Volume 21 Issue 7  Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)    July  2016



Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2016.


The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


All or any previous prices quoted in articles in this free newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the newsletter's library collection - or that of the extensive library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' -  Internet Edition © 1991 - 2007.

Krause-Mishler (KM) Standard and Specialized World Catalogs (also including 'Pick' banknote numbers) - and McDonald and/or Renniks Australian catalogue numbers - are used where applicable.

*Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes.)



Where on-line web-site Links or addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith - however, our readers are advised, that, if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk!






Our Editorial is an alert that political decisions do affect everyone within our hobby sphere in various degrees.


A week after the national poll, the votes were still being counted - and the result still appeared to be inconclusive as we, tardily, uploaded this issue of 'Numisnet World'! 

At the time we finalised the original compilation of this newsletter, the results of the Australian Federal election, held on Saturday 2nd. July, 2016 for the House of Representatives and the Senate, brought on by the Prime Minister calling for a double dissolution - were predicted to be on a knife-edge.

The votes cast prior to Election Day, postal and other absentee votes, were to be garnered from around the nation - and, indeed, the globe - in an effort to avoid the dreaded 'hung' Parliament.... it was going to be that close!

Some margins, in some electorates, were estimated to be well under 0.5%....!

The possibility of another election to break the deadlock was unlikely - but not impossible to comprehend - in our ancient  Westminster system.

The major Australian political parties are, now, both holding their breath as each votes is counted and exhausted.

The current Government soon appeared to have lost its clear-cut mandate - so anything could happen if a motion of 'no confidence' was brought up over a trivial matter - or -  if the Senate (now apparently controlled by the Opposition and the Independents) denied 'supply'....!

Hopefully, all this impending chaos will be resolved quickly!

Will it affect our hobby of numismatics - Yes! It will!


All changes to Government have an influence on the accepted financial areas and commodities within our economy.

Gold, and other precious metal prices will fluctuate as major exchange rates go into overdrive due to external pressures from banks - and other institutions - who now tend to flutter on financial breezes and rumours.






By the time this July issue of 'Numisnet World' is published, the ramifications of the shock exit of the United Kingdom from the EU will be starting to bite into economies all over the world - and a few knives will have been sharpened as the autopsy gets underway....

Already, some voters have declared that they would like another plebiscite so they could change their vote now they are seeing the chaos they has been reeked and its potential for even more - but a 'do-over' not going to happen... at least, not in the short term! The die has already been cast!


Voters in lesser member states of the United Kingdom - e.g. Northern Ireland and Scotland, in particular - appeared to have voted to remain - as encouraged - and expected - by the leaders of the major political parties!

However, the majority of the overall populace - mainly in the industrial heartland of the nation - was sufficient to swing the pendulum of Fate to the British Exit camp (Brexit).

Exit 52% - Remain 48%


The British Prime Minister, David Cameron, has already 'fallen on his sword' by offering his resignation to take effect in due course - but, the Leader of the Opposition, Jeremy Corbyn, appears not likely to follow that choice -however, he is being shunned by his own party - for not trying hard enough to maintain the status quo!

On the last day of June 2016, the potential new political leader in the post-Brexit era - the man who was the figure-head of the campaign - former London mayor, Boris Johnson -  has also now stated he has no intention of leading the charge towards a new 'independent' United Kingdom.

The noise inside the vacuum is becoming more strident!


To an outsider, this 'will of the people' appears to have been more of an emotional vote trying to assert their version of  'English' superiority once more and get back to a happier, historically greater, time - however, the old saying - 'to cut off your nose to spite your face' - may be seen as too simplistic!

The whole event was supposed to be 'non-political' - but, it seems that the message of discontent, felt about a number of EU and local issues, was delivered to the Government - as a whole - with the subtlety of a sledge hammer!

If it wasn't this referendum - something else, another catalyst, would have sparked the lash-out by a nervous, more nationalistic UK public that has been spooked by recent events occurring in Europe.


