‘NUMISNET WORLD’


Volume 19 Issue 7    Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)     July 2014


'NUMISNET WORLD'

INTERNET EDITION

Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2014.

COPYRIGHT.

The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.

 

All or any prices quoted in articles in this free newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the authors' own collection - or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' -  Internet Edition © 1991 - 2007.  and the  'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition. © 2007 - 2013.  

Krause-Mishler (KM) Standard and Specialized World Catalogs (also including 'Pick' banknote numbers) - and McDonald and/or Renniks Australian catalogue numbers - are used where applicable.

*Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes.)

 

Please, also, consider my conditional invitation, to make a literary contribution, if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest - and fulfils our stated editorial guidelines. As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in additional presentation. However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication. 

We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has necessitated the following conditions.

If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagiarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbyist collector.  - G.E.P.

 

PLEASE NOTE - RE-STATED DISCLAIMERS:

Where on-line web-site Links or addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith - however, our readers are advised, that, if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.

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THE GREAT WAR...

...the War to end all Wars?

How Time flies!  I am old enough to have had personal contact with relatives who had taken an active part in WWI - an historical event from a hundred years ago. I also realise that now I'm one of the final links with the oral memories of those grandparents, great-uncles and other members of my family, who were actively involved in that momentous event that shook the world.

The following reprise - of an article that I wrote many years ago - highlights the lead-up to the millions of young men's 'Great Adventure' - an adventure that turned into a Great Slaughter of an entire generation of sons, brothers and husbands in some families.

 

TIMETABLE TO DISASTER.

A reprise by Graeme Petterwood. © 1997

Each year on August 5th., some of us are aware that another anniversary has passed since the start of the 'War to end all Wars', known by its few surviving participants as 'The Great War' or by history as - World War I - a sad indictment of those other conflicts that have since followed.

This conflict had escalated from events in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovinia on June 28th.1914, when the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand - heir apparent to the Hapsburg Empire, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess von Hohenberg, gave Austria-Hungary their long awaited excuse to declare war against Serbia, which they did on the 28th. of July 1914.

    

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie

Born in Stuttgart on March 1st. 1868, into a Czech family of low nobility, Countess Sophie Chotek von Chotkova und Wognin worked as a lady-in-waiting for Archduchess Isabella in Pressburg (now Bratislava - Czechoslovakia).

When bachelor Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, was in Pressburg to visit the Archduchess and her family, he caught a glimpse of lady-in-waiting Sophie, fell in love with her at first sight, and began to call on her - instead of either of Isabella's two eligible daughters.

Sophie was immediately dismissed when the archduchess discovered the reason for Franz Ferdinand's visits and, because of her background and lowly status in the order of things 'royal', she was also rejected by Emperor Franz Josef, of the House of Hapsburg, as being unsuitable for any permanent relationship with the Archduke.

Franz Ferdinand had been third in line for the Austrian throne, but had become the heir-apparent after the deaths of the Emperor's only son, Crown Prince Rudolf in 1889 (by suicide, with his 16 year old mistress), and then Franz’s father, Archduke Carl Ludwig (the Emperor's younger brother) in 1896.

However, by 1899, Franz Ferdinand was so deeply in love with Sophie that he persisted with his entreaties to his uncle, Emperor Franz Josef for permission to marry her.

Eventually, after Franz Ferdinand swore a 'morganatic' oath to the Emperor that his heirs would not claim the line of succession to the throne and Sophie would not assume to her husband's title, the royal permission was granted.

 

When they married on July 1st. 1900, the Emperor granted Sophie a very minor Austrian title, 'Princess of Hohenberg', to allow her to be accepted at court, but protocol meant that Sophie could not ride in the imperial coach with Franz Ferdinand, or even attend functions with him until all the other higher ranking ladies of the court had entered and been announced first.

Prior to his marriage, the Archduke was known as 'the loneliest man in Austria' and was regarded by many as 'completely lacking in charm and elegance', so it came as a surprise that Franz Ferdinand and Sophie enjoyed a happy, loving marriage and home life.

However, things were difficult at court for Sophie, where she was regarded as little more than a foreign 'commoner' by the other ladies so, as each of their three children were born between 1901 and 1904, the couple became more reclusive except for official duties. (Picture: - Franz and Sophie with two of their children, Sophie, and Max.)

