Volume 12 Issue 6                                INTERNET EDITION - Established 1996                                      June 2007


The name 'Tasmanian Numismatist' is used with the permission  of the Executive Committee of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' however, any comments published in this privately produced newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society', its Executive Committee or its members. Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, the Internet links selected by the authors of this  newsletter are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations and, (2) to provide additional important information. 

Any notices of concern to 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' members will be included in a  'Society Snippets' section.

We trust that this issue of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) newsletter will continue to provide interesting reading.

 

TASMANIAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY - NAA State Sponsor

Anyone who wishes to apply for membership to the non-profit making organization, and who is prepared to abide by the rules of the Society and its aim of promoting the study and enjoyment of the hobby of numismatics, should contact the following address for an application form and details of subscriptions: 

Tasmanian Numismatic Society Inc 

Postal Address: GPO Box 884J, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, AUSTRALIA.
Email (President): rogermcneice@our.net.au
Email (Secretary): misteeth@bigpond.net.au
Email (Editorial): pwood@vision.net.au
Internet: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html
 

Meetings: Currently in Recess.

 

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SOCIETY SNIPPETS

Notification 

Up-Coming Tasmanian Coin Fairs

 

The Stamp Place of Hobart advise that they will be displaying and selling coins, banknotes, numismatic catalogues and accessories as well as stamps at the forthcoming Tasmanian stamp and coin fairs. Please contact David or Kim on 6224 3536 if there is anything in particular you would like them to bring to any of the listed venues.

 

Saturday 9th. - Monday 11th June 2007

Antique Fair - Albert Hall, Tamar St., Launceston.

The Stamp Place of Hobart  will be in attendence from 10.00 a.m. - 5.00 p.m. (Admission fee to Fair)

 

Saturday 21st. July 2007

Coin & Stamp Fair - Sandors on the Park, 3 Brisbane St., Launceston.

The Stamp Place will be in attendence on Saturday (Admission Free)

 

Sunday 22nd. July 2007

Coin & Stamp Fair - Mercure Hotel, 156 Bathurst St., Hobart.

The Stamp Place of Hobart will be in attendence on Sunday (Admission Free)

 

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INTERNET EDITION

by Graeme Petterwood © 1996 - 2007

 

Remember - be astute when you are handed change - not all the wonders of numismatics have been discovered yet - and they don't have to be shiny and new! This edition again features an assortment of  'trivia' that I think is of interest and I trust it will prove educational and entertaining to you as well. 

All or any prices quoted in articles in this newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Please note that the photoscans of numismatic items are usually not to size or scale, but - wherever possible - they are from the authors' own collection or the extensive picture library of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition.

 

FROM the DRACHMA .........

Numismatic studies always seem to backtrack to the days of early Greece and Rome, whether we like the idea of collecting coins from those eras or not..

Most numismatic reference books make mention of the denarii, staters, dupondi etc. etc., as if we know all about them - which most of us don't - and, let's face it, we are probably too frightened or confused to approach the subject of ancient coins in case we get hooked and need to pay out thousands of dollars to  start a worthwhile collection. This is a misconception that needs to be sorted out so that we can enjoy the full scope of collecting coins.

Of course, there are the expensive, rare gold and silver items - but there are thousands of very economical buys as well in common bronze and alloys.

Many historically interesting ancient Roman coins, for instance, are available in all grading levels, umpteen denominations, from eras where  coins were produced in great numbers, and - in other words - just like any other numismatic product, we pay the money if we want the coin and the story that goes with it..

Yes! both ancient Greek and Roman coinage can be very complicated - but I have yet to meet a numismatist who didn't like a challenge once he had decided on his collecting theme. Look at the reference books, decide on your theme - and start collecting - these coins will not disappoint you.

To understand the history of coinage is the first step - and being able to relate to those reference books that left you bewildered with their 'locked-in' knowledge. Let's start!

 

Numismatics can be dated back into antiquity if we consider the countless methods of exchange and barter as legitimate items within our scope. However, the advent of coinage, as we have come to recognise it, only occurred relatively recently in historical terms and it is at this important turning point I will start our journey.

