Volume 17 Issue 1        Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)     January 2012



Welcome to 2012!




Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2012.


All or any prices quoted in articles in this newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the authors' own collection - or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' -  Internet Edition and the  'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition. © 1996 - 2011. 

(Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes. *Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale.

PLEASE NOTE - RE-STATED DISCLAIMER: Where on-line web-site Links or addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith - however, our readers are advised, that, if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk. On occasion, external links may be broken - and that is, also, the nature of the Internet beast.


Please consider my conditional invitation to make a literary contribution if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest and fulfils our stated editorial guidelines.  As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in additional presentation. 

However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication. 

We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has necessitated the following conditions.

If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagiarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited.  This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbyist collector.  - G.E.P.





Compiled by Graeme E. Petterwood.


The numismatic chapter we call 'Exonumia' is an important part of our great hobby that is only bounded by the imaginations of the collector and the issuer. Let's have a closer look ... !


We all know that, at times, we temporarily hit 'dead-ends' with basic coinage or bank-note collections - or, sometimes, we get swamped with very expensive - often beautifully attractive - precious metal Non Circulating Legal Tender (N.C.L.T.) 'investment' offers that are, basically, aimed directly at our pockets - a bit like personal jewellery that we squirrel away and only flaunt on special occasions. 

Over the years, I have done my fair share of 'squirreling' - but, I have just about reached the point of financial exhaustion of late.

One or two 'Mona Lisa' types are OK - but, a whole museum-full is hard to afford - and - the cost to to maintain them in the manner that they expect to be kept - has become exorbitant!. Time for a break - but - what to do ....?

Often, mistakenly, thought of as the 'poor man's' numismatics - the accumulation of tokens and other items from the fringe areas of our hobby is broadly labelled 'exonumia'. That it is totally ignored by the 'purists' is at their peril - as it is an extremely rewarding part of the greater sphere - and, don't let anyone try to fool you that it is always 'cheap', or not relevant to more formal numismatics!

This splinter hobby - if it deserves that somewhat degrading title - encompasses everything cashable, or redeemable - in goods or service. - and, a lot more.

It also appeals to our 'need-to-know' instinct - and it well and truly caters for 'squirrels' and those 'magpie collectors' - who like pretty things - as well!

Tokens of various shapes - and other coin-like collectable souvenirs such as medallions, badges and tags - come in many types of fabric - ranging from cardboard, wood, paper, plastic, metal and even cloth. Certainly enough variety for the, sometime, jaded coin collector to want to dabble in!


When we think about it - all coins are merely 'tokens' - publicly accepted and traded pieces of metal with an official promise of worth in their places of origin - and, some of the pieces of metal we broadly refer to as 'tokens' have a similar purpose, with a promised worth, when traded in their places of origin.

Not a lot of difference .....!

The scope of such a splinter hobby - is huge! 

In fact, it is way too large to encompass in one article - but, I have shown several examples of exonumia, and, I have supplied some Internet links to previous articles that might be interesting!

From time to time, the newsletter has featured selected items - and, our Index Search Engine can be used to locate some of the types of exonumia we have presented in the past decade or more - plus, some of the great stories that make them so 'human' ....!


One of my favourite tales was derived from researching the advertising 'shell-card' token of the so-called 'Australian' exotic dancer 'Saharet'!



Early portrait - oil on cardboard - by Franz von Lenbach (1899)

Postcards featuring 'Saharet' and a 'Shell-card' token advertising 'free entry' to the Alhambra Theatre.

Refer 'Tasmanian Numismatist':- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/april07.html


My own interest, in this fascinating aspect of our hobby, started many years ago when token collector extraordinaire, Jerry Adams of Texas, and I first met up - via the Internet - and found that we had many things in common.  A great bond has developed, and I have thrived under Jerry's expert mentoring - and 'exonumia' now commands a fairly important - and very satisfying part - of my broad-base collecting habit.

