Volume 8 Issue7 INTERNET EDITION July 2003.
We trust that this issue of the Internet Edition will continue to provide interesting reading. The name of this Internet based newsletter is in keeping with the content so, bearing in mind our disclaimers, the Internet links selected are usually complimentary to the featured article in regard to: (1) illustrations and, (2) additional important information. Please also bear in mind that some Internet links are of a temporary nature.
Anyone who wishes to apply for membership to the non-profit making organization, and who is prepared to abide by the rules of the Society and its aim of promoting the study and enjoyment of the hobby of numismatics, should contact the following address for an application form and details of subscriptions:
Tasmanian Numismatic Society.
G. P. O. Box 884J
With the clutches of our Tasmanian winter once more around us we must excuse many of our older members, particularly those who live a fair distance away, who are not inclined to risk life and limb in trying to attend evening meetings in the Hobart area..
The extremely inconsistent and inclement weather in June, has made life difficult, not only for members who live in those effected areas, but also for the Society Committee who are trying to re-establish a more consistent meeting schedule.
As the weather stabilises, no doubt we will also be able to get our great intrastate BBQ meetings back on track.
Now that we are working at an informal level to bypass the on-going public liability insurance problems, T.N.S. members should continue to watch for further meeting information in the bi-monthly 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Tasmanian Edition.
JERRY'S BOOK REVIEWS
As fellow members and regular readers are aware, our first T.N.S. International Life Member, Jerry Remick from Quebec in Canada, has had the misfortune of suffering on-going health problems over the last few years and whilst he has had to slow down somewhat, it has not stopped him from making the effort to review worthwhile publications on our behalf.
The following review was received recently, and it is relevant to collectors who specialise in early modern coinages.
The 'STANDARD CATALOG of WORLD COINS, 18TH CENTURY, 1701 - 1800, THIRD EDITION' by Chester L. Krause and Clifford Mishler - edited by Colin Bruce II was issued in Dec. 2002 by Krause Publications, Iola, Wisconsin.
The soft bound revised catalogue, consisting of 1,272 pages (21 x 27cms) is a solid 5cms. thick.
This edition has 136 more pages than the previous release and it covers all known coins in all metals minted from 1701 - 1800 by date and mint-mark. The 17,900 actual size photographs are of immense value in assisting to identify all types of coins.
As usual, with all STANDARD CATALOGS, the inclusion of composition, weight and fineness tables, up to 5 grades of preservation, numerous references to country of origin geography, politics and a substantial index system are of great use to researchers and collectors alike. Also, in abundance, are aids to identify coins, mints and numerals that may be in foreign script or language.
International inquiries should be directed to:
Krause Publications, PR02
P.O.Box 5009, Iola
Wisconsin 54945 - 5009
(Also refer to Krause Publications Homepage: http://www.krause.com/ for illustrations and additional publications.)
EXCITING NEW 1920 PENNY VARIETY DISCOVERY
Eighth variety of 1920 penny discovered.
The following exciting email was received from well-known varieties expert Jon Saxton - and the news will have everyone reaching for their old penny jars again!
Geoff Raynes, a collector living in Kalgoorlie, W.A.,
has discovered what appears to be a very rare and hitherto undocumented variety
of the 1920
Australian penny. It has a type 1 (London) obverse which is scarce anyway, but the reverse features a dot above the lower scroll. I have examined this coin and can attest to it being genuine.
Eighty-three years after it was struck, Geoff's discovery brings the total number of varieties for the 1920 penny to eight. The following table shows all
of them. All 1920 pennies have a Calcutta reverse pattern so the distinction between them is based solely on the dots which appear above and below the two scrolls.
Obverse Reverse Rarity
London No dot Scarce
London Below lower Scarce
London Above lower Just one specimen recorded
Calcutta No dot Common
Calcutta Below lower Common
Calcutta Above lower Common
Calcutta Above upper Rare
Calcutta Double dot Borderline rare
Far from being just another minor variety, Geoff's discovery may have considerable numismatic significance and may clarify the assignment of dots to
mints as proposed by John Sharples in 1985 and I hope to address this matter fully in a forthcoming article in the Australasian Coin & Banknote Magazine.
Jon Saxton <firstname.lastname@example.org> OS/2 software developer
U.S. agent for Triton Technologies International Ltd
The 'Wanted Known' section of the Internet Edition is provided for information only and we ask that readers refer to our usual disclaimers in reference to any business dealings that may occur between parties. Selected and/or edited items that may be mentioned in the text are re-published with permission.
