Volume 10 Issue 7 INTERNET EDITION July 2005.
The name 'Tasmanian Numismatist' is used with the permission of the Executive Committee of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' however, any comments published in this privately produced newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society', its Executive Committee or its members. Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, the Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations and, (2) to provide additional important information.
Any notices of concern to 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' members will be included in the 'Society Snippets' section.
We trust that this issue of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) newsletter will continue to provide interesting reading.
TASMANIAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY
Anyone who wishes to apply for membership to the non-profit making organization, and who is prepared to abide by the rules of the Society and its aim of promoting the study and enjoyment of the hobby of numismatics, should contact the following address for an application form and details of subscriptions:
Tasmanian Numismatic Society.
G. P. O. Box 884J
In late May - just too late for the June issue Society Snippets - a pair of tired but happy travellers arrived back in Tasmania from a wonderful overseas holiday that encompassed Turkey, Egypt, England and France. Jill and Roger McNeice attended the Anzac ceremony at Gallipoli, where Jill was a participant in the Australian National Choir, and, after the Choir committment was fulfilled, the couple relaxed and did their version of the Grand Tour in reverse. Of course, Roger wouldn't be Roger if he didn't have a brief look at a few coins - particularly at the British Museum when they arrived in London - and, with his passion for reference books, I've been told his bags were holding close to their carrying capacity on the return trip. I had offered to carry his bags prior to the commencement of the trip but he seemed to think that Jill would manage OK!
In a phone conversation on their return, it was obvious to me that they had enjoyed themselves immensely - a brief encounter with a travel 'bug' notwithstanding - and,
no doubt, when things settle down, some interesting tales about camels, bazaars and other places visited. may be forthcoming to fellow members.
"AUSTRALIAN POCKET CHANGE!"
A few weeks ago, I received an email note from T.N.S. Associate Member, Ian Hartshorn, advising me that his self-published book 'Australian Pocket Change', mentioned in our last issue, was actually released in its final form in early June.
I had reviewed Ian's rough draft some time ago during its planning stages and found it covered a market niche in Australian decimal varieties and errors that, previously, was being addressed in an ad hoc way since the interest in varieties was revived by Mos Byrnes a few years ago.
On the receipt of a courtesy copy of this neat little (15cm x 21cm.) pocket-sized book, directly from Ian, I now have something a lot more substantial to work with.
The finished literary product has an ample amount of good clear b/w illustrations, plus some coloured pics located inside the covers, to show the beginner, in particular, what to be aware of in the decimal range of Australian varieties and mint errors. A more than adequate, descriptive text explains the various phenomenan on a great number of coins already discovered during the period from 1966 - 2004, and, as Ian himself explains, the search for varieties and mint errors is a continuous one and will be for as long as coins are produced.
I also learnt that this 32 page First Edition is very limited and is moving fast - so be warned!
Variety and error specialists, both national and international, will snap these up - but all Australian coinage collectors should try to obtain a first edition copy as a benchmark in this area of our hobby.
Whilst the retail price of AUS$10.00 incl. standard postage is geared to please the frugal-minded, a two book purchase can be obtained for even less at only AUD$17.00 incl. standard postage and, even though it is early days as far as this re-newed aspect of the hobby is concerned, the small outlay will provide collectors with the foundation within the Decimal coinage section that should be taken advantage of.
For those members who also wish to obtain a copy or two, Ian should be contacted either by post or email ASA.P
Refer: http://members.optusnet.com.au/~ihartshorn/pcbook.htm for full details.
PO Box 6077 Karingal
Victoria 3199 Australia.
WHEN IN SYDNEY.
The Winter NUMI$NEWS 2005, from our recommended dealer friend M.R. Bob Roberts of Sydney , arrived a week ago and as usual the list of 'goodies' was mouth-watering. Bob actually opens six days a week and welcomes and treats our T.N.S. members with consideration any time they are in Sydney and care to look him up to obtain any of those great buys. Of course, Bob and his trained numismatic staff also appreciate the other direct forms of contact by phone or letter and still offer the excellent service that has been the business' trademark for many years. Give him a ring if you are in the city and looking for a special deal or ask him to send a free copy of Numi$News for those times when mail ordering is contemplated. All current Mint products are at Mint prices.
Wynyard Coin Centre
7 Hunter Arcade, Sydney. N.S.W. 2000
Phone:(02) 9299 2047 Fax: (02) 9290 3710.
SCRATCH BOX TREASURES!
A chance remark about 'scratch-boxes' at coin fairs and markets prompted a few rough stickman drawings between the Editor and T.N.S. member Jerry Adams.
Jerry, in turn, mentioned the idea to fellow Texan, token-collecting cartoonist and friend, Bob Smith - who has received honorable mention in this newsletter on several previous occassions - and lo and behold, a developed cartoon arrived by post in time for this issue. I believe the same cartoon will be published in 'Talkin' Tokens' the official journal of the National Token Collectors Association (NTCA) in due course. Thanks Bob and Jerry!