The precise moment that someone decided to make a piece of precious metal into the roundish lump that we can describe as a coin is unknown, but scholars estimate that it was probably between 650 - 625 BC.  somewhere in western Asia Minor (Asiatic Turkey) when, either Greek settlers in Ionia, or their neighbours, the Lydians, decided to knock up a few coins
The first coins were a mixture of gold and silver- which is known as electrum - and, as this alloy was found naturally in Lydia, it lends weight to the theory that the initial batches of this new invention were produced there. After eons of using bullion as the major financial trading tool it was evident that by establishing smallish ingots of a guaranteed weight and fineness that many problems would be overcome, like that of not having anything to jingle in your pockets when you went to the market.
To facilitate trade - and also control the finances of their states - the cities of Ionia, and the kings of Lydia, had started the coinage revolution that soon spread to Greece itself and the islands of the Aegean.

 

Eastern Mediterranean Sea  - c.431-362 B.C. - after coinage had become widespread in Greece and its colonies.

 

The designs of these early Greek coins was usually very simple, with various animals and insect totems that signified their place of origin, and then, circa 600 BC the caricature of a human head first appeared on the obverse of the uniface flans. The reverse normally only featured the marks of the minter's punch and it took another 50 years or so before the idea of using both sides of the coin was implemented by the Greeks. However, from then on, the designs were only restricted by imagination or technical experience and, as some of the early Greek silver coins are the most beautiful ever produced, they obviously lacked neither.

As silver was in reasonably plentiful supply in northern Greece, - Macedonia and Thrace - it was obvious that it would be utilised as the metal of choice in those areas. One problem that did arise, of course, is that these silver coins were originally made by many different Greek cities all around the Mediterranean and, in the early days, their weights tended to vary. As value was still based on actual bullion weight and not a stipulated denomination as modern coinage is, it became essential that some strict sort of standard was set - particularly in the area of precious metal coinages. The Greek bronze coinage, of that time, was - as most coinage is today - only a token of value and was compared to the intrinsic value of a greater value coin. Coins from the north were often remelted and restruck, in their own images, by southern cities and island states that had little in the way of the precious metal.

The introduction of bronze was a secondary, but necessary, choice in more isolated places like the north Aegean, Sicily and southern Italy and this would eventually promote the popular use of that metal into the Roman coinage.
As silver supplies began to become scarcer from the traditional areas, small value bronze coins based on the silver Obol were acceptable. (More modern scholars have decided that the silver Obol (weight 0.73g) was generally used as a base unit in the major Greek cities and colonies.
By the mid 500's BC the coiners were becoming even more imaginative and each important city had its own distinctive major design - Aigina, an island off the coast of Attica, had issued a silver stater, that featured a sea turtle, in circa 600 BC.
Soon after that, the cities of Corinth had its Pegasus, Thebes had its distinctive Boeotian Shield and the coins from the city of Chalkis featured the front view of a four-horse chariot.

In circa 525 BC Athens' famous bust of Athena and the traditional Owl made their first appearances and elaborate types featuring a variety of gods, goddesses, temples and other public buildings, fierce animals, struggling wenches, naked satyrs etc. began to follow quickly on their heels.

 

      

Silver Drachm

 

The variety of denominations in respect to the coin weights that were available is still a bit of a mystery even today, but the following table does give a rough idea of how it all worked in most places. Although there are exceptions with coins produced in Sicily for example, (which I will endeavour to explain later), the confusion of denomination terms boggles the mind and I will quote a passage from David Sears ' Collecting Greek Coins' to illustrate the point.
''The term 'stater' will often be encountered by the collector of Greek coins and they will wonder why it does not appear in tables of denominations. The reason is simple: 'stater' means the main denomination of a coinage and can, therefore, be a Tetradrachm, a Didrachm, or even a drachm. More often than not it applied to the Didrachm denomination which was the principal silver coin struck by the Greek colonies in Southern Italy…"

With this type of confusion we should be thankful for our simple dollars and cents, but the table I have compiled may go a long way in simplifying the problem that most of us find when we are trying to put some sort of perspective on the different Greek silver coin names. Bear in mind that the Obol (or Obolos) was also divided into various minute fractions. To complicate matters even further is the fact that different weight standards were used in different areas around the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas. The average weight of a circulation issue Greek tetradrachm coin, for instance, was only 17g, so the table indicates ideal weights per coin - but these were rarely reached as the government of the day literally got in for their tax 'chop' before the actual coins were put out for the public use.