The repercussions from the split, may also cause additional cracks in an already unstable situation between the attitudes of some minor EU members regarding the current situation of financial strain caused by the absorption of an overwhelming exodus of Middle-Eastern refugees into some areas.

The call for unity within the EU has, in the main, been heeded by the leaders and politicians - but - as it has been prover in the democratic UK - people-power is unpredictable.


The motions of the UK withdrawal from the European Government will take time - and the actualities will be complicated with many 'strings' attached. The conservative estimate is up to two years as allowed by Article 50 of the EU Constitution .. but, that may be wishful thinking - some pundits think the parting-of-the-ways will be far speedier.

However, others are becoming more pessimistic - and believe that it will take more like a decade to unravel the whole ball of wax and the economic string as the EU is already altering its stance and establishing new exit conditions!

Lives, careers and economics will be uprooted, populations will alter as some Europeans leave the United Kingdom and return home - and some Englishmen will leave the Europe that can no longer treat them as business partners or equals.

Economic travellers - including many immigrants - poised ready to enter Great Britain via Europe, may cease, or become a trickle, as border constraints re-appear - and, even though Great Britain has already stated that it will continue to work in conjunction with Europe in many areas, there will need to be sensible entry and exit border protection strategies put into place very quickly..


The financial fallout will be felt in Australia - although, not as dramatic as some places... but, we will feel some of the waves for a time! The UK newspapers, and other media, are already performing their own autopsies and expounding all the theories, conspiracies, alternatives ...and alibis ... which are popping up to make intriguing breakfast-time reading!



International numismatics may be about to see some subtle changes, within the next few years, as muted forms of nationalism start to reassert themselves within remaining EU members' camps - and some may not be welcomed with understanding by the major players.

Whether these changes will extend to local currency, however - is still unsure!

It is already a known fact that some old European national currencies are being actively used in small local transactions - much in the way that 'Notgeld' and other local scrips were - in previous times. Watch this space!




A wander down 'Memory Lane'


Nearly two decades ago, as I was establishing my first Internet connections with numismatic colleagues across the globe - many of  whom became great friends - I was invited by fellow author, English-speaking French-Canadian numismatist, Dominic Labbé (pic.below) of the L'ASSOCIATION des NUMISMATES FRANCOPHONES du CANADA (ANFC) to submit a few items to their bi-monthly journal 'Le Numismate'.

Dominic was a tremendous help by assisting me with accurate translations of numismatic technical terms, as my school-boy French Grammar - painstakingly recollected from the early 1950's - was virtually inadequate in that area!


However, this association with the ANFC was well rewarded a few years later when I received notification that my literary efforts - with Dominic's invaluable assistance - had earned the annual André Fecteau Prize for my contribution in 1998 ... and it consisted of a Certificate of literary recognition and a 38mm engraved Copper-Nickel medallion for a 2-part article - about early Australian coinage - entitled, 'Decouvrez L' Australie!' (Volume 13)

I continued to write and submit articles for 'Le Numismate', which were published over the next few years - as the muse dictated - until my health took an alarming downturn in 2000 and that eventually resulted in serious heart surgery in 2002. (I now have had the experience of a triple by-pass and the insertion of a titanium aortic valve and the onset of Type 2 diabetes and, more recently, mild anaemia.)

Regrettably, during the long time of my recuperation and rehabilitation, after my heart surgery et al, I lost contact with several of those good friends - such as Dominic Labbé - due to their own changing business commitments, personal obligations, relocation - and, in some instances - as with another great French-Canadian old friend and Life Member of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society', Jerry Remick, - from an insidious illness and, eventual, demise.


1998  ANDRE FECTEAU  - (reverse engraved) - 38mm MEDALLION (C.N.)

ANFC  'Le Numismate' Literary Prize



Le Prix

André Fecteau




ANFC Journal  - 'Le Numismate'

Introduction pages to some of the articles.......

1998 Volume 13 - Numeros 2 & 3;

1999 Volume 14 - Numero 4; .... 2000 Volume 15 - Numero 5.






Regal Flags of Spain

National flags used during recent monarchies.