Details of the NTCA of America can be found on Jerry Adams' home site. Refer: http://members.fortunecity.com/tokenguy/tokentales/page59.htm
Jerry Adams' token collecting friend and cartoonist, Bob Smith of the NTCA, with an impression of how some might view a 'scratch-box'.
© Bob Smith 2005
For those who are unfamiliar with the term 'scratch-box' it usually refers to the box of assorted coins or tokens that most dealers have to cater for the collector who likes to scratch around trying to find an undiscovered treasure amongst the dross of circulated accumulations. Many collectors also have their own 'scratch-box' containing second-grade or spare items that they use as 'swappers' on occasion. Of course, cat-fanciers have another version of a 'scratch-box'............
by Graeme Petterwood © 2005
Remember - be astute when you are handed change - not all the wonders of numismatics have been discovered yet - and they don't have to be shiny and new!
This edition again features an assortment of 'trivia' that I think is of interest and I trust it will prove educational and entertaining to you as well. All or any prices quoted in articles in this newsletter, unless stipulated, are my estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Please note that the photoscans of numismatic items are not to true size nor enhanced, as - wherever possible - they are from the editor's own collection.
JUGO ---- WHERE?
This area of Europe where West meets East is still known as the Balkans - a Turkish phase that means 'mountains' - and it has traditionally been an area of dissent brought about mainly by ethnic intolerance and religious differences that have turned to hatred. Refer: http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/map/yugoslavia/
The first Dinars were introduced in Serbia in 1875 - they replaced the Piastres formerly used by the failing Ottoman Empire.
Ottoman Coinage (Turkey)
1856 (AH1255 - Year 17 Abdul Mejid) Copper 20 Para - 1/2 Piastre
1914 (AH1327 - Year 5 Muhammad V) Nickel 5 Para - 1/8 Piastre
In 1918 the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenians was founded and was to be known as Jugoslavia* and, from 1920, the Dinar became the national currency of all the Kingdom.
Serbian 100 Dinars (Dinara) dated 1st May 1941 o/p on Kingdom of Jugoslavian 1929 note
Due the rampant inflation during World War II, the war-fractured kingdom was taken in hand by former military strongman and Communist, Marshall Josip Broz Tito, who then tied the autonomous states of Slovenia, Croatia, Albania, Vojvodina, Kosovo, Macedonia and Serbia into a people's republic to be again known as Jugoslavia and a new encompassing dinar was introduced to replace the individual 'nationalistic' dinar currencies in use and to stabilise the chaotic financial situation.
Various denominations of Jugoslavian Dinar currency issued from 1955
In 1966, a revalued dinar with a ratio of 1:100 against the old dinar was introduced as the financial chaos that was still haunting the country, threatenened to spiral out of control. Greater Jugoslavia was held together under Tito's iron-fisted control but, when he died in 1980, it was feared that the whole confederation would collapse, however, it staggered on for another 12 years before it shattered with horrendous results. The story is now well documented in history and it will not be repeated in this article.
1985 Jugoslavian commemorative 5000 Dinars (Dinara) featuring Marshall Josep Tito
After the tragic civil war and the genocide of the 1990's, another series of new Dinars were issued for the reconstructed Jugoslavia - which is now recognised as the co-operating republics of Serbia and Montenegro - and their rate was tied to the Geman Mark.
Other republics that had made up the Greater Jugoslavia have now attained national independence or are only tied to each other by financial necessity.
(For instance, the Slovenian Tolar (198.38 to the US Dollar) and the Serbian Dinars currency are both used in Slovenia. The Dinar is worth three times the Tolar)
In 2000, yet another series of Dinar banknotes were issued by the Serbian-Montenegro coalition and allowed to float on the currency market and currently have settled at, approximately, 68.26 Serbian Dinars to the US Dollar.
The timeline from 1900 shows the turmoil that has always been part of the region since ancient times.
The Balkans is the area that - rightly or wrongly - that can be called the melting pot of European and Asian cultures.
In 1900, the northern section of the Balkans was controlled by the forces and allies of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and consisted of Serbia, Romania, Montenegro, Bulgaria with the Ottoman Empire and Greece taking the southern and much of the eastern borders. By 1913, just prior to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Serbia, the area was still relatively unchanged except that Serbia had expanded considerably and Albania had been formed to fill the void of the Ottoman Empire which had, by then, retreated into the area where Turkey is today. The outcome of WWI and the defeat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire had a profound effect on the area and many boundaries were redrawn and the result was that the Balkans then consisted of only 5 main countries if we include Greece. The amalgamation of Serbia and Croatia was known as Jugoslavia, and Albania, Romania and Bulgaria made up the balance.