I am currently an international associate member of the 'National Token Collector's Association' (of America) - and Jerry has been an Internet associate member of  the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' for many years, and, he has contributed - as a talented, active, award-winning correspondent - to this newsletter, and its predecessor, the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' on many occasions - and, in many more practical ways..



Omaha, Nebraska - 4th.Sept. 2011.

Jerry Adams (seated - red shirt) with fellow N.T.C.A. members, John Satterlee of Oklahoma (seated - blue shirt), Jeff Quinn of Wichita (standing - red shirt)  at the table of Jack Wolfe of Oklahoma (arm extended -white shirt) with other visiting token collectors.

N.T.C.A. members, Kent Johnson and Larry Oller, both of Kansas - also take a 'smile' break from some deep discussion.

Members, John and Susan Satterlee, also had reason to smile at this very successful event.

(Original pics. courtesy of Susan Satterlee and Jerry Adams © 2011)


Original cartoons reprinted courtesy of Jerry Adams - National Token Collectors Association. ©1999 - 2012.


U.S. TOKEN EXONUMIA - State of Alaska.

An assorted variety of - Trade tokens - Advertising tokens - Commemorative tokens - mainly dated from 1959 - 1977. The list goes on .... !

Contact:- Anchorage Coin Club - P.O. Box 230169  Anchorage, Alaska 99523  (E-mail Address: coinclub@pobox.alaska.net)



Worth the cost of the ride when tendered on participating local transport - just like coinage, but, often, more convenient.

Refer:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug08.htm


'TOKENS and MEDALS' (1992) - A Guide to ...U.S. Exonumia'' - (by Stephen P. Alpert and Lawrence E. Elman).

UNUSUAL WORLD COINS (4th.Edition) - Novelties, Fantasies and Pseudo-states. - (Krause Publication).



Modern Souvenir issues from - 'TASMEDALS' - 'OZMINT' - 'TASSIE TOKENS'

Check-list of local Tasmanian Souvenir Tokens - including some redeemable issues - produced between 2000 - 2006.

Limited edition A4 -sized book of 46 pages with colour illustrations - also issued on CD (2009)




Usually made from Copper or Bronze by makers in Great Britain, and shipped by the barrel-load, these coin 'look-alikes' became the de-facto coinage of Australian and New Zealand colonies during the early- mid 1800's - a period of extreme coin shortage - prior to the adequate  supply of English specie. Similar items were also produced for Canada.

Refer"- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/feb04.htm



Issued under the Armorial Bearings of the GRAND DUKE of AVRAM 

Royal Bank of Avram 1, 3, 7, 15, 30 and 75 Ducals

Commissioned from a privately owned Mint for the 'Royal Bank of Avram'.

This non-circulating Ducal 'coinage' (100 per Avram) - has an exchange rate currently equated to the US Dollar.

These 'coins' have a limited distribution of approx. 250 +/- for each denomination and are listed in 'Unusual World Coins' (K.P.)*

Monetary history - Refer:- http://www.chiefacoins.com/Database/Micro-Nations/Avram.htm


These 'coins' are only authorised and issued - usually by way of purchase - by the independently-operated RBA (Royal Bank of Avram) and bear the approved 'armorial bearings' and Coat-of-Arms of His Royal Highness, Prince John, the charismatic, Grand Duke of Avram. (Pic. above)

Various issues have been made - mainly with an Enamelled obverse design with a logo-stamped reverse on  'Goldine' base-metal. (as shown above). Since inception in 1982, there have been various designs of a similar nature used on the Ducals - and the reverses have been simple plain or matt-finish..

A special limited edition (1oz.- 95%Platinum/5% Cobalt) Ducal coin was produced in 2008. Many other Avram references are available on the Internet. 

Refer:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar09.htm

Refer:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug10.htm


List of other Micro-nations - some of which may issue 'token coinage' that may also fall under the broad banner of 'Exonumia'.