Hemitetartemorion 

0.09g 

1/48 Drachm

Tetartemorion 

0.18g

1/24 Drachm

Trihemitetartemorion

0.27g

1/16 Drachm

Hemiobolion 

0.36g

1/12 Drachm

Tritemorion  (or Tritartemorion)

0.54g 

1/8 Drachm

Obol (os) 

0.73g 

1/6 Drachm

Trihemiobol (ion)

1.10g 

1/4 Drachm      (1½ Obols)

Diobol (on) 

1.46g 

1/3 Drachm      (2 Obols) 

Triobol (on) (or Hemidrachm)

2.19g 

1/2 Drachm      (3 Obols) 

Tetrobol (on)

2.92g

2/3 Drachm      (4 Obols)

Pentobol (on) 

3.63g 

5/6 Drachm      (5 Obols)

Drachm 

4.37g 

1 Drachm         (6 Obols) 

Didrachm 

8.75g

2 Drachms       (12 Obols)

Tetradrachm 

17.50g 

4 Drachms       (24 Obols) 

Dekadrachm

43.75g 

10 Drachms     (60 Obols) 

 

In the Greek Sicilian colony, the use of bronze coinage was based on the Litra, a small silver coin of about 0.85g. This was also produced as a large sized bronze coin which was intended to equal the intrinsic value of the silver version but, for ease of handling, it became lighter in weight and virtually became a token which, in turn, was divided into 12 onkia (ounces). Each onkia could also be divided, or multiplied, into smaller or larger denominations - for instance, the pentonkion equalled 5 onkion. The silver drachm of Attica, which was based on a slightly different weight standard to Greece, was also related to the litra at the rate of 5 litra to the drachm, compared to 6 obol to the Greek drachm.

the Black Sea colonies, mainly city states such as Pontos, produced a variety of autonomous Aegis coinage mainly in Bronze for local use. They were very crude compared to the finer silver and bronze pieces produced in Athens and other major Greek cities.

The 21mm. bronze Aegis coin (shown below) features a Gorgon's Head and Nike carrying an olive branch as its reverse. Minted between 121 - 63.B.C.

 

Pontos 21mm. Bronze Aegis (at least 2070 years old) - harshly cleaned, but legible under x10 magnification.

 

The value of Greek coinage is very rarely shown on the individual coin, but Greek numbers and the Greek alphabet, in upper and, occasionally, lower case, are linked so if you do get a number it will often be in this sort of alphabetical form.
eg. A P = 1+ 100 (101), or  I H = 10 + 8 (18), or  Z K P = 7+ 20 + 100 (127), or M B =  40 + 2 (42).

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

200

A B G D V Z H Q I K L M N X O P J R S
a b d e v z h q k m n x o p j r s
  •  

  • ..... to the UNICA.

    Like other early civilisations, the Romans' first currency consisted of crude lumps of cast metal, mainly bronze and of various weights based on the libra (lb.) that were designed to facilitate the Italian tribes' trade with their near neighbours. Today, these lumps of metal are known as 'Aes Rude' and a larger cast oblong block of bronze with different types of relief is known as 'Aes Signatum'.

    Aes Signatum

     

    Some 'Aes Signatum' were cut into smaller ingots, if required, and it is from these early attempts, dating from c.500 B.C. - 311 B.C. there emerged the more familiar round shape, with recognisable designs, now known as 'Aes Grave' and which are the first official Roman coins. The letters Æ often used to signify bronze or copper, come from the Latin word 'Aes'. They are often refered to as 'As' or 'Asses'
    The Italian tribes were also quick to notice that their neighbours, the Etruscans, had followed the Greek innovation of producing silver (often shown as AR - for Argentum ) and gold (shown as AU or sometimes AV - for Aurum) coinage as well as bronze (Æ) and of marking their coinage with values.
    The 'Aes Grave' or As was divided into 12 units known as 'unica'.(Greek onkia or ounce) A brief description of the common types and obverse design is included for collectors who just may run across this very early bronze coinage. The reverse is always the prow of a galley.

    AS

    JANUS

    Letter I

    12 Uncia

    SEMIS

    JUPITER

    Letter S

    6 Uncia

    TRIENS

    MINERVA

    4 Pellets

    4 Uncia

    QUADRANS

    HERCULES

    3 Pellets

    3 Uncia

    SEXTANS

    MERCURY

    2 Pellects

    2 Uncia

    UNCIA

    ROMA

    I Pellet

    -

     

     

     

     

    As trade with the more sophisticated Greek settlements became more frequent the need for a silver coinage that was acceptable elsewhere in the Mediterranean became imperative and, in the 3rd century B.C., various imitations of the Greek didrachms started to appear bearing the name ROMA or ROMANO.