In 1905, the Emperor mellowed a little more and proclaimed that she would, in future, be known as 'Serene Highness', the Duchess von Hohenberg', thus elevating Sophie to a position more in suiting with her husband's rank.

A further elevation was made in 1909 when Sophie was granted the title 'Duchess, Highness ad Personum' and she was allowed the privilege of being addressed as 'Highness', but she still not on a par with her husband, nor could she accompany the Archduke in his vehicle, as this would have been a breach of royal etiquette that the Austrian Emperor would not have tolerated.

 

Sarajevo.

In June 1914, Sophie and Franz Ferdinand, who was the Inspector General of the Army, took their fateful trip to Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia, to inspect army manoeuvres, even though the Austrian government was warned by the Serbian Minister to Vienna, Jovan Jovanovich, that there was an element of risk because of dangerous political unrest, involving the Serbian 'Black Hand' organisation, which secretly included many military, political and professional leaders.

Jovanovich was not particularly welcome amongst Austrian diplomatic circles so he chose to advise a friend, the Minister of Finance, Dr. Leon von Bilinski of the warning which, in fact, had originated from Serbian Prime Minister Nicholas Pasic, who did not wish to be directly linked because of his position.

The warning was deliberately vague and low-key as the Serbian Prime Minister knew that the likelihood of diabolical repercussions would be forthcoming against him, personally, if the 'Black Hand' and the other extremist nationalist groups ever became aware that he had acted against their parochial interests.

Serbia and Bosnia, at that time, were seething hot-beds of intrigue, with many groups of murderous political and religious extremists fighting, plotting and counter-plotting amongst themselves!

Between 1910 and 1914 there had been six attempts against the lives of other lesser Hapsburg nobles and dignitaries, and many dozens of other ill-conceived and aborted schemes. The archduke had once said, 'Everywhere one is in God's hands.......Fears and precautions paralyse one's life. To fear is always a dangerous business.'....... I must go to Sarajevo. The soldiers would never be able to explain my absence.'

Despite Sophie's feelings of unease, and after consultation with the advisors, the decision was made, by the couple that they would go on the inspection tour to give them a chance to celebrate their 14th. wedding anniversary on 1st. July, away from the protocol-strict atmosphere at court, and to act 'imperial' by riding in the same vehicle together for a change!

On the morning of their arrival in Sarajevo, June 28th. 1914, the Archduke briefly inspected the troops at Philipovic camp and then, at 10.00 a.m., his motorcade proceeded into the city for the official greeting by the Mayor and other dignitaries.

 

The Procession Incident.

The six automobiles containing the Hapsburg noblemen created some panic among the meagre 120 poorly briefed local police and detectives, who were far out numbered by the crowd, during the 4 mile processional drive. There were no troops lining the route to assist in crowd control as there had been on previous visits by the Emperor Franz Joseph, even though 70,000 were stationed at the camp just outside the city.

This was partly due to the fact that the Archduke, being known as a brave man, didn't like to show that he was perturbed enough, by a rumour, to ask for a show of force during his visit.  On previous occasions he had been warmly received by the Bosnian officials, because of his views regarding re-unification and independence, and the crowds had always welcomed him with cheers, so, even though 4 years had passed since the last Hapsburg visit, the Archduke felt that he had no reason to expect their attitude to him would have changed. However, the depth of political ill-feeling to the Austrians, by the Slavic subversive groups, had not been truly assessed by his advisors who had received the vaguely worded threat passed on from Dr. von Bilinski.

As the procession neared the city, an agitated young man in the crowd along Appel Quay, which borders the River Miljacka, asked one of the harassed policemen to point out the car containing the imperial pair.

Immediately, he produced and hurled a hand-grenade directly at the Archduke and Sophie!

In his panic, the bomber had acted too hurriedly and the sound of the percussion cap being struck violently against a nearby lamp-post to arm the bomb, alerted Count Franz von Harrach, who was riding on the running board, and the car driver, Franz Urban, who quickly accelerated forward as he saw the grenade flying through the air.

The Archduke, also reacted quickly - he threw his arm up and deflected the device away from Sophie and onto the folded down top of his car, from where it bounced into the street, then exploded, near the third car in the procession behind them, as they surged forward.