By 1941, the map had changed once more and Jugoslavia had fragmented back into the national areas of Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, with Albania and Bulgaria and Greece making up the Balkans.
With the turmoil of the Second World War, many of the Balkans states also fell apart once more or emerged again along political, etnic and religious lines and in 1945 the makeup of the area was shared by Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Vojvodina and Macedonia - which had cut away from Greece to the south.
In 1989, Romania, which had fallen into the Soviet bloc of nations after the war, had overthrown, tried and executed most of the autocratic regime led by Nikolae and Elana Ceausescu and their families, and declared its independence and by 1991 was issuing its own Lei currency.
1991 Romanian 500 Lei featuring sculptor Constantin Brancusi and 1992 200 Lei featuring biologist- botanist Gregoire Antipan
The 1990's saw the further unraveling of the Jugoslvian Federation and a tremendous amount of change in the defined borders but the ethnic participants remained unchanged, in the main, even though several of the states declared their independence. Bosnia became Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia became Fyron. It was during this time that the simmering religious and ethnic unrest spilled over into vicious retribution and genocide, in terms of thousands, and ethnic cleansing occured in opposing areas particularly in Bosnia.
The intervention of the NATO alliance was taken as a last resort to halt the genocide and an uneasy peace was restored by force of arms.
The current situation is that Serbia and Montenegro have a lose coalition, whilst Albania, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Fyron (Macedonia) exist as autonomous nations within the Balkans area once known as Jugoslavia.
1991 - 1993 Croat Dinars - in 1994 the denomination name Dinar was changed to Kuna
Slovenia 10 & 50 Tolars (Tolarjev) - issued 1990
* I have chosen to use the spelling Jugoslavia instead of Yugoslavia due to the fact that it is how it is presented on the currency.
Main Reference and Recommended Reading.
BBC History File - Yugoslavia. Refer: http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/map/yugoslavia/
THE PERPETUAL GRADING DISCUSSION.
This is a topic that should have been included in our last issue about Australian coinage. Just perhaps, Australia does needs to develop its own iconic method of grading our coins in an individual and more sophisicated way as the American have done, particularly in the higher grades. This encore article is a reminder of what might be.....
'A 'True Blue' Australian Grading System- Perhaps!'
Once upon a time the average collector was the bloke off the street who did it because he liked to! If the coins or notes looked good to him - they were!
He'd scratch off any dirt or verdigris from his 'special' coins with a sharp needle or a rusty nail, and then he'd polish them with steel-wool and Brasso until they shone like stars and, finally, he'd pop them into an old screwtop 'Vegemite' jar with his old mismatched cuff-links and tie-pins.
He would often warm rinse and steam-iron his old and crinkled banknotes, and throw them into an old toffee or biscuit tin, with a rubber-band around them for safe-keeping, before he'd stash them away, (with his 'Vegemite' jar) in the bottom drawer of the bedroom wardrobe so they would definitely become family heirlooms and 'be worth a fortune in years to come!'
And if you asked him, 'What condition are they in?' he'd always reply, 'Bonza, mate!'
Bearing all this in mind, I would like to suggest that we look seriously at devising a grading system to suit those average collectors who are still with us.
So perhaps we could start with:
'Not Worth a Brass Razoo' - meaning - worse than 'Crook'
'Crook '- meaning - real lousy. (AG3) Poor.
'Not Bad' - meaning - not good. (G4) Good.
'Orright' - meaning - good. (VG8) Very Good.
'Bonza' - meaning - pretty good! (F12) Fine.
'Grouse' - meaning - real good! (VF30) Very Fine.
'Extra Grouse' - meaning - extra good! (EF45) Extra Fine
'Bewdy orright' - meaning - excellent! (AU58) aUnc.
'Little Ripper' - meaning - seen nothin' better! (MS67) Unc.
'Watta-Ripper! - meaning - ya sure it's real? (MS70) Proof.
These 'accurate' verbal descriptions have been used for years by true-blue Aussies, at all levels, to clarify their innermost thoughts on any type of subject matter, and they should be given the consideration they deserve when any new Australian grading system is closer to fruition.
(The word 'Mate' after each description is optional except for 'Watta-Ripper' - which stands alone, except for a low whistle of genuine appreciation.)
In the meantime, at the average Aussie collector correspondence level, we could use the new suggested numismatic abbreviations :
NWBR, C, NB, O, B, G, EG, BO, LR and WR!
We might choose to have 'Not Quite' (NQ) or 'Better'n' (Bn) to cover some of the 'in-betweens' in the middle gradings.( e.g. Coins in BnG ('Better'n Grouse') but NQEG ('Not Quite Extra Grouse') condition would probably be a rarity, and very acceptable, to our average collector!)
I'm quite sure that, between us, we should be able to produce something uniquely Australian!