    These silver 'Romano-Campaniam didrachms', as they are commonly called, were superseded by a more uniform coin we now call a 'quadrigati' during the later part of the 3rd century B.C. and these, in turn, were replaced by the 'victoriate' which first appeared during the Second Punic War. The next major change was c.211 B.C. when the silver 'denarius' was introduced.
    In the meantime, the bronze As (aes) coinage still lingered on, but it had been radically reduced in size and weight with 10 asses to a denarius. In a sign of loyalty to their old coinage the Roman denarius was very frequently marked with the Latin symbol X for the 10 asses it now represented.

    The denarius was the main silver coin issued during the early Roman Republican period, although a silver quinarius (5 asses) and a silver sestertius , marked IIS (2½ asses) were produced at infrequent intervals. Gold denarius sized coins such as the 'aureus' were also produced - not as part of the normal coinage issues - but at times of civil strife or emergency when military usage was required and mercenaries or foreign allies needed something more universally acceptable than bronze or silver.

    During the remainder of the Republican period and from about c 80 B.C. no further copper coinage was issued except for a brief emission in 45 - 44B.C. by Caius Julius Caesar just prior to his assassination on the Ides (15th.) of March 44 B.C. Under the control of Caius Octavius Caepias, later known as Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus, the era of Emperor was firmly established. Proclaimed Emperor and then Augustus between 29 - 27 B.C. he re-organised the coinage by keeping the gold and silver issues under his control but, after 23 B.C., he was allowing the Senate to issue other coins with the inscription S.C. (Senatus Consulto) and, up until 4 B.C., the responsible moneyers' names were also included in the legends.
    Gold also became part of the regular issue as the Empire prospered under Augustus Caesar and values were set at:

    Gold Aureus =  25 silver denarii ; Gold Quinarius = 12½ silver denarii; Silver Denarius = 16 copper asses;  Silver Quinarius = 8 copper asses;
    Orichalcum (Yellow bronze - brass)Sestertius = 4 copper asses ; Orichalcum Dupondius = 2 copper asses ;
    Copper As = 4 quadrantes;  Copper Quadrans = ¼ copper as

    The sestertii of this time are very well executed, as are the smaller dupondii and asses, and are considered amongst the most attractive and desirable of Roman coins.
    *Orichalcum was a yellow bronze that differentiated the dupondius from the copper as, but, during the reign of the artistic - and decidedly murderous -  Emperor Nero (Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus) (54 - 68 A.D.), a short series of As, Semis and Quadrans were designed and issued by him in both copper and orichalcum. Nero was also responsible for the introduction of a new coin, the silver antoninianus, which had a nominated value of 2 denarii but, in fact, only weighed the equivalent of 1½ denarii.
    As well as 'fiddling as Rome burned', Nero also fiddled the Roman coinage by lowering the weight of gold and silver and, in doing so, started the trend by subsequent emperors of debasing the latter metal until, eventually, the circulating money was nearly completely replaced by bronze.

    Gordian III (238 - 244 A.D.) produced the last of the better quality silver denarii of the times.
    During the reign of the soldier emperor, Aurelian (270 - 275 A.D.), a serious attempt was made to reform domestic affairs including the basic coinage, but like others before him, the emperor ignored the silver coinage and the few denarii he issued had, by then, deteriorated to pure bronze. The silver antoninianus coin had also been gradually debased until it was basically a bronze or copper coin with a silver wash but, even so, it drove the bronze denarii out of circulation and became the main circulating coin by the rule of Tacitus (275 - 276 A.D.).
    As the fortunes of the Roman Empire expanded and fluctuated throughout the Mediterranean area and Asia it spawned a number of unofficial mints.

    With the seat of government so far away, many of the areas under Roman control started to churn out poor, and usually smaller copies, of the antoninianus to meet their coinage needs. These rough, sometimes even hideous, copies of antoniniani are normally referred to as 'barbarous radiates' and normally depict a caricature of a face, with the radiated crown of the emperor, as the only indication of purpose.

    In major provincial and colonial centres such as Alexandria, tetradrachms produced in silver-washed Billon (a low-grade mixture of copper and silver) were quite common. A hang-over from the Greek settlement days, coins such as (debased) silver drachms and other associated silver coin denominations, plus various small-sized bronze coins, had been in circulation for generations and would continue to do so until the western Roman Empire crumbled. (Apparently, little is known about the denominations that these small bronze coins - which vary from 15 - 25 mm. in diameter- represented.)
    The amount of gold coins issued became very limited but, because of their strategic importance in time of emergency, the quality remained fine

    The reign of certain emperors brought innovations - some as short lived as their innovators - but several are worth the mention because of their interest to numismatists.
    Trajan Decius (C. Messius Quintas Traianus Decius) (249 - 251 A.D.) introduced a bronze double sestertius - which in fact was only a little heavier than the sestertius of previous emperors - but it died when he was killed at a battle with the Goths.