1874 - 1931 and 1978 onwards


That is probably not quite the question I should have asked, but, at least , it does get us started on a very interesting path of discovery.

When I say Spanish silver coinage, I also refer to the old Spanish colonial coinage from places like Mexico and those other South American nations that took their independence when the power of Spain dissipated from the mid 1820's  until the mid 1830's.

I have written about these nations of the Americas previously, so, if you want to refresh your memory - or if you have not read the articles, they can be located in the listed issues of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition'.





If your are specializing, or find the older Spanish historical coinages of high interest, you may need to refer to catalogues written in the national language, so a few basic numismatic terms with their meanings - other than the very obvious ones - may come in handy.

A good Spanish-English dictionary is also handy.


Acuñacion - Primarily to mean 'minting'. The actual making or striking date of coinage after authorization.

Ceca - Mint.

Estado de conservación - State of conservation.

Evaluacion - valoracion - Assessment, or grading.  In Spain, coin (and banknote) grading is still done by description, not numbers.- e.g.

MBC - (Muy Buena Conservación) - This means an Extra Fine coin with little wear, perfect legends and good reliefs, dates and stars are legible, without scratches.

EBC - (Extraordinariamente Buena Conservación) - This means the coin is equivalent to an (about) Uncirculated grading. A very pleasing coin.

S/C - (Sin Circular) This means an Uncirculated coin in superlative condition.

En perfecto estado - Mint condition . Proof - this description is also being used more frequently.

F.D.C. - The highest  international numismatic quality term is also used, when warranted.

Emisión - Emission date, or release date, differs in some instances from the ley (authorization) date. This word is more likely to be used with an actual day and date, such as recorded on Spanish banknotes.

Emitidas por Coleccionistas en Tira - Collector coins sealed in plastic strips eg. an annual mint set

Estuche induvidual - Boxed individually. Commemorative or presentation coins are treated with care.

F.N.M.T. - Fabrica Nacional Moneda y Timbre - Spain's national printers for official papers, money, stamps etc. who authorize emission of special numismatic items from Casa de la Moneda.

Fecha - Date.

Gramos -  Older coins with intrinsic value - gold, silver and copper -  often had the weight expressed in grams as well as the denomination. For instance, the 1870 Provisional Coinage 10 (Diez) copper Centimos also had the legend that  'Cien (100) Piezas en Kilo' - 100 pieces in a Kilo - a handy weight check.

Ley - the authorization date - for the coin to be made. This is the date, on the coin itself, that we use as the main recording reference.

Marca de ceca - Mint mark

Metal predominante - Spanish coins have been minted in metals such as - Cobre (Copper); Bronce (Bronze); Laton (Brass); Plata (varying high grades of Silver); Oro (varying high grades of Gold); Hierro (Iron); Niquel (Nickel); Cuproniquel (Copper-Nickel); Aluminio (Aluminium); Aluminio-Bronce (Al. Bronze);  Zinc; and other Copper-Nickel alloys (Cu-Ni-Al-Fe-Mn) and more recently the bimetallics.

Milesimas - One Thousandth - usually describing purity of precious metal.  e.g. Oro 999 Milesimas would be equivalent to .999 Gold

Moneda - Coins

Monedas Conmemorativas - Commemorative coins - often N.C.L.T.(Non Circulating Legal Tender)

Nuevo Diseño - New Designs.

Número de piezas acuñadas - Number of pieces minted.

Mintage figures on early Spanish or Colonial coins is virtually non-existent, but, in 1869, some records were started - they are somewhat patchy during times of unrest and civil war but they are better than nothing. Since Franco's regency, and consequently the monarchy, figures are much more accurate.

Pagará al portador - Pay to Bearer, this is a term more often applicable on banknotes issued between the mid 1800's up until the early 1970's.

Próximas Novedades - Literally means 'Next new features' and refers to circulating 'commemorative style' coinage (other than the standard design) - a similar concept to the U.S. State Quarters series, as well as the Australian State series and the practice of issuing commemorative dollar coins..