This abortive bomb attempt was made by a member of another anarchist group, called the Young Bosnians, who had been trained in Serbia and then smuggled back into Sarajevo by the 'Black Hand'. Several of the group were suffering from tuberculosis and  were considered 'expendable' on a suicide mission. All were issued with a bottle of cyanide poison and a revolver, some were also armed with percussion stick-handle hand-grenades.

The name of the would-be assassin was Nedeljko Cabrinovic, a poorly educated, sickly, quarrelsome, unemployed and naively idealistic young man, and his explosive resulted in 20 people being injured.

Miraculously, the imperial couple were relatively unhurt except that Sophie was slightly grazed on the neck by a fragment from the hand-grenade.

Cabrinovic had swallowed his poison after throwing his grenade, and then jumped into the river, but the 'out-of-date' poison only made him sick and the river was only a few inches deep. He was caught by the crowd and arrested.

 

The Fatal Decision.

   

Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie arriving, with General Oskar Potiorek, and leaving Sarajevo City Hall after the first attempt on their lives.

On their arrival at City Hall, the furious Franz Ferdinand said, 'Mr. Mayor, one comes here for a visit and is received by bombs! It is outrageous!'

As the Archduke paused for breath, the Mayor, Fehim Effendi Curcic, who had been riding in the first of the cars with the Police Commissioner, Dr. Gerde, immediately launched into his address of welcome, either unaware of the events that had occurred behind him, or so nervous that all he could do was to continue on with his planned speech!

As the royal couple recovered from the initial shock, they were assured by General Oskar Potiorek, military governor of Bosnia, that security had been tightened and nothing else could happen. The Archduke demanded that Sophie be taken to safety, but she refused to leave his side!

They bravely decided to continue on with the tour to the Sarajevo Museum and then lunch and rest at the Governor's residence, with the Archduke also asking if they could possibly detour to the hospital and visit one of their injured officers, Lieutenant Colonel Merizzi, who had received a serious head wound.

Merizzi, travelling in the third car, had been the officer in charge of organising the motorcade and his absence, and the lack of a competent replacement, proved to be a crucial part in the problems that were to arise.

Due to the confusion caused by the bombing attempt, and then, with the lack of communication and co-ordination, the information regarding the new return route to be taken by the entourage was not passed on to the car drivers.

 

The Deadly Wrong Turn.

As they drove back from City Hall and turned onto Franz Josef Street, which was on the original plan to take them to the Museum, General Potiorek called urgent instructions to the driver that he was taking the wrong street and they should be continuing along Appel Quay.

When the car braked, backed up and stopped to turn, it put them directly alongside a section of the crowd that contained, coincidentally, another Young Bosnian gunman, their chief assassin and best sharp-shooter, Gavrilo Princip.

Princip was another sickly, idealistic youth who had been recruited by Major Tankosic to assassinate anyone of note, to achieve their ends - and, as the Imperial visit had recently been announced in the Bosnian press, the Archduke was the ideal opportunistic target!

Tankosic, the local leader of the 'Black Hand', had supplied the Young Bosnians with the explosives and pistols on orders from the chief of the secret society, Colonel Dragutin Dimitrijevic Apis - who also happened to be the chief of the intelligence department of the Serbian general staff.

Apis had been aware of the shaky relationship, complicated as it was, that had been slowly developing between Serbia and Vienna, as well as the knowledge that Franz Ferdinand had been formulating a radical plan to create a stable 'trialism' to unite the three groups that made up the factions in Austria-Hungary, Bosnia and Serbia, but even though the plan had met fierce opposition by the vested interests in all countries, the Archduke had been pushing ahead with it.

Apis, who wanted an independent Slav motherland - with Serbia as the most privileged state, had vowed to stop it!

Coupled with a long festering power struggle with Prime Minister Pasic, who had suspected him of an attempted coup d'etat and treachery on several other occasions - but could not prove it - Apis hoped that any serious diplomatic incident, involving the Austrians, would 'spite' Pasic and topple him from his position, in fact, he did not even believe that the assassination plot would succeed!

 

Franz Josef Street.

Realising that the bomb plot had failed, Princip and a few other conspirators, armed with their Serbian supplied pistols, had re-positioned themselves back along Appel Quay, on the chance they might have another opportunity to carry out the assassination on the Imperial couple's return journey.

Princip had wandered over from Appel Quay and had been in Moritz Schiller's food shop in Franz Josef Street buying a sandwich, and was chatting with a friend outside when he spotted the car heading in the wrong direction, then stop- not more than 5 feet away from him. It was the 'once in a lifetime' opportunity, and he seized the moment!