    In 284 A.D. the coinage was regularised by the very astute Emperor Diocletian (C. Valerius Diocletianus) (284 - 304 A.D.) who, though he was a capable military commander, was also a very good statesman - and managed to live to retirement and old age.
    Diocletian issued reasonably good quality silver coins - similar to Nero's denarii in size and weight - and also introduced the follis, a largish thin bronze coin with a silver wash. He also continued with the antoninianus which was similar to the new coin - the comparison of values is still not certain between these two coins - but, before long, the follis declined in size and weight but it appears that this may have been done to save user confusion.

     

    A radical change occurred in 312 A.D. when Constantine I (Flavius Valerius Constantinus) (306 - 337 A.D.) instituted a new coinage system based upon the gold solidus and the silver siliqua as well as bronzes of various weights and sizes - some very small - and with denominations we are still guessing at.
    It took another 36 years or so before the three heirs of Constantine I (The Great) - Constantine II (Flavius Claudius Julius Constantinus) (317 - 340 A.D.), Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius) (323 - 361 A.D.) and his youngest brother Constans (Flavius Julius Constans) (333 - 350 A.D.) - issued a few more substantial sized coins.

    Before the eldest and youngest brothers argued, and met dire fates within 10 years of each other, the older brother was responsible for a bronze 18 mm coin whilst Constans introduced the larger bronze centenionales which was carried on by the survivor, Constantius. It was also about this time that a silver double siliqua coin known as miliarense made its appearance.
    As with other Roman coins the centenionales was destined to shrink in size as time went on and even the efforts by a usurper, Magnentius (Flavuis Magnus Magnentius) (350 - 353 A.D.) - who rebelled and killed his benefactor, Constans, and then unsuccessfully led an army against Constantius II - to bring back a large 30 mm fine bronze follis style coin (thought to be called pecunia maiorina) was not very well received. He also issued a silver argenteus of 20mm.
    Another attempt to introduce the larger bronze coin was made by Julian II (Flavius Claudius Julianus) (355 - 363 A.D.) who was a nephew of Constantine the Great and who inherited the divided empire after the timely death of his cousin, Constantius II in 361A.D.

    During all this time nepotism was alive and well, and the proof is in the number of Roman coins that feature the wives, sons and daughters of the rulers of the day - but the empire was also starting to crumble away as rebellions against Roman rule erupted in various far away provinces. Gold was still being used to pay the armies and for use by the hierarchy, but the basic bronzes had been reduced to wafer thin or hard-to-handle little coins and silver money such as the seliqua were in short supply and always of dubious quality.

    By the start of the end of the Western Roman Empire - with the deposition of the infant emperor Romulus Augustus, (nicknamed Augustulus) (475 - 476 A.D.) by supporters of Odovacar who in turn surrendered the empire to Emperor Zeno of Constantinople - the main coins being used were the solidus and its divisions, semisses and tremisses, very little silver and large quantities of various weight bronzes.
    As with Greek coinage, the number of gods, celebrations of victories, animals, architecture and other associated designs - including blatant propaganda featured by the Roman emperors - warrants a greater amount of space than we have available. We thoroughly recommend that interested readers go out and buy any of the newer specialised books that give so much more intimate detail of the lives, the times and the coinage of the Romans - you will find them fascinating. This is not a subject that comes easy - but the rewards are great when the basics are understood.

     

    Roman coins that we would like to buy to start our collection.....

     

     

    Roman coins that we often have to buy ...

    ... but don't worry, even these will get you started with your research - and they truly show their age.

