Volume 11 Issue 6 INTERNET EDITION - Established 1996 June 2006
The name 'Tasmanian Numismatist' is used with the permission of the Executive Committee of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' however, any comments published in this privately produced newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society', its Executive Committee or its members. Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, the Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations and, (2) to provide additional important information.
Any notices of concern to 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' members will be included in the 'Society Snippets' section.
We trust that this issue of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) newsletter will continue to provide interesting reading.
TASMANIAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY
Anyone who wishes to apply for membership to the non-profit making organization, and who is prepared to abide by the rules of the Society and its aim of promoting the study and enjoyment of the hobby of numismatics, should contact the following address for an application form and details of subscriptions:
Tasmanian Numismatic Society.
G. P. O. Box 884J
by Graeme Petterwood © 2005
Remember - be astute when you are handed change - not all the wonders of numismatics have been discovered yet - and they don't have to be shiny and new! This edition again features an assortment of 'trivia' that I think is of interest and I trust it will prove educational and entertaining to you as well.
All or any prices quoted in articles in this newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Please note that the photoscans of numismatic items are usually not to size or scale, but - wherever possible - they are from the authors' own collection or the extensive picture library of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition.
PART 3 of a Series
The Kroner of Denmark
In previous issues this year, we have briefly studied the Kreuzers of Austria, the Kopeks of Russia as well as denominations in between, and browsed over the political or regal conditions that shaped those nation's numismatic histories.
Most collectors are, or were, very familiar with the coinages and currency of the Mediterranean area and the Central Western European countries prior to the introduction of the Euro a few years ago. The most familiar, and therefore the most popular from a collector's point of view, would have had to be the Spanish Peseta, the Escudo of Portugal, the Francs of Swizerland, France and Belgium, the Lira of Italy, the Schilling of Austria, the German Mark as well as the Dutch Guilder.
The inflated currencies of some of the former Eastern Bloc countries were not quite as well known - or as easily obtainable outside of Europe - due to the restrictive controls placed on their money markets and the fact that some circulating coinages were produced in a base metal, such as aluminium, that is not popular in numismatists circles. It wears reasonably well but looks cheap after a while, particularly in lower grades or with poorly executed designs and strikes. The old saying 'you can't make a silk purse from a sow's ear' comes to mind.
The Scandinavian countries also had a tendency to lack popularity amongst world coin collectors to some extent.- not because of inferior production or any excessive use of base metals or alloys - but mainly because of the fact that currency designs had become somewhat lack-lustre compared to the southern European issues. The result of years of stability, after WWII, had seen many of the coinage issues also attain a sort of status quo - why fix it if it's not broken - basically, a steady as she goes attitude - but there were exceptions!
It is highly recommended that a good catalogue be obtained to explore the finer details such as coin weights and sizes, or other varieties, and the many commemorative issues.
The smallest of the Nordic countries and home of the Vikings during the period 80 - 1000 A.D., the influence of Denmark, particularly by the Danes known as Jutes - which were made up of sub-cultures of Saxons and Angles from Jutland peninsula - over England (by the famous King Canute) and the continuing unification of the other Scandinavian countries in the next few centuries afterwards, should not be under-estimated.
During the reign of Queen Margrethe (1397 - 1412) Denmark controlled all of Scandinavia including Finland and Greenland.
However, in 1471, Sweden broke away from the alliance and, eventually, open conflict took place in the late 1600's on two occasions.
The wars between the countries saw greater Denmark lose a considerable amount of territory. The remaining alliance of Denmark and Norway was shattered completely when another alliance, that had been forged with Napoleon Bonaparte, proved to be a disasterous choice.
In 1807, the British consficated the Danish fleet at Copenhagen, after bombarding the city in a show of force, to prevent it being of aid to the French Emperor and, by 1813, when the Napoleonic Wars finally ceased, the Danish Treasury had been bankrupted (see below)
In additition, Denmark didn't completely escape the furore during the period of bloody European revolutions and religious conflicts of the early-mid 1800's and, in 1849, in an effort to avoid the fate of other nations, a new, more liberal, constitution was drawn up.
It also had a profound influence on the Danish monetary system.
This spirit of liberalism continues in many forms to this present day and, in 1996, Copenhagen was declared the 'Cultural capital of Europe'.
Of course, Denmark suffered during the World War of 1914-18. even though it declared its neutrality, and again during the period 1940-45 when Nazi Germany ignored its neutral status and invaded the nation.