Princip fired two quick shots from a Serbian Army issue .38 Browning pistol at the couple's open car as he struggled with a policeman, who had seen him draw his weapon, but couldn't stop him in time. It is believed that the action of Princip's unknown friend - who had held the policeman for a vital moment- gave the assassin just enough time to complete his task! After the shooting, Princip tried to shoot himself but was restrained, he also managed to take poison, but like his accomplice, Cabrinovic, he too was only violently ill. He was rescued from the fury of the crowd and arrested.

His photo, taken after his capture, shows the obvious signs of his treatment by the crowd.

 

Sophie Dear!

Archduke Franz Ferdinand was hit in the right side of his neck and mortally wounded, his jugular vein severed and his spine shattered.

Sophie was dying from internal bleeding, after being shot by the first bullet that had been fired, which penetrated the right-hand car door, pierced her corset and right side, and lodged in her stomach.

She remained conscious for a few moments, sitting upright, staring at the blood pouring from her husband's mouth and down the front of his light-blue uniform jacket, and said, "For Heaven's sake! What's happened to you!" and then she slumped down in the seat.

They were her last known words as Potiorek, who was seated in the front of the car, turned and tried to hold her up, in the belief that she had fainted, unaware for a few moments of the magnitude of the terrible event that had happened. Potiorek had seen Princip fire his weapon, but thought he had missed.

The Archduke knew Sophie had been shot and, as he struggled to keep alive, his last words to her were:

 "Sophie dear! Sophie dear! Don't die! Stay alive for our children!" 

Count Harrach who was struggling to stem the flow of blood, overheard the final conversations and, then, the Archduke repeated, "It's nothing!" several times before lapsing into unconsciousness.

Their driver, Franz Urban, with the blood-soaked Count Harrach still on the car's sideboard, immediately accelerated back across the Lateiner Bridge and sped the unconscious pair to the Governor's residence, but by 11.30 a.m. both Franz and Sophie were dead from their terrible wounds.

The Archduke and the Duchess were both found to be wearing gold and platinum talismans and amulets, containing holy relics and lucky charms and coins, around their necks to protect them from evil.

Even in death, protocol meant that Sophie's coffin had to be set at a lower level and be less elaborate than Franz Ferdinand's - and it was only by direct intervention by the Emperor, himself, that the two coffins were even allowed to lie side by side in state.

Again, because of this strict protocol, the Duchess could not have been buried alongside her husband in the Hapsburg's Capuchin Crypt in Vienna, so, united forever in death, they were eventually buried in the crypts of the chapel of Franz Ferdinand's castle at Artstetten. Neither the Emperor or the Kaiser attended the funeral.

They were survived by their children, Sophie (13), Maximillian (12) and Ernst (10) Hohenberg.

 

War!

Because of many peculiar circumstances involving both Serbian and Austrian military in the event, there was a great amount of speculation that the situation was more than a senseless murder planned by the 'Black Hand' and carried out by a few Young Bosnian extremists.

With high ranking political and military involvement suspected, blame was being laid on everyone's doorstep, so the chief of the Austro-Hungarian general staff General Franz Conrad von Hotzendorf took the opportunity to pronounce that the assassination had been planned by the Serbian officials.

He wrote, 'This is not the crime of a single fanatic; (the) assassination represents Serbia's declaration of war on Austria-Hungary! If we miss this occasion, the monarchy will be exposed to new explosions of South Slav, Czech, Russian, Rumanian, and Italian aspirations.......Austria-Hungary must wage war for political reasons!'

Previously between January 1913 and June 1914, von Hotzendorf, who had been Franz Ferdinand's right-hand man, had advocated war against Serbia on no less than 25 occasions, but had been held in check by his leader's more moderate attitude.

With his fiery speeches of righteous indignation, and now with apparent justification, the General was listened to by the other army chiefs, and the decision to declare war was made in early July, even though results of the investigations, and details of the arrest of the main conspirators involved in the incident, were still forthcoming from Sarajevo.

At first the invasion of Serbia and Bosnia was going to be made without warning, but Hungarian Prime Minister, Count Stefan Tisza had some scruples about such a rash decision, and persuaded the Austrians to go through with the formality of an ultimatum then the declaration-of-war - after the Austro-Hungarians had secretly upgraded their state of readiness.