Reacuñaciones Oficiales - Official restrikes. In 1961 and 1962, Spain restruck .900 Gold coins with face values 10, 20 (2), 25 and 100 Pesetas based on coins dated 1876, 1878, 1887, 1896, and 1897.

Series en Cartera - Carded sets of Mint and Proof quality coins, especially prepared for collectors, began to appear in the 1970's.

Variante - Variety.


It is interesting to note that the famous 8 Reales .903 Silver coin, which weighed 27.0700grms, circulated for a very long time all over the world.

It originally was based on the system of 16 Silver Reales to 1 Gold Escudo (approx. 3.3800g).

The quality of both Silver and gold varied occasionally, but was usually maintained in the high end of fineness (between .835 - .903 Fine).

The average weights of Spanish and colonial Silver Reales were 1/4 R (.8450g); 1/2 R (1.6900g); 1R (3.3800g); 2 R (6.7700g); 4 R (13.5400g); and 8 R (27.050g). The Gold Escudos were in denominations of 1/2, 1, 2, 4 and 8 with weight equivalent to the Reals.- but with values based on Gold.

As can be seen, most weights doubled at each denomination increase. A good catalogue will show that  there were slight exceptions at times.

Throughout the 1700's and early 1800's  the coinage system remained relatively stable until a radical change in 1808 saw the Escudos coinage changed completely to Reales and a lighter weight 10 Reales coin introduced and the 8 Reales was dropped..

The system was still clumsy with denominations ranging from 1, 2, 4, 10, 20, 80, 160 and 320 Reales.


In 1850, the decimal system was introduced  - again - in a fashion - probably in an effort to deal with inflation and save precious metals.

The Real denominations started at 1/10, 1/5, 1/2 Real in Copper with  5, 10 and 25 Centimos coins, also minted in Copper, issued and running concurrently, and 1, 2, 4, 10, 20 Reales in .900 Silver and a 40 Reales coin in .900 Gold.

All silver and gold coins of similar previous denominations were much smaller, and about 25% lighter, with the 10 R now weighing less than the former 4 R.

During the last half of the 1800's, some Spanish cities, Madrid, Barcelona and Seville -  again flirted with fractional divisions of the Escudos - this time in .900 Silver -  but the decimal based Silver Peseta coinage was already in production by 1869 and that went from strength to strength until 1925 when the Republican and National Government issued low denomination coinage in base metals such as Nickel and, by 1937, Iron and Brass.


During the Spanish Civil War, low value coins were produced by some districts councils, in areas  such as Barcelona, Seville, Taragon, in denominations of 5 Centimos up to 2 1/2 Pesetas - mainly in  Aluminium, Brass , Zinc, Copper, Nickel, Iron and Copper-Nickel.


Gold re-strikes from Madrid and Valencia Mints issued during 1961 - 1962.

(Catalogue values shown in pre-Euro Pesetas)

The original 'ley' (authorization) coin dates are accompanied by the 'acuñacion' (striking) dates shown in brackets.


Firstly, a few notes about Spanish pre-Euro coins that might be of assistance for those of us who liked the old Reales and Pesetas coinages.

Quite often there are two dates on the coins - the date we normally see - is actually that of the official authorization (ley). This practice commenced in 1868.

The other date is when the coin was actually struck and issued (acuñacion - minting coinage).

This issue date is usually hidden away, incused into tiny stars *(estrellas)* - usually 2 on most coins - and, often, this emission date is split into 2 parts - e.g. 1845 which will be shown as 18 - 45, with a part in each star, or, occasionally, just the last part e.g. (19) 60,  within a single star on a more modern coin such as a Franco  50 Pesetas Eagle reverse - which has a ley date of 1957  

The ley date and 'acuñacion' dates may be identical - or they could be years apart depending on coin demand.

Precious metal coins usually have identical authorization and striking dates - but there are exceptions - so, if they are vastly different, have a good second look to make sure the coin is genuine and not something cheaper that has been 'treated' to add a lot of extra value.