Dear Sir, Having put together a moderate collection of Australian Communion tokens, including a few from Tasmania, I am interested in communicating with other collectors.
I do have contact with one collector, but am looking for others as well who may be interested in sharing information and knowledge on the subject, including church histories and related collectables. Could you pass along my email address to anyone who may be interested in corresponding, or let me know if there is a better way to arrange contact. I really enjoyed looking at you website and the current newsletter.
Many thanks for any help you are able to give in this matter. Email address: email@example.com
The following e-XONUMIA newsletter messages were received from Bonavita - (which is a division of Eligi Consultants of Canada who are designers, manufacturers and distributors of fine Canadian Municipal Trade Tokens) - and they will be of interested to members and readers who collect these types of MTT's.
Vol. 3 No. 6 - June 4, 2003
NEW LISKEARD, ONTARIO – The post-glacial
era some 8,000 years ago left this area, located some 160 kilometres northwest
of North Bay, on the northwest end of Lake Temiskaming, covered with rich
deposits of clay and top-soil making it ideal for agriculture. Situated at the
mouth of the Wabi River, where it flows into Lake Temiskaming, New Liskeard was
long known to the Algonquin Nation. The Wabigigic family, who the river is named
after, spent many seasons here hunting and trapping.
The white man did not come to the area until 1891 when, two former surveyors from Haliburton, Irwin Heard and William Murray, staked their claims to farm lots along the Wabi River and became the first settlers in what was to become New Liskeard. Simply known as the Wahbe Settlement, the community’s name changed in 1894 to Liskeard after the birthplace in Cornwall, England, of one of the members of the Huntsville Syndicate, involved in the development of the village. The name changed again in 1898 to become Thornloe after Anglican Bishop Thorneloe who had visited the area in 1894. Finally, the name changed to the current New Liskeard in 1903, after much discussion, prior to its incorporation.
The 32-millimetre 2-Dollar token depicts on its obverse the crest of the Corporation of the Town of New Likseard. The legend reads: COMMEMORATIVE COIN on top, and VALUE $2.00 / IN NEW LISKEARD / EXPIRES JULY 6, 2003 / 1903-2003 below the crest. The reverse shows the S.S. Meteor with the legend: 100TH ANNIVERSARY on top, METEOR immediately below the ship and NEW LISKEARD at the bottom. This token was struck in the following metals:
Antique Bronze Plated
Antique Silver Plated
This is the second token struck by New Liskeard, the first one being a 1 Dollar 1978 issued to commemorate the 75th anniversary. It is also available from Bonavita.
TRINITY EAST, NEWFOUNDLAND & LABRADOR – The
Bonaventure English Harbour Development Association (BEDA) announced that it has
issued the first ever municipal trade token for Trinity Bight. “It will
provide a fantastic, unique and affordable souvenir for the tourists coming
through” said Garry Ricketts, the program coordinator for BEDA and its
originator. The 3-Dollar token will have currency value, at participating
merchants in the Bight, until September 15, 2003.
Trinity Bight is located on the Bonavista Peninsula, in the eastern region of Newfoundland. A ‘bight’ is a bend in a coast forming an open bay. Trinity Bight contains twelve communities: (from west to east) New Bonaventure, Old Bonaventure, Trouty, Dunfield, Goose Cove, Trinity, Trinity East, Port Rexton, Champney’s West, Champney’s Arm, Champney’s East and English Harbour. It is a very colourful place with something of interest for people of all ages: icebergs, whales, birds, buildings, the scenery and the people.
The 32-millimetre 3-Dollar token depicts on its obverse a Humpback whale with the legend: 3 DOLLAR a the top and HUMPBACK / WHALE above the whale, and VALID AT PARTICIPATING MERCHANTS UNTIL SEPT. 15, 2003 at the bottom. The reverse shows a map of the Bight. This token was struck in the following metals:
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are baleen whales, with stocky
bodies and flat, broad heads. They are very active, acrobatic whales. They can
throw themselves completely out of the water and swim on their backs with both
flippers in the air. They also engage in ‘tail lobbing’ (raising their huge
fluke out of the water and then slapping it on the surface) and ‘flipper
slapping’ (using their flippers to slap the water). Needless to say, such
behaviour makes for most interesting whale-watching.