The declaration was made in a telegram, delivered by a postman, at about 1.00 p.m., to the Serbian Prime Minister Pasic, as he had lunch at the Hotel 'Europa' in Nish, a town in central Serbia. At first the telegram, plus other telegrams reportedly received in Belgrade from Vienna, was thought to be part of an elaborate hoax, until the Austro-Hungarian guns opened fire on the capital, while the Prime Minister was still waiting on confirmation from more official sources!

Within days, the fuse that had been lit at Sarajevo had reached the point of no-return and the world was plunged into a conflict that would directly claim over 28 million lives.

Australia, as an ally of Great Britain, was soon involved, and of the gross enlistment in the A.I.F. of 416,819 our casualties were 60,284 deaths and 152,171 wounded.

 

Postscript.

Princip showed no remorse at his trial in October 1914, and his final statement was one that denied that anyone else had been involved in the plot,

'The idea arose in our own minds, and we ourselves executed it. We have loved the people. I have nothing to say in my defence.'

Cabrinovic, however, was tearful and commented, 'We have profound regrets....we did not know that the late Franz Ferdinand was a father.'

Duchess Sophie, Archduke Franz Ferdinand with their children Ernst (1904 - 54), Max (1902 - 62) and their first-born daughter, Sophie (1901- 90)

 

Both Princip and Cabrinovic escaped the death penalty because of their age and were sentenced to 20 years in prison.

At the time of the incident, Princip was just about 20 y.o. and Cabrinovic was only 19.

Princip died of tuberculosis of the bones in the Theresienstadt prison hospital in April 1918 and Cabrinovic died of tuberculosis in January 1916.

 

References.

Sarajevo, June 28, 1914 - An Internet article by Michael Shackelford.

History of World War I. Editor-in-Chief A.J.P.Taylor. - Published by Octopus Books Limited. London. 1974.

The Balkan Causes of World War I - Refer: http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/balkan_causes.htm

Recommended Reading

Assassination at Sarajevo - Refer: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWassassination.htm - (many additional links)

 

 

THE FINANCIAL CONSEQUENCES FOR AUSTRIA

As the war progressed to encompass all of Europe by 4th. August 1914, great demands were placed the economy of the German Empire which had actively encouraged their allies, the Austrian-Hungarians, to declare war on Bosnia and Serbia. The hoarding of precious metals, including coinage, quickly became a ‘fact of life’- even up to corporate levels. Prussian Kaiser, Wilhelm II, and his hierarchy, had decided that it would be quicker and more economical to print paper notes or adapt existing or unissued currency than use up any of the metals needed for the war-machine. The Hapsburg emperor, Franz Josef, had virtually no option but to follow suit and make the coalition financially binding as well as combining their military might.

During the 1916 - 18 issue period, both Austria and Hungary used some the same notes ranging from 1, 2, 5, 25, 200 and 10,000 Kronen  with Austria using the low Block Numbers and Hungary the high. Some Hungarian denominations, printed in Budapest, also incorporated a Series letter and number and were held over from release until 1919. All notes issued under the authority of the Austrian-Hungarian Bank were bi-lingual.

After the war, the same system continued on for a few years in an effort to utilise existing resources and to rationalise a chaotic financial situation.

In 1919 and 1920, two series of slightly earlier Austro-Hungarian banknotes were overprinted with a German-Austrian authority stamp and re-issued. They ranged from 1, 2, 10, 20, 50, 100, and several different old 1000 and 10,000 Kronen notes but the overprint stamps were not shown with a re-issue date and some had a additional handstamped message added later "Note Echt - Stempel Falsch" ("Note genuine - overprint forged")

Evidently, the value of the note had been updated with the overprint and some enterprising Austrians tried to take advantage of the situation - or get rid of their older notes before they became worthless - so they added their own overprint. This was just at the beginning of the hyper-inflation period for the former Central Powers.

 

ÖSTERREICHISCH-UNGARISCHE BANK GERMAN-AUSTRIAN OVERPRINTS 1919

  

German-Austrian Green 1919 O/P (Pick # 49) on 1916 Austrian-Hungarian 1 Krone banknote (Pick # 20)

German-Austrian Green 1919 O/P (Pick # 50) on 1917 Austrian-Hungarian 2 Krone banknote (Pick # 21)

 

German-Austrian Red 1919 O/P (Pick # 61) on 1902 Austrian - Hungarian 1000 Kronen banknote (Pick # 8)

There are several o/p variations with this note. This one has a II Auflage (2nd issue) and block and serial number in Red.