*(Please note we have not yet checked all of these Wikipedia Links - and that our cautionary disclaimers still apply!)*

Aerican Empire · Aeterna Lucina · Independent State of Aramoana · Atlantium · Avram · Akhzivland · British West Florida · BjornSocialist Republic · Celestia · Christiania · Conch Republic · Copeman Empire · Coral Sea Islands · Elleore · EnenKio · Forvik · Frestonia · Global Country of World Peace · Hajdučka Republika · Hay-on-Wye · Humanity · Hutt River · Kugelmugel · Ladonia · Lagoan Isles · L'Anse-Saint-Jean · Llanrwst · Kingdom of Lovely · Lundy · Marlborough · Melchizedek · Minerva · Molossia · Morac-Songhrati-Meads · Neue Slowenische Kunst · New Utopia · Northern Forest Archipelago · Nova Roma · Other World Kingdom · Perloja · Peščenica · Rainbow Creek · Redonda · Rose Island · Saugeais · Sealand · Seborga · Talossa · Užupis · Valtio · Vikesland · Wanstonia · Waveland · Wendland · Westarctica · Whangamomona · Wirtland


For those who may be interested - the story of the long-established Hutt River token currency of Prince Leonard & Princess Shirley has also been told previously - but, it is definitely worth a second read.

Refer:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/july07.htm


As readers can now, probably, appreciate - there are a lot of bases to touch with 'coin-like' exonumia!

However, if we decide to make a collecting selection - and work at it  - it can be as rewarding as any other part of this great hobby of numismatics.

In future issues, we will delve further into the 'exonumia basket' - perhaps, to pull out another 'plum' or two.

In the meantime - don't forget that exonumia also extends into the folding-money 'look-a-likes' as well!

In some instances, during times of crisis or emergency, a certain amount of 'legitimacy' has been bestowed on pieces of exonumia, and they have been temporarily promoted to the numismatic standard of 'semi-official' currency.

*Recommended reading:- 'Unusual World Coins' -  by Colin R. Bruce II (5th Edition) 2007 - Krause Publications.



1917-1920 - Siberian 'Bilet' Share Certificate and Coupons (enlarged)

Over-stamped (on KM#S882) to act as 200 Rubles of official emergency currency. (KM#S899)

Over-stamped (on KM#S903)to act as official emergency small change 4 Ruble50 Kopek notes. (KM#S904)


However, some other share certificates proved to be not quite as adaptable!

 MMM Company - 'Biletov' Fractional Share Certificates.

Gold - One (1) Bilet; Red - 10 Biletov; Brown - 20 Biletov.

Scrip was sold to investors in several different 'Bilet units' by failed and jailed Russian entrepreneur, Sergei Mavrodi.

100 'Bilet unit fractional shares'  = One full MMM share at the current market rate when they were purchased.

*These were sometimes referred to as 'Mavrodi's' because of the portrait of Sergei Mavrodi.


The story of Sergei Mavrodi is one of boom and bust - and it involved criminals and Russian politicians, at the highest level, and more intrigue than 'Watergate'. The entrepreneurial experiments within  Russia in the aftermath of Federation are now part of that national's economic and commercial history and, one day, they may be granted a little more numismatic status than they are afforded at present.


1994 MMM One Bilet (Actual size 150 x 70 mm) - shows the common design reverse of all share 'denominations'.

 Bilet(ov) denomination value altered, and back coloured, to match Certificate front .


Sergei Mavrodi, his younger brother, Vyacheslav Mavrodi, and Olga Melnikova, as well as  a cousin, Oskana Palyuchencko, built up the MMM computer importing business into a multi-million rouble pyramid investment scheme empire back in the early 1990's which eventually collapsed.

At its zenith, over 2 million investors were involved. This type of discredited investment arrangement  is now referred to as a Ponzi scheme.

Sergei Mavrodi spent some time in prison, but was still able to continue running his corporate dealings until political pressure was brought to bear and he was released so that he could 'rescue' the company and save some powerful investors - political and criminal - from losing their investment.