Whaling quickly depleted Humpback numbers, and commercial whaling for this species was stopped worldwide by the International Whaling Commission in 1955. The present Northwest Atlantic population is about 3,000 – 4,000 animals. Canada considers the Humpback a threatened species in the North Pacific Ocean.
Vol. 3 No. 8 - June 7, 2003
NANAIMO, BRITISH COLUMBIA — The Loyal Nanaimo Bathtub Society (LNBS) issued a bimetallic 3-Dollar municipal trade token saluting the 100th Anniversary of the Canadian Military Communications community. The token has currency value, at participating merchants, until September 30th. The LNBS has been issuing such tokens as a means of raising funds for community projects since 1969, making this their 35th consecutive issue.
The 32-millimetre 3-Dollar token depicts on its obverse the logo of Canadian Military Communications’ Centennial. The legend reads: LOYAL NANAIMO BATHTUB SOCIETY / SALUTES / $3 / GOOD FOR $3.00 AT PARTICIPATING / BUSINESS UNTIL SEPT. 30, 2003 / 2003 MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS CENTENNIAL. The reverse shows the Loyal Nanaimo Bathtub Society logo consisting of “Little People” in a bathtub boat crowned by the British Columbia flag. The legend reads: (maple leaf) BATHTUB RACING CAPITAL OF THE WORLD (maple leaf) / NANAIMO MARINE FESTIVAL.
“The LNBS also decided to honour each of the individual arms of the military by using appropriate mintmarks at 9 o’clock on the token” explained Ray Desjardins, Vice-President of Eligi Consultants, commissioned with the production, “an anchor was used for the Navy, crossed swords for the Army and the Rondelle for the Air Force. But these were struck in very limited numbers” he concluded. Thus four varieties were created for this year’s token, struck in the following metals:
|Bimetallic, No MM||
|Nickel-Silver, No MM||
|Gold Plated, No MM||
|Gold Plated, Anchor||
|Bimetallic, Crossed Swords||
|Nickel-Silver, Crossed Swords||
|Gold Plated, Crossed Swords||
|Gold Plated, Rondelle||
“These tokens are selling like hot cakes” said Ray Desjardins, “they are almost sold out”.
Those interested should contact Bonavita A.S.A.P. for
details of current availability.
Box 11447, Station H
Nepean, ON K2H 7V1
Telephone: +1.613.823.3844Fax: +1.613.825.3092
The following email was received from Gonzalo ............ from Spain.
Hello Graeme, I am called Gonzalo and alive in Spain, desire to interchange currencies of the world by types, my preference is in 1ºgrado the Oceania, 2ºgrado the Caribbean, 3ºgrado Africa, 4ºgrado Asia, 5ºgrado East Europe, I have 3,000 repeated currencies available to make change, si interests enviame to you a message with list of currencies that you wish and another list with the repeated ones, a warm greeting from Spain . you will say to me of as paises you wish currencies?
Dame answer with which it is, thanks.
Email Address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Literal Translation: Gonzalo ............ of Spain collects world paper money and wishes to make exchanges from areas such as Oceania, Caribbean, Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe, in that order of preference. He sends his greetings and says he can provide a list of his duplicates (he has over 3000) and would like any interested members or readers to send their duplicate or want lists (by country) to him at his email address.
THE AMERICAN BANKNOTES THAT ARE NOT WORTH A PLUGGED NICKEL.
As collectors, we are probably well aware of the fact that the currency of the Confederate States of America was declared valueless by the victorious Union - the United States of America - at the cessation of the War between the States.
A special amendment was even written into the Constitution to forbid redemption of CSA notes (Section 4 - 14th Amendment). Many of the notes we find today are often geometrically 'sliced' with a series of 90 degree 'V' cuts arranged to form a cross (like that made by some cookie-cutters). In my own collection, these cuts are extremely fine so, in most instances, they do not destroy the fabric of the note but still designate their cancellation. They cannot be seen except when held up to the light.
These days, of course, numismatists have created a value that is far in advance of what some of these banknotes were worth just prior to the defeat - and the cut-cancelled notes are quite acceptable if uncut ones are not readily available for a collection.
To give us an idea of how inflation had eroded the CSA currency, a reference from page 535 of Vol. II of 'Jefferson Davis' written by Varina Davis in 1890 gives us a reasonably good idea.
The figures are based on the comparison of the buying power of $100.00 of gold at the beginning of hostilities and the decreasing value of the Confederate States' paper currency until the final surrender.