During the war, a system of metallic tokens and notgeld was introduced into circulation, and, like the Austrian and German Governments, many of the small rural or semi-rural councils found that it was far easier to use a printer to make the notes than to go through the costly process of obtaining suitable metals and then making ‘coinage’. Soon the practice became widespread throughout the Hapsburg Empire, with many businesses also printing their own notgeld , also known commonly  as gutschein, as the official metal coinages disappeared rapidly from the banks and the pockets of the public. Even after the Great War was over, the practice of issuing notgeld continued because of the hyper-inflation that had built up in the defeated German - Austrian Empire, when it was forced to pay the crippling compensation payments in hard currency, for it’s ‘aggression’. Austria followed Germany in having hundreds of sources of Notgeld - Gutschein when official currency became virtually worthless. At a local 'self-contained' level the buying power of these notgeld retained their buying power a little longer than the legal national currency.

AUSTRIAN MUNICIPAL GUTSCHEIN 1920 - 21

 

 

Austrian Gutschein (in Heller denominations) issued by the Municipalities (Gemeinde) of Pernau, Grünbach bei Freistadt and Gainfarn

Reverse text usually confirms the municipal authorisation and issue date - and the time span that the value of the Gutschein is redeemable.

 

  

Austrian imperial issue Bronze 2 Heller coin 1913 (dia. approx 19mm)

The Austrian Heller was worth 1/100 of a Krone at that time.

 

In 1921, a series of Hungarian Branch offices of the Austrian-Hungarian Bank issued Treasury notes ranging from 1000, 5000, 10,000 and 100,000 Kronen and, in 1922, the Austrian Government made its first issue of 1, 2, 10, 20, 50, 100, 1000, 5000, 50,000 and 100,000 Kronen.

During the inflationary period 1922 - 1924, notes with values of 10,000, 100,000, 500,000,1,000,000 and 5,000,000 kronen were issued by the Austrian Government.

 

ÖSTERREICHISCH-UNGARISCHE BANK - AUSTRIAN ISSUED NOTES OF 1922

   

 

Austrian-Hungarian Bank low value Banknotes issued 2nd. January 1922

2 Kronen - Uniface reverse (Pick # 74), 10 Kronen - ornate Floral reverse (Pick # 75) and 100 Kronen- ornate Floral reverse (Pick # 77)

 

On 2nd. January 1925, a major monetary reform took place and the Groschen and Schilling replaced the Heller and Krone with one Schilling equalling 10,000 Kronen. Austria had became an independant republic in 1918 - but these were turbulent times and they would eventually lead Austria into another disastrous coalition with Germany's Dritte (Third) Reich in March 1938.

 

References:

Standard Catalog of World Paper Money (Vol. 2) - by Albert Pick. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer, Editors

A Guide and Checklist of World Notgeld 1914 - 1947 - by Courtney L. Coffing (1988)

 

*World War I Casualties*

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was over 37 million. There were over 16 million deaths and 20 million wounded ranking it among the deadliest conflicts in human history. The total number of deaths includes about 10 million military personnel and about 7 million civilians. The Entente Powers (also known as the Allies) lost about 6 million military personnel while the Central Powers lost about 4 million. At least 2 million died from diseases and 6 million went missing, presumed dead.

About two-thirds of military deaths in World War I were in battle, unlike the conflicts that took place in the 19th century when the majority of deaths were due to disease. Nevertheless, disease, including the Spanish flu and deaths while held as prisoners of war, still caused about one third of total military deaths for all belligerents."

 

*(The Wikipedia Internet article lists in some detail the numbers of deaths and wounded of the belligerent powers - based on official published sources. - e.g. Australia's contribution to these horrendous figures was between 1.3% - 1.4% from its population of 4.5 million at that time in history. Approx. 60,000 Australian men died from various causes during the conflict.)

 

 

My First Cousin (twice removed), Tom, nearly made it to the end of the war. He was 29 years old.

6735 Pte. THOMAS JOHN FOX

15 March 1889 - 20 Sept. 1918

12th. Infantry Battalion. A.I.F.