BASIC EXCHANGE RATES
For those of us who buy a little on the international market I have updated our basic Exchange Rate trend details as a matter of interest and remind readers to watch the currency that is being quoted these days or you could inadvertently get your fingers burnt if you are an Internet auction user.
The strength, or otherwise, of the Euro, English Pound and Australian Dollar against the U.S. Dollar is seeing vendors playing the currency market more frequently.
Have a look at the comparison between mid- April; mid November 2004 and early June 2005. These rate trend results are rounded to the nearest cent or penny.
For further details refer: http://quote.yahoo.com/m5?a=1&s=ILS&t=AUD
Exchange rates 10th April 2004:
US$1.00 = €0.83 A$1.00 = €0.63 GB£1.00 = €1.51
€1.00 = US$1.21 €1.00 = A$1.58 €1.00 = GB£0.66
Exchange rates 18th November 2004
US$1.00 = €0.77 A$1.00 = €0.78 GB£1.00 = €1.86
€1.00 = US$1.30 €1.00 = A$1.67 €1.00 = GB£0.70
Exchange rates 6th June 2005
US$1.00 = €0.82 A$1.00 = €0.62 GB£1.00 = €1.48
€1.00 = US$1.23 €1.00 = A$1.61 €1.00 = GB£0.67
Due to the threat of computer viruses that were forecast to hit the Internet system on January 1st. 2000, the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' felt obliged to purge its archives from 1996 and placed them on disc for safe-keeping prior to the arrival of the dreaded 'Millennium Bug'.
Whilst we felt that the decision was a very wise one at the time, the information contained in that 4 years of newsletter issues became inaccessible to readers, except by request. Even though Internet links are still directed to the old newsletter pages from various Search Engines they will turn up blank..
In an effort to satisfy those readers and new collectors who have requested that some of the articles be again made available for research, we have decided to update and re-illustrate a selection of the most popular stories and re-publish them and get them back into the current system.
THE FACES ON THE AUSSIE PAPER NOTES
Once upon a time, not that long ago, Australia had a pleasantly simple range of paper banknotes that had persisted since 1923 without much change.
Regretably, I do not have a sample of the earliest or the high denomination notes that heralded the start of our currency range and, as some are rather expensive and hard to come by, I suggest that the purchase of a quality catalogue would be a good investment for your numismatic library.
On the obverse. we always had a portrayal of our reigning English monarch's head and the necessary signatures etc., and on the reverse we usually had a pretty picture or a representation of our nation's wealth. Several examples are available below that give the general set-up of those older notes which are graduated in size,
Our Australian currency notes have not had time yet to attain the long historical background as some from the older countries have done; but we are gradually compiling a series of notes that will prove to be just as unique and as interesting as any in the world!
For many years, the early Australian's made do with a system of high-risk 'promissory notes', which were basically just a form of I .O. U. and then, as the colonies gained sovereign status and the country started to boom with the discovery of commercial quantities of gold in the early 1850's, the issues of banknotes from over fifty different privately owned banks became the accepted method of handling the states' business transactions.
At 1.00 p.m. on 1st. January 1901, in Sydney, after the Australian states had begrudgingly agreed to relinquish some of their sovereign powers in the common interest, the new Commonwealth of Australia was created when Australia's first Governor-General, Lord Hopetoun gave the oath of allegiance to Prime Minister, Edmund Barton before a crowd of 150,000 in Centennial Park in sweltering heat.
Hopetoun had contracted Typhoid fever in India during his trip to Australia and was still quite ill at the time, but the arrangements had been made and he was forced to endure the long political rhetoric, without let-up, even to the point of near collapse.
The new Federal Government had been formed on 25th. December 1900, and was to reside in Melbourne, the temporary Federal capital of Australia, until a more suitable site was found. The Federal Parliament was officially opened by the Duke of Cornwall and York, (later King George V) on 9th.May 1901, in front of 14,000 invited guests in Melbourne's Exhibition Building amongst public disquiet in regard to the sky-rocketing costs of the celebrations.
Lord Hopetoun ended up short-changed by the House of Representatives who disallowed his entertainment account of 25,000 Pounds, and left him personally out of pocket by 15,000 Pounds. He eventually resigned as Governor-General and returned to England two years later - a sick man- after battling unsuccessfully for compensation. He died six years later.
Federation ceremony, Melbourne's Centennial Park - 1.00p.m. on 1st. January 1901.
Opening of Federal Parliament, Melbourne's Exhibition Building on 9th May 1901.
During the many conventions held prior to federation, the state Premiers had made the decision to authorise the new Federal Government to issue a uniform currency which, amongst other things, reflected our standing as an individual nation and no longer a collection of colonies subject to direct British rule.
It took another nine years before the scheme actually got under way, and even then it was an ad hoc arrangement that utilised remainder issues of obsolete notes bought up from the private banks and overprinted with the government authorisation to make them legal tender!
By 1912 the only notes still being overstamped for use were those from the National Bank of Australia.