January 1862 - CSA$120.00
January 1863 - CSA$300.00
January 1864 - CSA$1500.00
January 1865 - CSA$3400.00, February - CSA$5000.00, March - CSA$4700.00, April - CSA$5500.00
CSA $500.00 Richmond issue depicting Lt. General Thomas Jonathan 'Stonewall' Jackson (1824 - 1863).
We often think of CSA currency as those notes issued out of Montgomery, Alabama or Richmond, Virginia during the period 1861 - 1864 but it must be remembered that individual states in the Confederacy also issued Currency, Treasury Warrants, War or Defence Bonds, Auditor's Warrants, Cotton Pledges and even 'Faith of the State' Pledges with redeemable cash values.
Civil War Issues by the Confederate States in order of Secession.
Compiled by Graeme Petterwood. (T.N.S. Member #332).
(Scans of Notes are not to scale).
South Carolina apparently did not issue a special series of notes during this period unlike the other Southern States that issued their own currency to finance the War. South Carolina relied on taxes and bonds of which the Bank of South Carolina was the agent. In turn, the Bank issued currency for circulation. A normal range of Fractional notes as well as Dollar issues with Confederate themes are known to have been printed by the bank.
The Bank of South Carolina 1861 $5.00 note featuring John C. Calhoun, who was ex-Vice President of the United States.
note is dated April 14, 1861, one day after the bombardment and surrender of
Mississippi state notes, with values of 10, 20, 50 and 100 Dollars, were issued from 1861 through to 1863. In 1862 a series known as 'Cotton Pledged' was printed with denominations 1, 2½ (2 styles) 3 (2 styles), 5 (3 styles), 10 (3 styles), 20 (3 styles), 50 (3 styles) and 100 (3 styles) Dollars. This was followed by the series known as 'Faith of the State Pledged' which was overprinted on previously issued notes. The values of these notes ranged from 5 (2 styles), 10 (2 styles), 20 (2 styles), 50 (2 styles) and 100 (2 styles). These style variations were mainly in the colour of the ink used in the overprinting.
During 1864 a 50 Cent, 1, 2, 3, 20 and 50 Dollar state issue was printed and in April 1865 a final 50 Dollar note was issued.
State of Mississippi $50.00 'Cotton Pledged' note 1862.
Florida started issuing notes in Sept. 1861 with a 2 Dollar denomination closely followed in very early October with 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 Dollars. An additional, slightly different 1861 Series with values of 5, 10, 20, 50 (3 styles) and 100 Dollars was issued dated 10th October 1861.The same denominations were issued during 1862 with a new obverse design showing cotton being picked by slaves. An undecorated series of small denomination notes printed to cater for the shortage of coin was brought out in early 1863 with values of 10, 25 and 50 Cents. The final circulating Confederate issues by Florida appeared in early 1863 and covered the range 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 Dollars with various vignettes. It is interesting to note that State of Florida notes printed in December 1864, but dated for issue on 1st January 1865, were almost completely destroyed by the Confederates prior to the surrender.
Alabama did not issue its own currency until 1863. Paper currency in denominations 5, 10, 25, 50 Cents and then 1, 5, 10, 50 (2 styles) and 100 Dollars were issued between 1863 - 64. The 25, 50 Cents and the 1 Dollar were issued in several Series.
Alabama notes were redeemable only in Confederate States Treasury Notes, when presented at the State Treasury in sums of $20 or more. The State of Alabama issued a total of $7,542,680.00 in banknotes and Treasury notes during the War.
Most of the
Alabama State issued notes, with the exception of the $100 and $50 notes, are
Georgia first issued its currency in January 1862 with a series containing 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 Dollars. An austere undecorated series of small denomination notes printed to cater for the shortage of coin was brought out in early 1863 with values of 5, 10, 15 and 20 Cents. More ornate notes of 25 and 50 Cents with vignettes were issued as well.
Between 1863 - 64, denominations of 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 50 and 100 Dollars were printed and issued. During 1864 the issue of April covered values of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 Dollars.
State of Georgia 1863 Uniface 10 Cent note.