Died of Wounds - Somme Battlefield

Buried at - 446 Tincourt 'New British War Cemetery'

 

My grand-uncle, Frederick Robert Fox, enlisted on 13th. September 1914 (at age 18) after 'putting his age up' to 19 years 11 months.

He survived the conflict after serving for 4 years 198 days - of which 4 years and 100 days were spent overseas.

He had suffered appendicitis, gassing, gunshot wounds to his face and legs during fighting at Gallipoli and various battles in Belgium and France - his war culminated at the Battle of Polygon Wood after which he was awarded the Military Medal (15th. December 1917).

A combination of illness and wounds saw him repatriated as an Invalid to Australia per ship from London on 13th.. December 1918 arriving in Australia late January 1919. He recuperated and was returned to Tasmania 29th March 1919 and discharged.

 

1010 L/Cpl FREDERICK ROBERT FOX MM

C. 1896 - 23rd. January 1968

12th. Infantry Battalion A.I.F.

 Discharged 29th. March 1919

 

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*CANCELLATION OF EVENTS*

July-November 2014

'Tasmanian Numismatic Society'

A notification has been posted, in the 'The Australasian Coin & Banknote' Magazine (June Edition), on behalf of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society', to the effect that the following Coin & Collectables Fairs planned for the second half of 2014 and advertised earlier have been, reluctantly, cancelled due to unforseen circumstances.

Devonport

Saturday 5th. July

Launceston

Saturday 13th' September

Burnie

Saturday 25th October

Hobart

Saturday 15th. November

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'NUMISNET WORLD' - INTERNET EDITION

JULY 2007 - DECEMBER 2013.

Full details of 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  (2007)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm  -  (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec09.htm  -  (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2010)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec10.htm  -  (Volume 15 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2011)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jun11.htm  - (Volume 16 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec11.htm  - (Volume 16 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2012)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june12.htm  - (Volume 17 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec12.htm   -  (Volume 17 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2013)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june13.htm  -  (Volume 18 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec13.htm   -  (Volume 18 - Issues 7 - 12)

 

VOLUME 19 -  JANUARY - JUNE 2014

Issue 1. January 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan14.htm

HOW COLLECTORS FIND THE THINGS THEY COLLECT! - Sometimes 'Lady Luck' plays a part in how we collectors put together our accumulations.

A 'not-quite-random' phone call in mid-December 2013 put me in touch with another numismatic gatherer who was searching for information about some of his 'stuff'. A mutually beneficial exchange occurred - which gave me the chance of making another potential friend with a compatible interest  - and, as a bonus, I was also able to add a few pieces to my collection.

THE FACES OF MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATÜRK - A fast scan over a few of the portraits of Turkey's famous leader!

 

Issue 2. February 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/feb14.htm

TASMANIAN TRADESMEN'S TOKENS REVISITED 2014 (Part 1.) - This is one of those subjects that are treated as essential reading for collector's of our local tradesmen's tokens. Readers and collectors have now access to several excellent sources of literature - but, a general nudge may encourage a newcomer's start on a long journey into this intriguing facet of numismatics.

 

Issue 3. March 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar14.htm

CHINA - THE MODERN ERA (Part 1.) - The giant that is - CHINA - awoke during the early part of the 1900's and flexed its muscles. This two part article cannot cover the political upheaval and agony of China as it found its feet and strode into the modern era. We will touch gently upon some of its more modern numismatic history in an effort to stay reasonably contemporary with how it is all developing.

TASMANIAN TRADESMEN'S TOKENS REVISITED 2014 (Part 2.) - The continuation of the reprise of the story of Tradesmen's tokens in Tasmania. This part covers the north of the island.

THE CHANGING FACE OF MONEY! - Over the last two decades there have been some momentous changes to international currency and coinage with the overwhelming onslaught created by electronic technology now that the 'BITCOIN' has materialized in tangible form.. However, political changes have also played a decisive part with new states appearing and some old ones disappearing.

 

Issue 4. April 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/april14.htm

ANZAC DAY 1915 - 2014 - The Allied landing at Gallipoli. on 25th. April 1915 is again commemorated by this newsletter.  As Editor, I have been somewhat selfish by honouring my Great-Uncle Fred Fox for some years. From reading various records, I feel that the story of this one man's war  - a period of 4 years and 198 days on overseas service - was probably a typical example of the experience that thousands of other Australians had as well! 