In 1913, the first Commonwealth of Australia Ten Shilling notes were printed by the British firm of Waterlow and Sons in their Melbourne premises at King's Warehouse, from plates made by another British company, Bradbury, Wilkinson and Co. Under the supervision of T. S. Harrison, the Government appointed printer, a further three denominations were issued in that year - the One Pound, Five Pound and the Ten Pound.
The large denomination notes ranging from 20, 50, 100 and 1000 Pound were all in circulation by 1914 and continued until 1938 when the 20 Pound was withdrawn, followed by the 50 and 100 Pound in 1945. (The 1000 Pound note had been withdrawn from general circulation on June 30th. 1915, and was then only used as an internal payment note between banks for reconciliation of accounts- all known stocks were destroyed in 1969.)
The remaining Imperial denominations were to be continued, with only the necessary changes in the designs occurring when the monarch, or government, passed away - that is until the major shake-up when decimal currency arrived in 1966, and a completely new philosophy was adopted
1928 Half Sovereign - Riddle/Heathershaw
1934 Ten Shillings - Riddle/Sheehan.
King George V - Depiction of Manufacture reverse.
1927 One Pound - Riddle/Heathershaw
King George V - Depiction of Capt. James Cook landing at Botany Bay reverse.
From 1933 onwards, the designs of King George V were altered, and re-coloured in some imstances, on all the basic denominations. At his death in 1936, these new designs continued to be issued for a period until the Australian currency of King George VI started to be realeased in 1938 - 40. At that time, the only alterations made were of the monarch's effigy and the signatories. In the case of the Ten Shillings, the 1/2 (signifying Half Sovereign) that appeared on the reverse of the 1933 - 34 King George V notes (shown above) had been replaced in 1936 by the number 10 to represent 10 Shillings (see below)
It is interesting to note that, on the Ten Shilling notes, the watermarks under both signatures read HALF as if to hold on to the idea of its traditional fractional worth against the old Sovereign. All other higher denomination notes in these pre-decimal series contain watermarks, denoting the note value in writing, located beneath the signatures, and a Capt. James Cook watermark in the apparent blank area. On some of the paper-note scans below, these watermarks are faintly visible.
1942 Ten Shillings - Armitage/McFarlane
King George VI - Depiction of Manufacture (re-coloured note) reverse.
1938 One Pound - Sheehan/McFarlane
King George VI - Depiction of Pastoral Wealth reverse.
1941 5 Pounds - Armitage/mcFarlane
King George VI - Depiction of Commerce reverse.
1943 Ten Pounds - Armitage/McFarlane
King George VI - Depiction of Agriculture reverse.
However, after the death of King George VI, in 1952, and the crowning of Queen Elizabeth II, the Australian Government took the opportunity, in 1953, to update our currency. In the process, our government also made a deliberate start on severing our traditional economic and political ties with England who had, in fact, already been deserting us for closer European trade involvement.
It was also the start of our own tradition of recognising figures of Australian importance in the most public of places-on our money!
The following thumb-nail sketch of these 'faces' on our paper banknotes is intended to answer the question of why these pioneers were worthy of this gesture of recognition, and to remind us that we are a nation that has grown in stature because of their efforts!
It should be noted that in 1961 the responsibility of note issue was handed to the Reserve Bank of Australia and, in all instances, the signatories of currency at the time of the changeover from the Commonweath Bank of Australia remained unchanged.
1954 Ten Shillings - Coombs/Wilson (Commonwealth Bank of Australia)
Matthew Flinders - Old Parliament House, Canberra reverse.
The early English explorer Matthew Flinders (1774-1814), who was born in Lincolnshire, graced our Ten Shilling note from July 1953, while Indian-born Englishman Charles Sturt (1795-1869) and Hamilton Hume (1797-1873) who, individually and then as a team, opened up our vast interior river systems for exploitation by the rural community, shared the reverse of our One Pound note from October 1953.
Because of our short history, many of the famous faces on our Elizabeth II notes were still English, with Hamilton Hume the earliest exception.
Hume was born at Parramatta in New South Wales on June 18th. 1797, and he has the honour of being our first Australian-born European explorer.
1961 One Pound - Coombs/Wilson (Reserve Bank of Australia)
H.M. Queen Elizabeth II - Charles Sturt & Hamilton Hume portraiture reverse.
Other famous explorers and pioneers, such as the world renowned Sir John Franklin (1786-1854), who like Flinders had been born in Lincolnshire, England, and our first Governor, Arthur Phillip (1738-1814), appeared on our Five Pound and Ten Pound notes respectively, but all these gentlemen suffered the same fate, of being put away as numismatic collectables, with the advent of decimal currency on February 14th. 1966.
1954 Five Pounds - Coombs/Wilson (Commonwealth Bank of Australia)
Sir John Franklin - Agricultural bounty and Aboriginal artifacts reverse.