In particular, watch out for gilded or base metal replicas of the type coming out of China and eastern Europe.

Remember, a catalogue check of coin ley dates and those tiny incused 'acuñacion' dates in the 'estrellas' are good clues!


On the re-strikes,(Reacuñaciones Oficiales) - as mentioned above, the coins were basically identical with the originals -  you may have, for example, an Alfonso XIII (child portrait bust facing left) 32.25g  .900 gold coin with a face value of 100 Pesetas, 'ley' dated 1897, (normally with an 'acuñacion' date of 18 -97 within its  2 'estrellas') - however,  to indicate that you have a restrike,  the 'acuñacion' date on the restrike would read 19 - 61 or 19 - 62..

The originals were minted in Madrid (M) but the re-strikes were minted in Valencia (V ) (Refer mint list below)


1891 - 2 Silver 5 Pesetas of child king Alfonso XIII both minted in Madrid (mintmark M and assayers' initials P.G. on reverse)

Split emission dates in tiny stars either side of coin (ley -authorization) dates.


Other sets of initials usually found on older Spanish national and Colonial coins are those of the Mintmasters or Assayers (Ensayadores) and often two Christian-name initials, signifying two assayers at the same mint, will be employed on one coin  as well as the official mintmarks in initial or symbol form.

Due to the long history of Spain, the Mintmasters/Assayers initials are many, and just to make it more complicated, many are the same.

Some family groups like the Caballeros had several Mintmasters amongst them and they served at all the different major mints in Spain over time.

For instance in 1706 - 1716, the mintmaster in Madrid Mint was Jose Caballero (J); and during 1728 - 1729  it was Juan Jose Garcia Caballero (JJ); 1730 - 1741 it was the team of J.J. Garcia Caballero and Fernando Vazquez (JF); 1744 - 1747  it was the team of Antonio Cardena and Jose Tramullas y Ferrer (AJ); 1765 - 1782 saw  Manuel de Lamas (M) teamed with Francisco Herrera (MF) and so on.

Hundreds of names over centuries - and in so many mints. Far too many to mention in this brief article, unfortunately.


International cataloguers, Krause Publications - 'Standard Catalog of World Coins'  - has given this a reasonably good coverage, but, even they admit that they have not been able to compile a full - and accurate - list for publication..

It is essential that the coin dates are taken into consideration - a good catalogue should be consulted to match these details together with the Mints to ascertain, if the information is available, who were the Mintmasters - even it is only their initials.


Early mintmarks, from the major colonial mints, most often seen on Spanish coins minted between 1700 - 1830's  include:

C, CH, Ch - Chihuahua, Mexico; D, DO, Do - Durango, Mexico; Ga - Guadalajara; G, GG - Guatamala; G, Go - Guanajuato, Mexico; L, LIMAE, LIMA - Lima, Peru; M, MA - Manila, Philippines; M, Mo - Mexico Citu, Mexico; NG - Nueva Granada, Guatamala; NR - Nueva Reino, Colombia; PVD - Valladolid Michoacan, Mexico; P, PN, Pn - Popyan, Bolivia; P, POTOSI - Potosi, Bolovia; So - Santiago, Chile; Z, Zs - Zacatecas, Mexico.


With independence from Spain, formations of alliances - and then dissolution - of some these new unions, meant that central South American coinage was in a state of flux for some time. Most of the former colonies  counter-stamped  circulating coinages, including that from their neighbours, and often renamed the former Spanish denominations to suit their own national aspirations. National mints were established in some of the new independent nations and some coins were even minted in Europe. Some Guatamalan coins, for instance  bear the H mintmark of Heatons, Birmingham. Other old Spanish coins that came to light were counter-stamped with the Republican Coat-of-Arms featuring the Long-tailed Quetzal bird (from about 1872). In 1925, Guatamalan coinage was produced with denominations based on 100 Centavos = 1 Quetzal (33.333g .720 Silver).