After WWII, Denmark linked its fortunes to the west and joined the Northern Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and actively participated in the concept of the European Economic Union by first voting against - and then for - the Maastricht Treaty during 1992 - 3. However, its indecision carried through to the vote on whether to enlarge its ties with the Union and become a full member. The initial vote supported the idea of greater co-operation, but, in 2000 a second and final vote went against membership of the Euro zone and the use of the Euro as the prime currency unit.
However, as always, the Danes are willing to look at the performance of the E.C.C. and judge it again at a later date.
It should be noted that unofficial Danish Euro 'pattern coins' are being commercially produced. These have no status except as novelties.
Of great interest to Australians, and Tasmanians in particular, was the marriage of Crown Prince Frederik to a commoner, Mary Elizabeth Donaldson of Taroona near Hobart, on 14th May 2004 and then the birth of Prince Christian on 15th October 2005.
The early coinage of Denmark was shaped by the countries about it,and, as we are concentrating on money matters since the early 1800's, we will allow readers to do their own homework on the earlier, historic issues and stick to our theme.
It will be of interest to note the similarity between the Germanic languages of the mid European area as applied to Danish coinage.
This influence was both political and ethnically based as disputed pieces of Denmark were affected by the violent tides of change in the last 200 years.
The monetary system consisted of the following non-decimal denominations in Copper, Bronze, .138 Silver, .208 Silver, .229 Silver, .250 Silver, .375 Silver, .406 Silver, .500 Silver, .687 Silver, .875 Silver as well as .896 Gold and .979 Gold in Trade coinage.
Up until 1813 - Danish Skillings, Mark, Krone, Daler (and large Daler Specie) and Ducat.- or parts thereof - were the main circulating coins.
The rates were 16 Skillings = 1 Mark; 64 Skillings or 4 Mark = 1 Krone; 96 Skillings or 6 Mark = 1 Daler Specie and 12 Mark = 1 Ducat
During 1812-1813, the gigantic economic collapse after the Napoleonic Wars, also known as the State Bankruptcy, saw a massive overhaul of Denmark's financial arrangements.
The denominations were overhauled and were to be known as the Rigsbank issues.
Fractional denominations were also issued by the Mint which was under the authority of the Rigsbank. The range of coinage in circulation during the first half of the 19th Century in Demark would have been very confusing. No doubt, intrinstic value coinage would remain in circulation in various denominations no matter what they were called.
96 Rigsbank Skilling or 30 Schilling Courant (Standard) = 1 Rigsdaler;
2 Rigsbankdaler = 1 Rigsdaler Specie, 5 Silver Specie(daler) = 1 (Ducat) D'Or.(Gold)
The Specie Daler issues were a double silver content silver coin (see below)
1/5 Rigsbankskilling - Copper (1842)
1/2 Rigsbankskilling - Copper ( 1838, 1842, 1852)
1/2 Skillingrigsmont (Mint) - (1857, 1868)
Rigsbankskilling - Copper (1813, 1818, 1842, 1852-1853)
Rigsmontskilling - Bronze (1856, 1860, 1863, 1867, 1869-1872)
2 Skilling - .250 Silver (1801, 1805) Copper (1809-1811, 1815)
2 Rigsbankskilling - Copper (1818, 1842), .208 Silver (1836)
3 Skilling - Copper (1812, 1815), .229 Silver (1836, 1842)
4 Skilling - .250 Silver (1836, 1841-1842)
4 Rigsmintskilling - .250 Silver (1854, 1856, 1867, 1869-1874)
6 Skilling - Copper (1813)
8 Rigsbankskilling - .375 Silver (1843 - for use in Schleswig-Holstein which was later lost to Germany)
12 Skilling - Copper (1812-1813)
1/16 Rigsdaler - .406 Silver (1808)
16 Skilling - Copper (1814)
16 Rigsbankskilling - .500 Silver (1842, 1844)
16 Rigsmontskilling - .500 Silver (1856-1858)
32 Rigsbankskilling - .687 Silver (1818, 1820, 1842-1843)
1/2 Rigsdaler - .875 Silver (1854-1855)
Rigsbankdaler (14.4470g) - .875 Silver (1813, 1818-1819, 1826-1828, 1833-1836, 1838-1839, 1842-1843, 1847-1849, 1851)
Rigsdaler (14.4470g) - .875 Silver (1854-1855)
Daler Specie (28.8930g) - .875 Silver (1801, issued as required from 1819-1854)
2 Daler (28.8930g) - .875 Silver (issued as required from 1854-1863)
Ducat Specie (3.4900g) - .979 Gold (1802)
Ducat D'Or (6.6420g) - .896 Gold (1827-1828, 1829-1831, 1833-1835, 1837-1838, 1843-5, 1847, 1853, 1869)
2 Ducat D'Or (13.2840g) - .896 Gold (1826-1830, 1833-1839, 1841-1842, 1844-1845, 1847, 1850-1857, 1859, 1866-1867, 1869-1870)
On 1st January 1875, the new Coin Act, conceived in 1874, became legal and the first issues of decimal coinage were available in portions of the Krone, at the rate of 100 Ore = 1 Krone. The Krone was equivalent to 2 old Rigsdaler.