1954 Ten Pounds - Coombs/Wilson (Commonwealth Bank of Australia)
Governor Arthur Phillip - Signs of Industry, Science and the Arts reverse. The model was Karina Nartiss (nee Sar) originally from Latvia (1925 - 1985)
The story of the late Karina Nartiss (nee Sar) was originally told in the Australian Coin Review of July 1988, but well-known currency expert , numismatist extraordinaire and prolific author, Mick Vort-Ronald, has recently reminded us of her involvement with the last paper 10 Pound note.
At that time, Karina, who had been trained as a dancer, was earning a living as a professional photograhic model, and she received a 10 Guinea payment (AUD$21.00) for the pose, in classical ballet robes, on March 22nd. 1952. She had no artist's copyright entitlements (they were signed over to the Commonwealth Bank of Australia as part of the deal) and she was not even told of the purpose of the photographs until just prior to the release of the note.
No credit of her involvement was ever publicly given out until 1988.
The Australasian Coin & Banknote Magazine Volume 8, Issue 5 June 2005 features Mick's brief revival of her story - and, by putting it on record once again, it will probably be enough to ensure her place in Australian numismatic history.
DECIMALS ON PAPER
The Queen's effigy, as part of the note design, had persisted on our pre-decimal One Pound note, but she was relegated to adorn only our lowest denomination One Dollar note as we started to exert our new sense of national identity that coincided with the change from the old staid English Imperial style currency to the hustle and bustle of the Decimals of the modern world!
As a reflection of our continent's past history, depictions of Aboriginal paintings were incorporated into the iconic Emu and Kangaroo bearing Australia's 1912 Coat-of-Arms and they also graced the reverse of our lowest value paper note in the form of a Mourning ritual of the Manurrnu tribe painted by Aboriginal artist, Malangi.
This note design remained in force from 1966 - 1984 and like the other paper issues only had one major change - and that was in the deletion of the logo COMMONWEALTH of AUSTRALIA to just AUSTRALIA in 1974.
1979 One Dollar - Knight/Stone (Australia)
H.M. Queen Elizabeth II obverse. - Aboriginal artwork (by Malangi) reverse.
John Macarthur (1767-1834), born in Devonshire, England and dying as a 'lunatic with little hope of restoration', on April 11th. 1834, was shown on the obverse of our Two Dollar note. Macarthur, started his life in Australia as a professional soldier and in 1793 gained an important, though unpaid position, as Inspector of Public Works, after serving as the New South Wales Regimental Paymaster. The position gave Macarthur access to resources, such as convict labour, that he used to his advantage over the years, to develop his private Merino flock and carry out his sheepbreeding experiments, which doubled the yield of wool per sheep.
During his lifetime, until his mental health failed completely, he exercised a huge influence on the political and economic development of early Australia, although he was disliked by most of those who knew him because of his haughty attitude.
However, his successes in breeding the superior wool-bearing sheep were recognised in England and the colony, when he was awarded thousands of extra acres in land grants near his estate at Camden Park, where he was later buried.
William Farrer, who was born in Westmorland, England on April 3rd. 1845, is featured on the reverse. Farrer pioneered scientific wheat production and, after many years of patient research, he was able to develop several new strains of disease resistant wheat by cross breeding.
He passed away in 1906 knowing he had left Australia's wheat producing industry as a world leader in this field of agricultural expertise.
1979 Two Dollars - Knight/Stone (Australia)
John Macarthur obverse. - William Farrer and wheat reverse..
The first of our Five Dollar notes featured famous botanist Sir Joseph Banks, born in London on February 13th. 1743, who, as a major financial contributor to Capt. James Cook's voyage of discovery in 1770, may have bought himself the right to be one of the first Englishmen to have set foot on Terra Australis, but then earned his spot on the obverse of this popular value note by way of his Australian botanical discoveries.
The first woman depicted on Australian notes, besides Queen Elizabeth II, was Caroline Chisholm (nee Jones) (1808-1877) who was born near Northampton, England and who was a tireless worker for destitute women and other downtrodden members of the early Australian settlements. Her story is one of perseverance against the appalling conditions that governmental inaction had allowed to develop in the cities and goldfields of colonial Australia.
It must be noted that of all those pioneers that disappeared with the advent of our new plastic notes, Caroline Chisholm was the one that was missed enough for complaints to be made when she went from the reverse of our Five Dollars.
1969 Five Dollars - Phillips/Randell (Commonwealth of Australia)
Sir joseph Banks obverse. - Catherine Chisolm reverse.
The obverse of our Ten Dollars from February 14th. 1966 was graced with the elegant portrait of architect Francis Greenway (1777-1837), who was born near Bristol, England. Greenway earned his place on our currency due to the fine contributions he made to Australian architecture. Many of his buildings still stand around Sydney and bear witness to his innovative ideas in design.
