic plastic' - and, it is still an essential centrepiece - the backbone- of many Oz decimal note collections.

AUSTRALIAN DECIMAL COINAGE - Another periodic review and preview of basic Oz coinage changes - and a brief foray into the increasingly distraction of special coinages being produced by the Royal Australian Mint - plus an 'Editorial Observation'.


Issue 4. April 2013:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/april13.htm

ANZAC DAY 1915 - 2013. - Each year, Australians - and our 'cousins' in New Zealand- symbolically join together to celebrate and honour the sacrifices that were enshrined on 25th April 1915. Our combined troops landed at Gallipoli in our first baptism of fire as volunteers, in fighting a common foe at dawn on that morning.. The story has been told each year to honourably inspire the new generations of ANZACS..

The enemy has become a respected friend -  and, each year, also joins us in our remembrance of this nation-forming event for both sides.. At the time, it was a case of kill or be killed - and so many young lives from both sides of the conflict were lost during that initial foray and the months that followed. 'LEST WE FORGET' - is the catch phrase of military history - so - let us, who bear the torch, hold it high!

IN THE BEGINNING! - In 1803, the island named - in passing - by Abel Janzoon Tasman,. Dutch explorer, as Van Diemen's Land, in 1642 - was settled by a a group of English soldiers and convicts a few years after the first colony had been established in New South Wales.  For about 45 years, the place became a dumping ground for felons, exiles and traitors - according to English law.  By 1853, the place had been renamed Tasmania - and the seeds of normalcy had started to grow as free men worked the land and the transportation of convicts dried up because the Tasmanians wanted something better for their children's future than an island prison. The gaols gradually emptied and were demolished and replaced by civic buildings over the next half century when the Federation of Australia occurred and the perceived stigma - or pride - of being convict colonists was allowed to find its own level of acceptance within our community and in history.


ISSUE 5. May 2013:-

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR - This is the 150th. year since the halfway point was reached in the American Civil War - or as the Southern states prefer to call it  - "The War between the States".  By 1863, it was obvious that the industrial might and wealth of the Northern states was going to be a crucial factor in the struggle. Sheer bravery has a limit in any battle - it has to be backed with the accoutrements that only money can buy. When that money is virtually worthless - and food and material cannot be produced locally - it is just a matter of time before the human spirit can not carry the load.

That this awful conflict lasted as long as it did - was due to the resolve of several key political players and the brave men on both sides who paid the price - not in money - but in blood! This human event played such a big part in forming the psyche of the nation that realistic re-enactments are regularly held  at, or near, the historic battlefields.

T.N.S. MEETINGS - An advice was received from T.N.S. President, R. V. McNiece OAM.,  that the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' has re-commenced monthly meetings at the Shot Tower at Taroona in Southern Tasmania after a long meeting recess.

Initially, it is envisaged that the last Tuesday in the month, commencing at 7.30p.m., will be satisfactory for most members - and, that will be confirmed in due course. The first two meetings are scheduled for May 28th. and June 25th. - NO meetings in November - December are planned at this time.


ISSUE 6. June 2013:-

REMINISCENCES OF WWII - The South Pacific War 1941-45. - The writer looks back at that period in Australia's history that had a profound influence on his whole life thereafter.





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The Editor,

Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.


Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

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