He was actually elected to the Russian Parliament (the Duma) in 1994 so as to avoid prosecution, but, in 1995, his political immunity came to an abrupt end when he was expelled and could not rally enough support to be re-elected.

Several other dubious businesses, of a similar nature, were floated in the mid 1990's but they also collapsed - and the corporate officers did the honourable thing in 1997 - they fled into exile when they lost their 'behind the scenes' political support.

 A warrant was issued for their arrest in 1998 when it became evident to the public that the scope of the fraud went beyond anyone's expectations and that their investments were not worth the millions of biletov they were holding.

The MMM Investment Group had conducted illegal banking and precious commodity-dealing as well as acquiring Gold without the necessary Russian licences and the brothers paid the price when they both received 5 year prison sentences in February 2003 when they were caught.  They served about 4 1/2 years and were paroled - however, a breach caused Sergei to be re-arrested - but he was released after a week's jail - in 2007.


The three series of Biletov they issued were all serial-marked - and are printed on quality watermarked paper with fluorescent fibres and the MMM logo (in a cartouche above the serial number) which can only be seen with UV light.

The high 'denomination' Biletov have the appearance of quality currency notes. These notes are, in fact, only coupons or tickets that represented  a portion of an official share certificate and were sold to investors who could not buy full shares. 

The Biletov design is fairly basic - the main differences between denominations is usually the colour, the positioning of the effigy and the value numeral - and variances of the scroll work on the reverse. These coupons are well documented on the Internet and are often for sale on eBay. 

The value of each MMM Bilet was supposed to be the proportion of the Rouble equivalent of the Share certificate value at the time of surrender.

The earliest range was issued in 1, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 Biletov - but the 2nd. series saw the introduction of a 10,000 Biletov  - most of these now attract about US$0.30 - $0.50 for the low values and at US$40.00 - for bundles of 100 - but I have even seen the higher value (10,000 Biletov) offered on eBay at about US$5.00 for bundles of 20. They are just about as valuable as the paper they are printed on.

However, even 'funny money' exonumia has an economic place in the broad hobby of numismatics.


Believe it or not - Sergei Mavrodi was reported to have started up a similar scheme at the beginning of 2011 - and attracted thousands of investors - once again!

In the currently economic crisis, there are quite a few  local 'funny money' schemes now in operation world-wide - under better circumstances than those mentioned above - we hope! Caveat Emptor!


Recommended reading:

Peter Symes' article is most informative about the structure of these certificates, and their coupons, and is recommended reading.

MMM Corporation by Peter J. Symes (2003) - Refer: http://www.pjsymes.com.au/articles/MMM.htm

Wikipedia - various Internet articles - MMM (Ponzi schemes) Sergei Mavrodi.

Internet:- http://www.banknoten.de/index.php/




With the success of Note Printing Australia to get the Australian polymer notes up and running - after a brief period of trial and error back in the 1990's - our neighbour, New Zealand, also opted for its polymer notes to be printed by the company for its 1999 issues

After updating their currency note designs to be even more endemic - it was decided - by the NZ 'powers-that-be' - to use those new patterns (with slight colour and design variations) for the polymer range.

In the year 2000, a blue NZ$10.00 polymer commemorative note was also unleashed and proved successful.

The selection of New Zealand's Polymer bank notes shown below - includes that commemorative issue NZ$10 issued in 2000.

Polymer notes bear the year of issue incorporated as the first two numbers preceding the serial number - and all the basic standard issue notes have two security 'windows' - a 'scalloped oval' - and the representation of the 'silver fern frond' as shown. (Notes not to scale)




$5 - KM#185b; $10 (Commemorative- Red NZ Serial #) -KM#190b; $20 - KM#187b; $50 - KM#188b; $10 - KM#186b


The previous standard paper notes (NZ$5, $10 and $20 examples shown below for comparison) - clearly show their security thread. Slight design and colour variations are also noticeable between the paper and polymer issues. Both paper and polymer notes in current denominations are still seen in circulation, but, as the paper is returned through the Reserve Bank system it is being gradually withdrawn. 