The metals used were originally Bronze, Copper, .400 Silver, .500 Silver, .600 Silver, .800 Silver and .900 Gold, but, from the end of WWI, other base metal were used on various occasion and they consisted of Aluminium, Alunimium-Bronze, Iron and Copper-clad Iron, Copper-Nickel, and Zinc.
"As part of the transition to the Krone coin, Denmark acceded to the Scandinavian Currency Union convention. This currency union was the most extensive seen at the time. All Scandinavian countries introduced the gold standard and the same unit of account (the Krone), as well as common circulation of the principal coins, i.e. gold coins with a value of 10 and 20 Kroner, and the small coins. The Scandinavian Currency Union lasted up to World War I." Unquote. Refer: http://www.nationalbanken.dk/DNUK/Hist.nsf/side/
Modern Danish Coinage
1st. row - Christian IX (1900) .600 Silver 25 Ore, Christian X (1924) Al.Bronze 1/2 Krone
2nd. row - Frederik IX (1964) Bronze 5 Ore, (1959) Zinc 2 Ore, (1957) Zinc 5 Ore
3rd. row - Frederik IX (1962) Copper-Nickel Krone, (1967) Copper-Nickel 25 Ore, (1958) Copper-Nickel 10 Ore
4rd. row - Margrethe II (1979) Copper-clad-Iron 5 Ore, Frederik IX (1965) Copper-Nickel 5 Kroner
Most modern Danish coinage, in the lower denominations, feature the ruler's crowned monogram as the obverse and the value and date as the reverse.
Decimal Denominations started at:
1 Ore - Bronze (1874-1917, 1919-1940, limited issues 1960,1962-1964 mostly remelted).), Iron (1918-1919), Zinc (1941-1972)
2 Ore - Bronze (1874-1917, 1919-1940, limited issues 1960, 1962-1966 mostlly remelted), Iron (1918-1919), Aluminium (1941), Zinc 1942-1972)
5 Ore - Bronze (1874-1917, 1919-1923, 1926-1940, 1960, 1962-1972), Iron (1918-1919), Aluminium (1941), Zinc 1942-1964) Copper-clad Iron (1973-1988)
10 Ore - .400 Silver (1874-1919), Copper-Nickel (1920-1941, 1946-1988), Zinc (1941-1945)
25 Ore - .600 Silver (1874-1919), Copper-Nickel (1920-1940, 1946-1990), Zinc (1941-1945), Bronze (1990 - )
1/2 Krone - Aluminium-Bronze (1924-1940),
50 Ore - Bronze (1989 - )
Krone - .88 Silver (1875,1876, 1892, 1898, 1915 and 1916), Aluminium-Bronze (1924 - )
2 Kroner - .800 Silver (1875, 1899, 1897, 1899, Many commemorative issues from 1888-1958), Aluminium-Bronze (1947-1959), Copper-Nickel (1962 - )
5 Kroner - .800 Silver (1960 and commemorative issue 1964), Copper-Nickel (1962 - )
10 Kroner - .900 Gold (1873-1874, 1877, 1890, 1898, 1900, 1908-1909, 1913 and 1917) .800 Silver (Commemoratives issued 1967, 1968 and 1972), Copper-Nickel (1979-1986), Aluminium-Bronze (1989 - )
20 Kroner - .900 Gold (Various 1873-1931), .800 Silver (Commemorative Issues 1990- ), Aluminium-Bronze (Commemorative issues 1990 - )
From 1983, numerous trial coins (known as Provas) have been made and are dated in Roman numerals to indicate they are metallurgical test pieces. They are in various denominations (and alloy compositions) and some were distributed in presentation booklets. Their scarcity commands a premium.
ACQUISITIONS WE HAD TO HAVE!
From time to time our correspondents advise us that they have acquired something new - actually any age fits that bill - but, sometimes, it is one of those things that doesn't readily fit in with the major categories within their collections. Just an 'little' oddment that catches their fancy and begs to be taken home.