     

    ROME 270-275 ANTONINIANUS BRONZE SR3265 POOR AURELIAN MM/V.
    ROME 270-275 ANTONINIANUS(B) BRONZE SR3265 POOR AURELIAN MM/S.
    ROME 276-282 ANTONINIANUS(C) BRONZE SR3343 POOR PROBUS PLUS/DITTO
    ROME 276-282 ANTONINIANUS(D) BRONZE SR3344 POOR PROBUS MM E.
    ROME 276-282 ANTONINIANUS(D) BRONZE SR3364 POOR PROBUS
    ROME 286-305 ANTONINIANUS BRONZE SR3614 POOR MAXIMIANUS
    ROME 305-311 FOLLIS BRONZE SR3718 POOR GALERIUS MM SMNA.
    ROME 308-324 FOLLIS BRONZE SR3794 POOR LICINIUS I. MM K
    ROME 308-9 FOLLIS(AE/1) BRONZE SR3844 POOR CONSTANTINE
    ROME 324-337 AE3/4 BRONZE SR3986 POOR CONSTANTIUS II.
    ROME 348-354 CENTENIONALIS BRONZE SR4003 POOR CONSTANTIUS II.
    ROME 379-395 AE2 BRONZE SR4184 POOR THEODOSIUS I.

    Types of coins illustrated above - issued between 270 - 395 A.D. - some are duplicates or currently not attributed to a particular emperor.

     

    For the record I have decided to include a very short list, stretching over 160 years or so, of the most prominent of the early coin issuing Emperors - plus a few usurpers - and their fate which, in many cases, was ultimately shared by their families and friends.

     

    Pompey the Great - Murdered in Egypt 48B.C. after splitting with Julius Caesar
    Julius Caesar - Assassinated in Rome 44 B.C.
    Brutus - Suicided at Philippi 42 B.C. after his army was defeated.
    Sextus Pompey. - Taken prisoner and put to death by orders from Octavianus (Augustus) 35 B.C.
    Mark Antony. - Suicided in Alexandria 30 B.C. after defeat by Octavianus.
    Lepidus. - Became power hungry and was stripped of most titles and exiled. Died 13 B.C.
    Augustus (Octavius). - Died peacefully in 14 A.D.
    Drusus Junior. - Son of Tiberius - poisoned by his wife, Livilla 23 A.D.
    Tiberius. - Murdered while in retirement 37 A.D. - probably under orders from Caligula.
    Antonia. - Daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. Poisoned by her grandson, Caligula 38 A.D.
    Caligula. - Assassinated 41 A.D. with his wife Caesonia, after years of personal depravity
    Claudius. - Poisoned by his wife, Agrippina Junior (Caligula's sister and mother of Nero) 54 A.D.
    Britannicus. - Son and heir apparent of Claudius, poisoned by Agrippina and Nero's orders 55 A.D.
    Agrippina Junior. - Murdered by the orders of her son, Nero, 59 A.D.
    Nero. - Killed off all his relatives, including his wives, Octavia and Poppaea, he suicided 68 A.D.
    Galba. -  A strict disciplinarian, he became unpopular and was assassinated 69 A.D. by Otho.
    Otho. - Suicided after defeat by Vitellius 69 A.D.
    Vitellius. -  Killed by a mob in the streets of Rome after defeat by the army of Vespasian. 69 A.D.
    Vespasian. - Of humble origin and an industrious ruler, he died peacefully in 79 A.D.
    Titus. - Son of Vespasian, he took Jerusalem and subjugated the Jews. Died 81 A.D.
    Domitian. - Oppressive, younger son of Vespasian. Murdered - with the aid of his wife, Domitia. 96 A.D.
    Nerva. -  Appointed as emperor he was a just ruler making many improvements. Died 98 A.D.
    Trajan. - Adopted by Nerva and made his heir, Trajan was another good ruler and died in 117 A.D.

    For 70 years or so - a long period by Roman standards - the emperors died reasonably peacefully until the megalomaniac, Commodus (L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus) (180 - 192 A.D.), came to power and the rot set in again. Refer: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec2002.htm
    From then on the position was virtually a death sentence as, over the next two hundred and eighty years, events such as murder, execution, accidents, 'killed in battle', deposition and intrigue quickly claimed most of the Roman emperors.
    The Western Empire finally unravelled in violent fragmentation and the era of the Byzantine rulers commenced.

     

     

     

    Main References.
    Collecting Greek Coins. by David Sear (Stanley Gibbons Guides - 1977)
    Greek Coinage. by N.K. Rutter (Shire Archaeology - 1983)
    Greek and Roman Coins. by J.G. Milne (Methuen & Co.Ltd. - 1939)

    Larousse Encyclopedia of Ancient & Medieval History (Paul Hamlyn - 1963)

    Greece - (Life World Library - 1970)

     

     

    ITEMS OF INTEREST

    From time to time, we are sent items of interest and this one is from about 39 years ago when Vietnam was on many people's minds.

    The scan was provided, by Mr. Larry Litteral, of a couple of Military Payment Certificates he had saved during a tour of duty in Vietnam.