In 1815, at the age of 27, Greenway had even suggested the concept of a bridge to span Sydney Harbour, but no plans were drawn up and his idea languished until well after his death.
It wasn't until 1857, that the first of a series of definite plans started to be submitted by others who realised the wisdom of Greenway's idea, but economics and wars always seemed to hold the project back. Construction of the world famous bridge eventually began in 1923 and it was completed and opened in 1932 after an incident filled ceremony.
It is ironic that Greenway arrived in Australia as a convict, whose death penalty for forgery had been commuted to 14 years transportation to N.S.W. and that, in 1966, when 'his' notes were issued they were the ones that were subject to counterfeiting on a large scale!
1972 Ten Dollars - Phillips/Wheeler (Commonweath of Australia)
Francis Greenway obverse. - Henry Lawson reverse.
As its reverse, the Ten Dollar note has the famous home-grown, but ill-fated, poet and story teller, Henry Lawson (1867-1922) as its featured Australian.
Henry was born in a tent near Grenfell, New South Wales, on June 17th. 1867, the son of a Norwegian seaman- turned farmer, Peter Larsen, who had changed his name to Lawson. Constantly ill during his childhood, Henry had been left permanently deaf and found it so difficult to learn, because of his time off and his disability, that he left school at 14 after only attending for about 5 years.
Poorly educated, and eventually leaving a broken home to be on his own at 15, he lived 'rough' and developed a drinking problem that stayed with him for all his life.
Lawson's early experiences in rural 'outback' Australia gave him particularly vivid, and sometimes poignant, memories which he turned into prose that caught the eye and heart of the public when published in the 'Bulletin' magazine during the late 1880's.
His seven year old marriage failed in 1903, because of his alcoholism, and he died on Sept. 2nd. 1922 and was buried in Sydney's Waverley Cemetery.
The next Australian to be featured on our Twenty Dollars was that intrepid aviator, Sir Charles Kingsford Smith (1897-1935), who had established, or broken, all sorts of long distance flying records during his short, spectacular lifetime.
On January 3rd. 1907, the newly invented Australian life-saver's reel had only been in operation for 11 days when it was used to rescue several young boys from the sea at Bondi, one of Sydney's most famous surfing beaches.
One of the lads was a Charles Smith of Yates St. North Sydney,- 'Smithy', as he was affectionately called, had been born in Brisbane, Queensland on February 9th.1897 and, as fate would have it, he was destined to die in the sea, with his co-pilot J.T.(Tommy) Plethybridge, 38 years later when his famous plane the 'Southern Cross' disappeared into the Bay of Bengal on November 8th. 1935.
Awarded the Military Cross during the First World War at the age of 20, Smithy went on to receive a knighthood in 1932 for his services to aviation.
1991 Twenty Dollars - Fraser/Cole (Australia)
Sir Charles Kingsford Smith obverse. - Lawrence Hargrave reverse.
Another pioneer, and unfortunately one who was not given due recognition for his great contributions to aviation history, was Lawrence Hargrave (1850-1915).
Born in Greenwich, England on January 29th. 1850, Hargrave arrived in Australia in 1866 and by the age of 33 he had become so obsessed with the problems of flight that he retired from his job as an assistant astronomical observer to concentrate on his obsession!
His inventions and working models were highly valued overseas, particularly in Germany, but here in Australia he was regarded as an eccentric and his true place in history was not realised until many years later. Lawrence Hargrave wrote, in 1892, 'The people in Sydney who can speak of my work without a smile, are very scarce.'
Millions of lives have been saved by the wonder drug Penicillin, and we realise it took a lot of dedicated work to be able to put it into the hands of doctors all over the world.
In 1928, Sir Alexander Fleming had discovered a mould that appeared to have some medicinal properties but the discovery was allowed to become just a curiosity, until Australian-born Howard Florey (1898-1968) became interested.
Florey was born in Adelaide, South Australia on Sept. 24th. 1898 and was a brilliant student who eventually ended up as Lecturer in Special Pathology at Huddersfield, England. Teaming up with Dr. Ernst Chain, a refugee from Nazi Germany in 1939, Florey worked on developing the potential of the antibiotic drug for Allied servicemen, and for his effort he was knighted in 1944, and took the title of Baron Florey of Adelaide.
By 1943, the Australian Commonwealth Serum Laboratories were producing commercial quantities and Australia became the first country to make penicillin available for civilian use. Both scientists were awarded the Noble Peace Prize for their contributions to Physiology and Medicine in 1945 and Lord Howard Florey reserved his spot on the obverse of our 1973 Fifty Dollar note.
1991 Fifty Dollars - Fraser/Cole (Australia)
Lord Howard Florey obverse. - Sir Ian Clunies Ross reverse.