The price is irrelevant - quite often it may even be down in the 'junk' category with no provenence - just some sort of 'heart appeal'.
Have you ever bought or obtained such an item that
leaves you with a 'fuzzy' sense of achievement and happiness long after
you have put it away? Something that you feel good about each time you stumble
across it again. It's great to have the brightest 'stars' of the numismatic
world within our grasp but what about that dash of 'stardust'? A
few of my bits and pieces are listed below..
Back on 21st. September 1993 I forked out AUD$49.00 (including postage) for a Centenary of Tasmanian Public Transport Medallion 1893-1993 .
It was a limited issue (500) 70mm 'come in half' pewter version of a tram-wheel issued by Tasmedals of Hobart and it contained 10 sepia-coloured photos of mechanical public street transport. I told myself that the only reason I bought the cumbersome 12mm. thick thing in the first place was because of its record of an historical period in Tasmania's transport evolution. The truth is that it has more nostalgic value than I could 'shake a stick at'.
Some of the events depicted in the photos are part of my own personal history. As a schoolboy and youth I spent a lot of happy hours travelling on trams and buses and, as a young man, I even managed to meet, and be captivated by my late wife, on an M.T.T. trolley-bus in 1958 when she was only sweet 16.
Centenary of Public Transport 70mm. medallion containing 10 pictorial records of Tasmania's mechanical public transport.
This 12mm. thick pull-apart pewter relica of a tram wheel was issued by Tasmedals of Hobart on 21st. September 1993.
My first chance to correspond with a veterinarian, named Bill Bone, some years ago (1999) was too good to pass up as we have a common interest
Bill collects US medals, tags and trade tokens amongst other things - but I thought the imagination to come up with his greeting-card was inspired.
One of the other things that he collects are dog-tags (the animal kind) and, as a bonus for sending him a few tags I had to spare, I was posted a few of his unique and apt plastic greeting-cards and a small book.about tags signed by Bill himself. The book was produced in 1993, and it is entitled "Pre-1900 Dog License Tags' - pretty dry title you may think - but the contents are eye-opening and show the huge scope of the dog-tag theme in international exonumia.
One story was about a dog adopted by the U.S. Postal Service in the 1890's. "Owney, Mascot of the Railway Mail Service." and it certainly caught my eye. 'Owney' (a stray who came and stayed) used to travel the rails with the U.S. Mail from 1888 and, so he wouldn't get lost or picked up by the authorities, he was presented with a local dog-tag at many of the mail depots around the U.S. He became a lucky mascot as none of the trains he rode ever came close to disaster in the days when train wrecks were too frequent. It's a grand story and is well-documented on the Internet for those interested.
'Owney' accumlated 1,017tags - which were sewn onto dog-jackets for him on formal occasions - and it estimated he travelled 143,000 miles by train (he also travelled around the world visiting Post offices courtesy of the postal employees of Tacoma).
When 'Owney' passed away in Toledo in 1897, from a mysterious bullet wound, his body was claimed by the U.S.Postal Service and, in 1964, he was placed on prominent display in the Smithonian Institute in the Museum of Postal History and Technology.
Each time I look at Bill's tags I think of two things, him and 'Owney' - I don't think either would mind.
Unusual plastic 'Greeting Cards' from Dr. Bill Bone D.V.M.
Militaria or souvenirs from times of conflict are a strong collectable field but occasionally it is an interest started from a personal experience or one imparted by a relative. Several of my great-uncles served in WWI and two of them were at Gallipoli at the same time before heading to France and surviving the terrible conditions there. One, who was wounded three times, was awarded a Military Medal at Polygon Wood in 1917 while the other brother kept his head down as he drove ammunition wagons at Villiers-Bretonneaux Another died of wounds sustained in that conflict at a place they called the Somme just a month or so prior to the Armistace and is buried in Grave 446 at Tincourt British War Cemetry in France.
During WWII, some of them even joined the 2nd A.I.F. and one of their younger brothers died on 10th July 1941 either during the assault on the Khalde Radio Tower road-block or at the Badarane Heights assault near Bierut in Lebanon fighting the Vichy French.
Each survivor brought back a few small souvenirs of which I am lucky enough to have received a share. A small handful of brass Wine-bar tokens from France or Belgium, a few Egyptian Qirsh, (these were my first numismatic items) a broken-handled Turkish dagger, a bit of trench art made from the aluminium of a shot down aircraft as well as the usual uniform badges that most soldiers hang on to.
These things cost me nothing but they were earned with the sweat and blood of those in my family so to me they are priceless.