    This sort of Certificate is not all that valuable in a numismatic sense - Krause World Paper Money Catalog lists it as #M57 (Not dated) with a catalogue value of about U.S.$2.00 - but, to Mr. Litteral, they are probably priceless as a reminder of those perilous times. Thanks for sharing them with us!

     

    5 Cent U.S. Military Payment Certificates

    (Scan courtesy of Mr. Larry Litteral - items saved from San Tra (Monkey Mt.) Vietnam, 1968 - located near the city of Da Nang).

     

    U.S. STATE QUARTERS

    The blue links shown will give access to the COINWORLD mintage lists of U.S. State Quarters.

    2003 - Illinois * Alabama * Maine * Missouri * Arkansas

    2004 - Michigan * Florida * Texas * Iowa * Wisconsin

    2005 - California * Minnesota * Oregon * Kansas * West Virginia *

    2006 - Nevada * Nebraska * Colorado * North Dakota * South Dakota *

    2007 - Montana * Washington *

     

     

    'TASMANIAN NUMISMATIST - INTERNET EDITION' 

    NAME CHANGE

    After some serious consideration, and due to the increasing international aspect of this Internet newsletter, we have decided to make a name change to reflect the broadening appeal that we have been providing for the last 12 years plus.

    There may be a few other minor changes but nothing drastic.

    The new name 'NumisNet World - Internet Edition' is self-explanatory - we will continue on the same pathway of entertaining and educating our readers in matters numismatic. We will welcome literary contributions for consideration - however, we are not a scientific jounal and articles must fit our subject parameters (and the size of this newsletter) which still prepared by volunteer hobbiests with limited resources.

    Due to our continuing close relationship with the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' we are also continuing the sequence and issue numbers of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition.

    The local posted and email delivered version of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Tasmanian Edition' will continue on under the T.N.S. official banner as usual

     

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    TASMANIAN NUMISMATIST' GENERAL INDEX UPDATE.

    The updated and illustrated general Index of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (Tasmanian Edition - and the Internet Edition) newsletter has now been completed to date. We decided to serialize the Internet version update, as we did with the original Index in 2003, and the first instalment was included in the January 2007 issue. The Index will be located at the conclusion of each newsletter issue.

    Individual articles are not directly linked to the Index nor have they been cross-referenced, at this time, but they can be located by checking the Links listed below and then checking against our newsletter Archives: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aprilnews.html

    Articles or information prior to the Year 2000 can be requested by contacting the Editor.

    The original Index covered the period from 1995 - 2003 (Volumes 1 - 8).

    http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug03.htm

    http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/Sept2003.htm

    http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/Oct2003.htm

    http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/Nov03.htm

    http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec2003.htm

     

    The complete addendum includes the content details of both versions of the newsletter from Volumes 9 (Issue 1, January 2004) up to Volume 12, but the Internet details only will be published herein.

    Volume 12 – 2007 Internet Edition - to date.

    Issue 1. - http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan07.htm

    See What I Mean! - a practical explanation about unusual coins found in pocket change.

    Counterfeits & Forgeries - a closer look at some Oz duds - compiled by Ian Hartshorn

    Canadian Blacksmith Tokens -  an article by Dominic Labbe (updated and re-illustrated) showing forgeries come from everywhere.

    Encased Cent Mirror Tokens - a look at something different and a bit of trivia to go with an interesting token concept from 1900

    From Inside the Magpie's Nest - The Bass & Flinders Circumnavigation of Tasmania Medallion from Tasmedals.

    Messages from Mick & Mike - a couple of long-time colleagues and mates have put 'pen to paper' once more.

    Index Update - Vol. 9 (2004).

     

    Issue 2. - http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/feb07.htm

    Society Snippets - featuring the history of Old West characters named on some fantasy encased cents from T.N.S. member Jerry Adams

    Hanrahan's Saloon at Adobe Walls 1874 - the story of a battle with Comanches and the incredible rifle shot. by Billy Dixon, that virtually saved the day.

    Sharps Rifle Trivia

    'Viva Mexico' - the volatile country to the south of the U.S. has had many exploiters. The story of its coinage, from Spanish occupation until pre-Millennium, is as fascinating as the personages who trod the Mexican political stage during this period.

    Index Update - Vol.10 ( 2005).

     

    Issue 3. - http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar07.html

    Society Snippets - Jerry Adams' newest encased coin - the Jefferson Buffalo Nickel within a 'Good Luck' token.