Krause's 'Standard Catalog of World Coins' covering the years from 1801 - 1900, gives a good idea of this period of upheaval.


On occasion, a mintmark arises that is hard to decipher, mainly due to wear or damage, and sometimes the only way we can put some sort of credence to it is by comparing it with others, checking the Assayers initials, denomination and coin date together and hoping we can make a match against an appropriate mint.. The 2 Reales coin shown below - scan courtesy T.N.S. member Jerry Adams, of Texas - appears to have a damaged mintmark as well as subsequent wear as well.  On comparison with another undamaged coin (insert below) - and the P.J. assayers initials that are not recorded on any known 2 Reales coins of this date - the possibility is that it comes from Guanajuato Mint in Mexico is high..

It must be pointed out, however, that Mexican Silver Reales coins from all mints were counterfeited in contemporary times in fairly significant numbers - and sometimes crudely. It is common to encounter 'chop marks' on old Mexican silver coins where they were tested to ensure they were not just plated copies.


(Compare general set-up - and 'Go' mintmark - of this known 1834 Guanajuanto 8 reales coin with the unconfirmed 2 Reales shown above)




1758 Silver 1 Real minted in Mexico City - mintmark Mo near date - Assayer, Manuel de León (M)

1834 Silver 2 Reales - Damaged (?) mintmark - possibly minted in Guanajuato - Assayers, names unknown (P. J)

1804 Silver 8 Reales minted in Mexico City - mintmark Mo

Assayers, Tomas Butron Miranda and Henrique Buenventura Azorin (T. H)


The homeland *(refer chart below) mintmarks are - B, Ba, 8 pointed star - Barcelona; Bo - Bilbao; C - Catalonia; CA - Cuenca; G, Flower over G - Granada; J, JA, 4 pointed star - Jubia;  M, MD, 6 pointed star, Crowned M - Madrid; Ma, 5 pointed star - Manila (Philippines) P, PP, P.L, PA - Pamplona; Aquaduct, 3 pointed star - Segovia; S, S/L, 7 pointed star- Seville; Sr - Santander; T, To, Tole - Toledo; V, VA, VAL - Valencia; Crowned C - Cadiz.



'Marks of the different mints who made coins in this kingdom'


A selection of King Juan Carlos 1 coins in various metals

some pre-1982 showing 'estrellas' (emission date stars).


Coins were also issued for the Philippines and Puerto Rico during the late 1800's.

During the time of the Republic (1931-1939) several Revolutionary and some Civil War issues - mainly 1937 (or undated) - were minted in various areas from base metals, as previously mentioned,  some with low levels of design workmanship while others were well presented.

This needs to be borne in mind when checking these.

In 1937, the  25 Centisimos nickel coins were minted in Vienna and released in 1938 when the forces lead by General Francisco Franco controlled most of Spain.  When Madrid Mint was under the control of  Franco's Nationalist Government, it produced all other issues during the period 1939 - 1947.

In 1947, after his victory, Franco restored the monarchy -but, in name only - he retained regency of Spain as its leader (dictator) and he selected the heir apparent who was to be crowned after his death - which occurred Nov. 20, 1975.

Juan Carlos de Borbon, the grandson of the former king, Alfonso XIII, was proclaimed monarch as Juan Carlos I - Rey de Espana - on Nov. 22, 1975. 


A series of commemorative coins was authorised and issued in 1957, by the Spanish dictator, Francisco Franco, that consisted of  5, 25 and 50 Pesetas, (similar to the style shown below with the eagle reverse) to celebrate the 1958 event - 'Exposicion Iberoamericana de Numismatica y Medallistica'. (The  Exposition of  Iberian - American Numismatists and Medallists).

This short series of only 43,000 coins in each denomination was minted in Barcelona with the initials BA replacing the estrella (star) on the eagle reverse.


A selection of base metal coins featuring General Francisco Franco

as Gaudillo (leader - dictator) of Spain.