Louisiana started to issue its notes dated 24th February 1862 following an Act of 23rd January of that year. The first notes were printed on the blank backs of unissued uniface notes from other states or banks. Several short series were initiated with values of 1, 2 and 3 Dollars. The 'Lazy 5' Dollars issue (shown below) was printed in October 1862. Notes with denominations of 5, 20, 50 and 100 Dollars were issued in March 1863 and a very austere series of 50 Cents (2 styles) and 1 Dollar (5 or 6 Styles) was printed on the backs of New Orleans notes in March 1864.
State of Louisiana 'Lazy 5' Dollars banknote showing the South slaying the North.
This was nicknamed due to the reclining position of the number '5' on the Obverse.
Missouri had declared itself neutral, as other states were seceding from the Union, well before the start of hostilities, but it was forced into joining the Confederacy when heavy handed treatment by the Union forces under General Nathaniel Lyons created a situation that some of the politicians and citizens of the State of Missouri could not tolerate. Lyons had arrested the Missouri State Militia who were camped near St. Louis and then forced the Missouri Governor, Claibourne Jackson, into exile. A civil war broke out between the State Militia and the Union Army and, on November 21st. 1861, Missouri was accepted as the 12th Confederate state. However, Missouri had two 'official' State governments during the Civil War, one seceded from the Union and joined the Confederacy, the other remained loyal to the Union. Missouri supplied 110,000 troops for the Union and a minimum of 40,000 troops to the Confederacy (actual number of Missouri Confederates is unknown as many Missourians joined non-Missouri units).
Confederate Missouri issued notes with values of 1, 2, 3, 5, 10 and 20 Dollars during 1862. Many were printed on the backs of un-issued, various blue coloured, uniface notes or bills of exchange etc. A 'Defence Bond' issue was authorised by an Act of 5th November 1861 to cover denominations of 1, 3, 4, 4.50, 20, 50 and 100 Dollars but apparently no examples are known with genuine signatures - most are unsigned so it is dubious if they were even issued.
Being a politically divided state, several issues of Defence Warrants and Military Bonds were issued in Missouri during 1863 - 66 by those loyal to the Union and mainly featured Union generals - such as Gen. John Pope. These notes, although somewhat similar to some other Treasury Warrants and Defence Bonds, should not be confused with the Confederacy issues.
Texas relied mainly on issues of Treasury Warrants produced under the hand of the Civil Service between 1860 - 64.
Most were relatively austere as shown by the sample below. Warrants with values of 1 (3 styles), 2½, 3, 5 (3 styles), 10 (3 styles), 20 (3 styles), 50 3 styles) and 100 (3 styles) Dollars - and even handwritten denominations were all issued.
Another similar series of Treasury Warrants under the hand of the Military Service was issued during the same time period and the values were also similar - 1, 2½, 3, 5 (2 styles), 10 (3 styles), 20 (3 styles), 50 (3 styles) and 100 (3 styles) Dollars - and again there were a few handwritten denomination notes produced.
State of Texas $20.00 Treasury Warrant dated 1862.
Arkansas, under the Act of 1861, issued Treasury Warrants in values of 5, 10 and 20 Dollars and War Bonds 1, 2, 3, 10 Dollars. In 1862 a series of Auditor's Warrants of 1 and 2 Dollars accompanied another War Bond issue of 1,2 and 3 Dollars. More Auditor's Warrants (some on blue paper) were also issued with handwritten denominations between 1, 2 and 10 Dollars Another issue of War Bonds was also issued in late 1862 and several series of Treasury Warrants of values 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 Dollars became available in 1863.
North Carolina began issuing small value notes in early October 1861 following the Act of 28th June 1861. The first issue covered 5, 10, 20, 25 and 50 Cents. Notes of 1 and 2 Dollars (2 styles) were printed on the backs of uniface un-issued N.C. notes and bonds during this time in October but another issue of the 1 and 100 Dollar denominations notes were printed on new, unused paper.The 1862 issues consisted of several vignette styles of interest bearing Bonds (mostly 6% but with some $20's bearing 8% interest) with face values of 3, 4, 5, 10, 20 and 50 Dollars. Small change paper notes, printed on previously issued uniface banknotes and bonds, covered values of 10 (2 styles), 25, 50 Cents and 1 Dollar.
Another issue of small change notes was issued in 1863 in values of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 Cents - again several denominations were printed on the backs of other notes. Notes of 1, 2, 3, 5 (2 styles), 10, 20 (2 styles) and 50 Dollars were issued also dated 1st. January 1863. A final series of two small value notes were issued dated 1st January, 1864 - a 25 and a 50 Cents.