AN INDIVIDUAL'S VIEW - THE "A - Z" - OF PAPER MONEY! - There are notes that sometimes get overlooked in favour of the 'pop' selection from major nations. This thumb-nail literary sketch - with a few pictorial examples - allows us to fill in some of the gaps between A - Z . As space and time permits, we will feature a few more!

 

Issue 5. May 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/may14.htm

CHINA - THE MODERN ERA (Part 2.) - The inscrutable face of China changed dramatically after WWII with the rise and rise of the Communist regime. Chinese resolve and practicality kicked in and now the giant has stirred economically and the world will never be the same as it was 50 years ago..

PRESENTS by POST...and the POKIES - plus a PARTY POSTSCRIPT - Indulge me a little as I relate a few personal poppets from early April!

AN INDIVIDUAL'S VIEW - THE "A - Z" - OF PAPER MONEY! (Part 2.) - The conclusion of the A-Z of the editor's accumulation of world banknotes.

A selection of illustrations of not-so-well-known national notes.

COIN SHORTAGES and the AMERICAN COLONIES - Like Australia and other English outposts of past eras, the fledgling American colonies had problems with the shortage of specie at the everyday level - They also did what they had to do to concoct a supply of small change!

 

Issue 6. June 2014:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june14.htm

HOW COLLECTORS FIND THE THINGS THEY COLLECT!(2) - Another look at how collections can start - a little desire and imagination can start us on a lifetime journey. However, a fluke - an undreamed of opportunity - can be as good a way as any well-thought-out plan!  Lets start looking at 'A'

'OLDE WORLD! - NEW WORLD! - Reminisces and a forecast! Changing attitudes and the way we handle cash are about to alter forever the way we live.

T.N.S. MEDALLIONS _ EXCESS FOR SALE - 'Excess to requirement'  - some extra  medallion stock has been discovered and is detailed for sale.

GET WELL, JERRY ADAMS! - Our long-time member has been poorly of late! We wish him a speedy recovery!.

 

JULY - DECEMBER 2014

Issue 6. July 2014:-

TIMETABLE TO DISASTER - It was like dominos falling!The events at Sarejavo on 28th. June 1914 lead to a great conflict on a scale of horror and tragedy that the world had never seen previously. The consequences of this conflict and the period of nervous peace that followed - within a financial context - were long-ranging and were harbingers of further international disaster within 21 years for another generation to bear.

CANCELLATION OF EVENTS - The 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' has advised that it has -reluctantly - cancelled its series of Coin Fairs scheduled for the final half of 2014 due to circumstances beyond its control.

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'NUMISNET WORLD'

(INTERNET EDITION)

COPYRIGHT.

The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.

 

The 'NumisNet World'’ (Internet Edition) newsletter has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented free on a monthly basis with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics. Whilst the 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter abides by the same basic guidelines originally suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter, it is a separate, independent publication.

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, email or hand delivered, directly to financial members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions.

All titles and matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society

 

Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.

Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Editor. 

ALL comments in linked articles are the responsibility of the original authors.

Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, any Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations -  or  - (2) To provide additional important information. 

 

Some illustrated items - including their designs and packaging -  may be subject to existing copyright restrictions.

In such instances, they may not be replicated or their images reproduced or republished - unless prior permission is sought from, and given by, the originator, owner or licensee of such item, design or packaging.

 

PRIVACY PROTECTION

The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter complies with the Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act.

Under this act, information about individuals can be stored and published only if: the information is already contained in a publicly available document or if personal information has been provided by the individual to whom the information relates, and if that individual is aware of the purposes for which the information is being collected.

All information published by the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter is either publicly available, or has been voluntarily provided by writers, on request from the Editor of the ''NumisNet World'  (Internet Edition) newsletter.

While the ''NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter may hold writers' addresses and other details for the purposes of communication and copyright protection, it will never make such addresses or details available to any member of the public without the permission of those involved.

The 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter also respects the privacy of our readers. When you write to us with comments, queries or suggestions, you may provide us with personal information including your contact address or other relevant information. Your personal information will never be made available to a third party without permission.

 

DISCLAIMER

All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned. 

The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. Deadline for any literary contributions, or amendment to copy, is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication.

 

The Editor,

Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.

Australia.

Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

Email: pwood@vision.net.au

 

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