    Post Traders of the Old West - a brief look at what the local 'supermarket' was like during the early 1800's in the days of the buffalo, cowboys and Indians.

    Do Not Disturb! - Sleepers .... - there are many newer coins in Australia that have the potential of appreciating in value at a far more rapid pace than usual - these are the decimal 'sleepers' - watch for them!

    Index Update - Vol. 11 (2006) and Vol. 12 (2007 to date).

     

    Issue 4. - http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/april07.html

    Society Snippets -  ANZAC DAY 2007

    Adams & Smith's Fantasy Enclosed Coin Token - the newest release of their modern Fantasy Post Trader's token

    Fantasy Post Traders Tokens ( Part 2) - Why Fort Chadbourne? - the choice of location, for these modern tokens, is always a story in itself..

    The Butterfield Stage Coach Connection - John Butterfield's partners Henry Wells and William Fargo founded an empire - from the back of a stage-coach.

    Jamestown Commemorative Coins. - U.S. Mint unveils the 400th Anniversary Commemorative designs to celebrate the first English settlement in the U.S.

    Percentage Points! - a comparison of percentage differences in the price structure of recent U.S. and Australian Uncirculated silver and gold coinage.

    Who was 'Saharet'? - the brief story of an Australian Can-Can Dancer who was once called 'The most beautiful woman in the world.'

    NZBANKNOTES.COM - http://www.nzbanknotes.com/first.asp  Was established in July 2004, and this is  hugely popular international site is growing 'faster than inflation'  Recommended site.

    Index Update - Vol. 12 (2007 to date).

     

    Issue 5. - http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/may07.htm

    Slipping through the Cracks? - older listed items are disappearing from the catalogues. Remember how 'Varieties and Mint errors' fell through the cracks?

    Australia's decimal coins - What ARE those Animals? - just a reminder of the unique Australian wild-life that graced our own first decimal coins in 1966.

    Trivia - The American Prairies - and the Bison - the newest state Quarter from North Dakota reminds us of what nearly was lost in North America.

    U.S. Quarters program - Check list update of mintages (where available) and release dates of coins now in circulation

    Index Update - Vol. 12 (2007 to date

     

    Issue 6.

    Notification - upcoming local Coin & banknote fairs

    From Drachma ....  - a brief history of early Greek coinage.

    ... to the Unica.  - a brief history of early Roman coinage.

    Item of Interest - Military Payment Certificate

    U.S. State Quarters - COINWORLD Links to State Quarter details.

    Notification of Name Change - the newsletter is changing its name - The 'Numisnet World - Internet Edition' is being geared to our international audience.

     

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    'TASMANIAN NUMISMATIST'

    (INTERNET EDITION)

    The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, or hand delivered, directly to members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions.

    The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ (Internet Edition) newsletter is a separate entity and has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented free on a monthly basis  with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics. All matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the  ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society. The 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) newsletter abides by the same basic guidelines suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter. Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.

    Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society or the Editor. ALL comments in linked articles are the responsibility of the original authors.

     

    PRIVACY PROTECTION

    The 'Tasmanian Numismatist '(Internet Edition) newsletter complies with the Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act.

    Under this act, information about individuals can be stored and published only if: the information is already contained in a publicly available document or if personal information has been provided by the individual to whom the information relates, and if that individual is aware of the purposes for which the information is being collected.

    All information published by the'Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) newsletter is either publicly available, or has been voluntarily provided by writers, or members of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society', on request from the Editor of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  (Internet Edition) newsletter.

    While the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) newsletter may hold writers' addresses and other details for the purposes of communication and copyright protection, it will never make such addresses or details available to any member of the public without the permission of those involved.

    The 'Tasmanian Numismatist '(Internet Edition) newsletter also respects the privacy of our readers. When you write to us with comments, queries or suggestions, you may provide us with personal information including your contact address or other relevant information. Your personal information will never be made available to a third party without permission.

     

    DISCLAIMER

    All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned. 

    The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ (Internet Edition) newsletter takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. Deadline for any literary contributions or amendment to copy is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication.

    The contents of this Internet newsletter, and all prior issues, are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. 

    This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article. Explicit permission from the author or the Editor of the  ‘Tasmanian Numismatist ' (Internet Edition) newsletter is required prior to use of that material.

     

    The Editor,

    'Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition). 

    P.O. Box 10,

    Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.

    Australia.

    Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

    Email: pwood@vision.net.au

     

     

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