In an often overlooked area of expertise, Sir Ian Clunies Ross (1899-1959), born at Bathurst, N.S.W. on February 22nd. 1899, earned his spurs the hard way by dedicating his life to the betterment of mankind and ensuring that the quality of veterinary, agricultural and industrial science in Australia was unsurpassed.
Amongst his peers, Ian Clunies Ross was recognised and rewarded for his efforts as the first Director of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (C.S.I.R.O.) which had been reformed in 1949 from the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.I.R.) that had been in operation since 1926.
The Government of Australia also honoured his dedication, as well as the successes that occurred during his time as director of the C.S.I.R.O., by placing his portrait on the reverse of our Fifty dollar note.
Our highest value paper note, the One Hundred Dollars, was issued on March 26th. 1984 and features two extraordinary people that must be classed as direct opposites. The obverse of the note has one our most famous adopted sons, Sir Douglas Mawson as its centrepiece.
Born in Bradford in Yorkshire, England on May 5th. 1882 and arriving in Australia in 1884, (although some records state he was 4 years old) Mawson regarded himself as an Australian and after graduating as a Batchelor of Mining Engineering in 1901 he became intrigued with the Antarctic.
Credited with discovering the first radium bearing ore in Australia and making an extremely difficult ascent of Mt. Kosciusko, he had generated a certain amount of attention which had gained him an invitation to join Ernest Shackleton's scientific team of 1907-9.
He was a member of the first scientific party to climb and explore the crater of 13,000 ft. high Mt. Erebus, as Shackleton made his unsuccessful dash towards the South Pole, and, later, he and Professor (later Sir) Edgeworth David (1848-1934) were the first to reach and record the position of the South Magnetic Pole.
On the return trip of over 1260 miles, by sledge, Professor David became snow-blind, but survived with Mawson's help, to make his own mark in Australian geological circles.
Mawson made several trips to the frozen South in later years that turned into either glorious successes or nightmarish battles for survival.
He returned to Australia, from his 1911-14 expedition, after being the survivor of a walk of some 300 miles in atrocious conditions (some records state 100 miles), which also included a fall into a crevice on 17th. January 1913. His two companions had perished during the fierce Antarctic storms that had lashed the party during a coast mapping trek, and he had to make the return journey unaided and alone.
Knighted in 1914, after his exploits -and naming a large chunk of Antarctica after King George V, Sir Douglas Mawson continued to visit Antarctica when he could and made his last journey in 1931 to do research on radio-active minerals and to check the changing position of the South Magnetic Pole.
Australia's strong Antarctic Territorial claims would not have been possible without the influential assistance of Douglas Mawson and he is considered to be one of our bravest explorers!
It is interesting to note that Mawson was a strong supporter of decimalisation of our currency and made a written approach to the Prime Minister of Australia, William 'Billy' Hughes, in 1919, suggesting that the system be implemented.
His idea was to retain the gold Sovereign as the major unit and the silver florins as tenths.
1991 One Hundred Dollars - Fraser/Cole (Australia)
Sir Douglas Mawson obverse. - John Tebbutt reverse.
John Tebbutt was born at Windsor, N.S.W. on May 25th. 1834 and is probably the only Australian astronomer to have a crater on the moon named after him, as well as one of the two comets that he discovered.
A quiet achiever, Tebbutt was remarkable in that many of his early, great discoveries were made from 'home-made' observatories with rudimentary equipment.
The quality of his astronomical work was recognised by Australia, England and France, who all awarded him with honours.
Tebbutt died at the age of 82 and is buried in his home town, but his memory lived on when he was selected to be the reverse centrepiece of the One Hundred Dollar note.
Main References :
Australian Coin Review. July 1988; Nov. 1993; Nov. 1994; Oct. 1995 and June 1996. issues.
History of World War I. Published by Octopus Books. 1974.
Australia's Yesterdays. Published by Reader's Digest Services. 1974.
The Macquarie Book of Events. Published by Macquarie Library Pty. Ltd. 1984.
Collecting and Investing in Australian Coins and Banknotes. 2nd.Edition. By Greg McDonald. (McDonald Publishing.)
Australia, The First Hundred Years. Published by Summit Books. Paul Hamlyn Pty. Ltd.
A. B. 'Banjo' Paterson's Collected Verse. Published by Angus & Robertson. 1987.
The Australasian Coin & Banknote Magazine. June 2005.
*The Australasian Coin & Banknote Magazine - which now incorporates the 'Australian Coin Review' - has been a long-time supporter of numismatic organisations all over Australia. It is highly recommended by the Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition and, as it is published 11 times per annum, it is always up-to-date with market trends and highly relevant numismatic information. Subscription enquiries can be made at:
The Australasian Coin & Banknote Magazine. (Editor - John Mulhall)
P.O. Box 6313, North Ryde, N.S.W. 2113
Our next issue will 'Encore' the "Who's Who on our Plastic Notes" to complete the currency series.
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