North Carolina 50 Cents dated 1862 printed on uniface un-issued N.C. bonds.
Virginia issued a few Treasury Notes under its own state name during the early period of the War. In 1861, the series consisted of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 Dollars and in 1862 a smaller issue consisting of lesser denominations was produced - 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 Dollars. As we know the Confederacy issued a multitude of generic Treasury notes of all major denominations bearing the encompassing title of 'The Confederate States of America' from its capital in Richmond, Virginia.
Tennessee apparently did not issue a series of notes during this period. The State relied primarily on notes issued by various local banks of which many were redeemable only in Confederate currency. Federal "Greenbacks" were also used in portions of the State, depending on whose control it was under at the time.
Contrary to popular belief, the Confederate States of America did not issue coins to cater for the lack of small change although several patterns were made. As the war progressed it became increasingly difficult to justify the idea.
Several modern versions (see below) based on the pattern coins are readily available from various sources for a few dollars.
Modern fantasy version of a CSA Half Dollar
MEN OF HONOR - MEN OF VALOR
YOUR CONFEDERACY NEEDS YOU!
With such an interest in matters concerning the War between the States, it is not surprising to learn that a multitude of military re-enactment groups have been formed on both sides of the Mason-Dixon Line. Our Texas member, Jerry Adams, has recently forwarded photos and a recruitment pamphlet of such a group of 'Confederates' who were participating in a gathering at Grapevine, Texas last month. The new 9th Texas Infantry is formed to battalion strength with 4 companies.
Members are in Lubbock, San Antonio, Houston and Dallas/Fort Worth and train each month in Old City Park, Dallas, Texas.
It costs (US) $30.00 p.a. for membership dues to join the 9th Texas infantry and they usually put on 6 battle re-enactment shows each year throughout the South with emphasis on events that occurred in Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas. Members must provide their own gear - which, these days, can cost up to (US) $900.00 to outfit an infantryman in an acceptable 'authentic' Confederate garb reminiscent of the times.
Regrettably, Confederate States of America currency notes - or Texas Treasury Warrants, for that matter - are not acceptable by the outfitters!
Many family members also become involved in the role of Southern Belles or C.S.A. soldiers' family members, and, by their presence at the re-enactments, they add the genteel touch to an era that can be re-lived for a time - but never truly recaptured.
A group of the new 9th Texas Infantry on a training march.
The original 9th Texas Infantry Regiment was organised from companies raised in Northeast Texas on November 4, 1861.
They were mustered-in to Confederate service on December 1, 1861, under the command of Colonel Sam Bell Maxey of Paris, Texas, and they fought in some of the fiercest battles in the Western Theatre such as Shiloh, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Atlanta and Nashville and they sustained heavy casualties.
It is doubtful that many, if any, of the notes depicted in the article above were actually used to pay the troops of the Confederate armies raised in each state especially during the latter part of the war. Of the millions of men who enlisted in the Civil War armies, not too many would have mentioned pay as the primary motivation - but it would have had some bearing for some.
The pay for infantry privates on both sides, $11.00 per month at the start of the war, was very low even for those days.
Musicians made $12.00 a month. A corporal's pay was $13.00, a sergeant's $17.00, a 1st sergeant's $20.00, and a sergeant major's $21.00. Engineers, artillery, and cavalry soldiers were paid at higher rates than infantrymen. The greatest difference affected sergeants in the engineer corps: all grades received $34.00 a month, compared with $21.00 for an infantry sergeant major.Confederate privates' pay was increased to $18.00 in 1864, but by that time inflation had so destroyed the Confederate economy that a pair of shoes would have cost $125.00. To make matters worse, it would be a year or more sometimes before a paymaster would show up in some Confederate units. "They have not a single dollar to purchase the least little comfort, even for the sick", complained Confederate Gen. John B. Floyd.
Officers, of course, were better rewarded for their service. A 2nd lieutenant in the Confederate infantry would receive $80.00 a month, a 1st lieutenant $90.00, a captain $130.00, a major $150.00, a lieutenant colonel $170.00, and a colonel $195.00. A brigadier general received $301.00 a month, a major general $350.00, a lieutenant general $450.00, and a general $500.00 A general commanding an army got an additional $100.00 each month, and generals serving in the field received another $50.00
The Civil War Heritage Ring. http://civilwar.bluegrass.net/index.html
Standard Catalog of World Paper Money - Specialised Issues, Vol. 1 - Krause Publications - Colin R. Bruce II (Editor)
Standard Catalog of World Paper Money - General Issues, Vol.2 - Krause publications - Colin R. Bruce II (Editor).