1959 Aluminium 10 Centimos; 1953 Al-Br. One Peseta; 1957 Copper-Nickel 5, 25 and 50 Pesetas. (Madrid 6 point star mintmark.)


From 1982 all basic coinage has been produced in Madrid at the 'Casa de la Moneda' (lit. House of the Coin) with the Crowned M mintmark.

The practice of placing both ley and 'acuñacion' dates on basic circulation coins ceased in 1982 and, from 1983,  issues only bear the year date and the Madrid mintmark..


Casa de la Moneda - Madrid


Spain was one of the first nations to be involved in the acceptance of a commercially united Europe with a common currency and was a charter member of the European Economic Union and began officially using the Euro coinage and notes in 1999.



Modern Spanish Euro Coinage issued from 1999


My interest in modern Spanish coinage was initiated by an Internet  colleague in Spain, José Mayor of Murcia (on the East coast) - another friend who I have misplaced over the last decade of indifferent-health. 

José was responsible, in the late 1990's - early 2000's, for the majority of modern small-change coins in my Spanish accumulation - and the pocket-size Spanish catalogue shown in the illustrations in this article - for which I am truly very grateful..


Main References:

'Standard Catalog of World Coins' - 1701 - 1800; 1801 - 1994; 1901 - 1998. published by Krause Publications.

'Monedas y Billetes Españoles 1833 - 1998' - by Carlos Fuster (Numismatist) 1999.

Various other sources previously acknowledged.



A quite significant amount of very serious numismatists have found a niche in their collecting space for pieces of paper that look, at first glance, suspiciously like U.S. currency - but are, in fact, utter fantasies which have no real value whatsoever - except a fair bit of the 'novelty' sort!

They are produced for any number of weird reasons - including advertising - and this stuff is known, collectively, as 'FUNNY MONEY'!



A Million $$$$'s ...perhaps?


........or would you prefer - a Billion $$$$'s instead?


The styles and portraits of celebrities used on 'Funny Money' are boundless and new examples are appearing frequently enough to make the theme a worthwhile one. Some are very basic and plentiful - but others are in limited supply and, as such, they do attain a value far greater than the paper they are printed on!


A political note if ever there was one ... but, at least, former President George W. Bush may have a chance of making the historical portrait cut in the future!


The 'Terminator' is back -  with some of his 8 Arnie Dollars!


A very small selection of U.S.'Funny Money'.






Tasmanian Numismatic Society

Hon.Sec. C.A. Heath

P.O.Box 12,

Claremont. 7011.



Email:- misteeth@bigpond.net.au


Tasmanian Numismatic Society (T.N.S.) General Meetings are currently held at 6.30 p.m. on the last Tuesday of the month at the Civic Centre, 134 Davey St; Hobart.


If you have an interest in any of the branches of numismatics - coins, banknotes, medallions and tokens - please avail yourself of the auspices of this well-established organization by contacting the Secretary.



'Numisnet World' occasionally publishes a Meeting reminder, as a courtesy to any T.N.S. member - or other interested parties - and, as a friend of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society', we endeavour to pass on other relevant Society information, whenever possible, in accordance with our publishing schedule.



AUGUST 19th., 2016.




'Numisnet World' has been advised that plans are being finalized for a T.N.S. Dinner Meeting to be held at the Cambridge 'Horseshoe Inn' on the evening of Friday, August 19th. 2016. 

T.N.S. members and interested parties will be directly advised of details as they are confirmed by the Secretary.

It is proposed that the guest speaker at the Dinner will be well-known numismatist:-

Mr. Steele Waterman


Steele is a well respected writer, who has the regular Q & A column in the 'Australasian Coin & Banknote Magazine'.




JULY 2007 - to date.