French or Belgium Wine tokens c. 1916-18
Egyptian 1912 (AH 1327- regnal year 3) .833 Silver Qirsh (Krause 305)
Turkish dagger c. 1915 held together with flattened, holed and shaped silver Kurush (Turkish Qirsh) coins.
The Turkish dagger c.1915 from Gallipoli has been shown in the newsletter before but another look is warranted.
The dagger was examed, and a report furnished by the Queen Victoria Museum in Launceston, Tasmania, with an aim of possibly restoring the badly damaged ivory handle. Unfortunately, the cost of a quality repair was prohibitive so the work has never been done. Perhaps it never should......
The two pieces used for locking the handle to the blade were discovered to be flattened silver coins, from the partly decipherable edgemarks they were most probably 2 Kurush (Turkish Qirsh) coins, and traces of an oxided substance believed to be connected with the dagger's purpose were found up on the interior handle-shaft. The grasp of the handle was designed for a small hand - a very young man's hand.
If this blade could talk, it might not have a very pleasant tale to tell.
CANADIAN MUNICIPAL TRADE TOKENS
Whilst it is impossible to publish details of all municipal trade token commercial issues from Canada, or anywhere else, every so often there is one that catches the attention of the public and deserves a brief mention. However, as militaria and military themes often play a part in numismatics it holds a special interest to those of us who consider this area of collecting as extremely attractive.
George III Guinea relives in Nova Scotia
Commercial Newsheet supplied by Major Serge Pelletier CD.
The Liverpool King’s Orange Rangers has issued a 10-Dollar municipal trade token to commemorate its 10th anniversary.
The token, called the “Guinea”, has currency value, at participating merchants in Liverpool, Nova Scotia, until July 1, 2006.
The obverse shows a private holding a rifle with the legend: KING’S ORANGE RANGERS / (outline map of Nova Scotia) (soldier) / $10 / GUINEA / 1776-1783 EXPIRES 06/07/01 1996-2006. The reverse is a copy of the obverse of the pattern 1770 5 guineas of George III with the added legend: LIVERPOOL / NOVA SCOTIA.
The 39mm. token was struck as follows: 230 on Florentine bronze blanks (C$14.00), 50 on antique nickel-silver blanks (C$22.50), 50 on antique copper blanks (C$22.50) and 50 on bimetallic blanks [with a heart of aluminium-bronze and a ring of cupronickel] (C$23.50). In addition, 35 enamelled Florentine bronze (C$40.00) and 35 on enamelled bimetallic (C$45.00) were produced.
The enamelled version shows the ranger’s jacket with its distinctive red serge and orange lapel and cuffs.
King's Orange Rangers Novia Scotia (39mm) Florentine Bronze Token. (Obverse - the K.O.R. Rifleman, Reverse - George III bust.)
For comparison: A Victorian-era matte brass (10.5mm) card counter token. Obverse bearing a likeness of King George III dated 1788.
Reverse - Spade Guinea with unofficial legend -"In Memory of the Good Old Days" (Editor's sample)
These attractive medallion style tokens are available from the exclusive distributor - and, as the issue is small, it is suggested that, those who are interested, contact the supplier ASAP.
Box 11447, Station H, Nepean, ON K2H 7V1
Tel: +1-613-823-3844, fax: +1-613-825-3092
All the prices are in Canadian dollars and are indicated in parentheses. S&H are extra. Canadian residents must add the applicable taxes.
Eligi Consultants Inc. had the token struck from designs by Serge Pelletier.
The King’s Orange Rangers, a Loyalist regiment formed in 1776 in present-day New York and New Jersey, fought for King George III during the American Revolution. The KOR was assigned to Nova Scotia in 1778, with Captain John Howard’s Company ordered to Liverpool, Nova Scotia, to support citizens fighting rebel privateers from New England. Members of the KOR could be distinguished from other regiments thanks to their unique uniforms made of red serge with orange facings, cuffs and collars.
The modern-day King’s Orange Rangers unit was founded in Liverpool in 1996 and participates in historical re-enactments throughout Eastern Canada and United States. For more information visit: www.privateerdays.com.
The token was inspired from a coin contemporary to the King’s Orange Rangers, the “guinea”. An English gold coin established an Act on March 27, 1663, under Charles II (1660-1685), it was so-called because the gold used to strike it was imported from (British) Guinea. Originally worth 20 shillings, it later was valued at 21 shillings and even more. The last Guinea was struck under George III in 1799. The portrait of King George III used for this token was inspired from a 1770 Guinea.
For additional information contact:
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