Stonewall's Civil War Currency. http://home.earthlink.net/~icepick119/index.html
9th.Texas Infantry Enlistment Information Pamphlet and Homepage. http://9thtexas.tripod.com
Trade Token Tales. http://members.fortunecity.com/tokenguy/tokentales/
SOME OF OUR 'FAVORITES' SITES
Anyone who uses the Internet for research finds that there are sites that are so loaded with great information about our hobby that we want to make sure that we can access them again without having to search through the thousands that are on the Web. We may not always show them as a direct link from our home page, but often we store them away in our 'Favorites' section for later reference. Over a period of time we tend to weed out those sites that are no longer maintained or relevant to our studies. However, that step is usually only taken with reluctance and great consideration as many older sites have on-going links with others that are still developing. For those who are interested, we would like to start you on a journey of discovery.
Not all of these interesting sites are numismatic, as editorial research into the differing aspects of our hobby leads us along many winding paths, so it is advised that a system of 'Categories' is utilised to make life easier.
The Internet is not known as the World-wide Web for nothing and the millions of entries are far too many for us to consider in any depth so we must use our common sense and make priorities and be prepared to stick to them - as best we can!
The few Web site examples listed below in each Category have been randomly selected from the multitude that are currently amongst the 'Favorites' on the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' list. There are other excellent Australian numismatic sites incorporated in our 'Direct Links' as well and, for that reason, we have not repeated some of those on this list.
Most of these sites have their own list of great links, and some of the foreign language sites have very good links in English so don't be hesitant in checking them out and using them! We trust that these few examples will lead you on to investigate the thousands of other excellent international sites that the wonder of the Internet has presented to us.
Choose your own list of 'Favorites' to suit your collecting or research needs.
Clubs, Associations and Societies.
Worldwide Bi-Metallic Collectors Club. http://www.wbcc-online.com/
Association des Numismates Francophones du Canada. http://www.cam.org/~anfc/anfc.html
The Canadian Numismatic Association. http://www.canadian-numismatic.org/
Independent Numismatic Sites.
Trade Token Tales. http://members.fortunecity.com/tokenguy/tokentales/
Uri's Coin Collection. http://www.geocities.com/WallStreet/Exchange/5596/menu.html
Irish Paper Money. http://www.irishpapermoney.com/map/skelital.html
Monnaie de Paris. http://www.astartesa.com/
cgb.fr numismatiques. http://www.cgb.fr/indexgb.html
Noble Numismatics. http://www.noblenumismatics.com.au/
CoinLink Numismatics. http://www.coinlink.com/
Official Sites, Mints et al
The British Royal Mint. http://www.royalmint.com/
The United States Mint. http://www.usmint.gov/index.cfm?flash=yes
Bureau of Engraving and Printing (U.S. Treasury). http://www.moneyfactory.com/
The Royal Australian Mint. http://www.ramint.gov.au/
Bank of Canada Currency Museum. http://www.currencymuseum.ca/
The Royal Canadian Mint. http://www.mint.ca/en/index_home2
Military Research Sites.
World War I. - Trenches on the Web. http://www.worldwar1.com/index.html
1918. Friend, Foe and the Australian Soldier. http://www.awm.gov.au/1918/soldier/index.htm
The American Civil War Homepage. http://sunsite.utk.edu/civil-war/warweb.html#general
The German Armed Forces. http://www.feldgrau.com/
Australian World War II Nominal Roll. http://www.ww2roll.gov.au/
Australian War Memorial Data Bases. http://www.awm.gov.au/database/
First A.I.F. - Order of Battle. http://www.unsw.adfa.edu.au/~rmallett/noframes.html
Stonewall's Civil War Currency. http://home.earthlink.net/~icepick119/index.html
American Numismatic Association Newsroom. http://www.money.org/press/pressroom.html
Krause Publications. http://www.krause.com/
Coin Today. http://www.goldinvestornews.com/cointoday.htm
Online Conversion. http://www.onlineconversion.com/
The World Clock. http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/
AltaVista's 'Babel Fish' Translator. http://babel.altavista.com/tr
The Biographical Dictionary. http://www.s9.com/biography/links.html
The Roman Emperors. http://www.roman-emperors.org/lindexxx.htm
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