Full details of 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  (2007)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm   -  (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm   -  (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec09.htm   -  (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2010)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec10.htm   -  (Volume 15 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2011)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jun11.htm   -  (Volume 16 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec11.htm   -  (Volume 16 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2012)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june12.htm -  (Volume 17 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec12.htm  -   (Volume 17 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2013)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june13.htm  -  (Volume 18 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec13.htm   -  (Volume 18 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2014)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june14.htm  - (Volume 19 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec14.htm  -   (Volume 19 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2015)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june15.htm -   (Volume 20 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec15.htm   -  (Volume 20 - Issues 7 - 12) 

For full derails of 'Numisnet World (2016)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june16.htm -   (Volume 21 - Issues 1 - 6)




Issue 6, June 2016:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood.june16.htm

UP FROM A BRINY GRAVE - A reprise of the story of the ill-fated Confederate submarine 'Hunley' - and a copy of a life saving US Gold $20.00 coin that stayed with its dead owner for near 150 years. A few extra end notes and pics. detail the history of the main creator of casualties in the Civil War.

OFFICIALS CALL GENUINE $2.00 BILL FAKE! - Actually, this doesn't surprise me too much! However, a hungry young schoolgirl learned the hard way all about counterfeit currency even when her US$2.00 was the real deal!

THAT STRANGE U.S. NOTE IN YOUR WALLET! - This comment is addressed to U.S. citizens, in the main. How many are familiar with the $2.00 note?

DO U.S. CITIZENS KNOW THEIR OWN MONEY!? - Just to make sure that our readers do - I have submit a few scans of small-size United States Federal Reserve notes for perusal - the common usage, lower denomination items that are found in most wallets and purses..


VOLUME 21 - Issues 7 - 12, 2016

Issue 7, July 2016:-

BREXIT - The crack in the European Union appear to have started after the shock withdrawal of Great Britain. Time will tell how the decision will go - but the ramifications are worrying for some of the participants.

SPECIAL MOMENTS IN TIME - In the mid 1990's, as I reached out, via the Internet, to other coin clubs across the world - I found a eager colleague doing the same in Canada. A great relationship developed with the ANFC in Quebec for about 6 years when health problems took a heavy toll on this writer - however, I am now taking an opportunity of reliving a few memorable moments from that era.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT OLD SPANISH SILVER COINAGE? - Spain - one of the world's great colonial powers of the middle of the last millennium - is a country with an immensely rich numismatic history. This basic article touches on a few things that any collector, who delves into the richness of  Spanish coinage should have at his/her fingertips. Many of the modern coins were donated courtesy of a currently misplaced Internet friend!

NOTABLE U.S. FUNNY MONEY! - Another niche has been taken up in my collecting space with a small but interesting cache of paper 'Funny Money'! Will it be a passing fancy - who knows?! ... however, it is not a particularly expensive one .. and I do find the theme interesting.

T.N.S. DINNER-MEETING ALERT - T.N.S. members.... reserve the evening of August 19th for a talk by Mr. Steele Waterman at the 'Horseshoe Inn'..





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Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


The 'NumisNet World'’ (Internet Edition) newsletter has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented free on a monthly basis with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics. Whilst the 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter abides by the same basic guidelines originally suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter, it is a separate, independent publication.

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, email or hand delivered, directly to financial members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions.

All titles and matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society


Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.

Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Editor. 

ALL comments in linked articles are the responsibility of the original authors.

Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, any Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations -  or  - (2) To provide additional important information. 


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Under this act, information about individuals can be stored and published only if: the information is already contained in a publicly available document or if personal information has been provided by the individual to whom the information relates, and if that individual is aware of the purposes for which the information is being collected.

All information published by the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter is either publicly available, or has been voluntarily provided by writers, on request from the Editor of the ''NumisNet World'  (Internet Edition) newsletter.

While the ''NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter may hold writers' addresses and other details for the purposes of communication and copyright protection, it will never make such addresses or details available to any member of the public without the permission of those involved.

The 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter also respects the privacy of our readers. When you write to us with comments, queries or suggestions, you may provide us with personal information including your contact address or other relevant information. Your personal information will never be made available to a third party without permission.



All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned. 

The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. Deadline for any literary contributions, or amendment to copy, is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication.


The Editor,

Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.


Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

Email: pwood@vision.net.au