$5 - KM#177a; $10 - KM#178a; $20 - KM#179a.


'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money' Vol. 3 (2008) - edited by George S. Cuhaj. (Krause Publication).



For those Aussies - and any other international holiday-makers - with a sense of open-road adventure - do I have a 'way to go' for you! With the Aussie dollar still currently riding on a high against many of the world's major currencies - you have no excuse to mope at home! Get away to New Zealand - and live!

Friends of mine, Stuart and Judy McIntyre, - who are located on the beautiful South Island - operate a tourist-oriented venture - 'GARNERS MOTOR CYCLE TOURS & RENTALS' - that covers all the bases - if you are an experienced motorcycle rider and have NZ on your bucket list, bring your partner, there is no better time to Do It. 

Garners Tours Ltd. NZ. offer Guided tours, Self guided Tours, & Rentals.

Travel with a guided group or travel at your leisure through some of the most gloriously picturesque areas of New Zealand and the world - or, if you want something different, ask Stuart and his experienced team for travel suggestions to make your tour into an personal odyssey.

For initial details, and a taste of what lies ahead - browse the complete Internet site - and, then, contact Stuart or Judy McIntyre for the adventure of a lifetime!


Internet site:- http://www.garners.co.nz/

Contact Stuart:- stuart@garners.co.nz


Current Exchange Rates:





My belated 'Thank You' from 2011 goes to a long-time northern Tasmanian colleague and friend, 'David R.'  who called in to wish me 'Season's Greetings' in early December and, spontaneously, presented me with a small plastic tub containing several dozen assorted metallic bits 'n' pieces for my exonumia accumulation.

It took me just a moment accept the intriguing little heap - and another moment to realise that more than a few pieces were, either, new to me - or, better examples of existing acquisitions  - so, it was an absolutely GREAT present from a generous mate!

Now that I have had time to pore over the gift, and put the items into a semblance of order, I can fully appreciate their significance.

This is what participation in this great hobby can achieve - lasting, and - from time to time - mutually beneficial, friendships that are worth their weight in 'Gold' - or, at least, something that resembles it! 

Any spares, that aren't swapped, will probably go to worthy homes amongst family and other good exonumatic friends! ....... and, obviously, there will be 'words written and images illustrated' in our next newsletter to stimulate others who have an urge to gather these intriguing pieces  of social and economic history.

THANKS again, David! ... and, I hope you had more than one wonderful Christmas present placed under your tree!





'NUMISNET WORLD' July 2007 - December 2011

The detail of contents of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' and 'Numisnet World' can be seen at the following links. Copies of articles are usually available by email, upon request from the Editor or the original author - or, if directly accessed, subject to those copyright provisions laid down in our current terms of use.  Articles will not be posted by mail services.

Early issues of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition', from 1995 - 1999. were permanently archived in 2000 and articles are not linked directly.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug03.htm  - 1995, 1996 - 1997 (Volumes 1 and 2) Archived. Content detail only.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/Sept2003.htm  - 1998 - 1999 (Volumes 3 and 4) Archived. Content detail only.

By referring to the 'Newsletter Archives' or 'Search' function located on the Home Page, you can directly access all current Volumes online.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html  - January 2000 (Volumes 5 - to date).


In January 2006 it was decided to grant each new issue its own URL link. which would henceforth appear in the current Index.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar07.htm  - 2006 (Volume 11)

The final Index of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition'

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - 2007 (Volume 12 - Issues 1 - 6)


Full details of initial 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  (2007)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm  - (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec09.htm  - (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2010)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec10.htm  - (Volume 15 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2011)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jun11.htm  -  (Volume 16 - Issues 1 - 6)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2011)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec11.htm  -  (Volume 16 - Issues 7 - 12)




Issue 12. December 2011:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec11.htm

MISCELLANEOUS MYSTERIES (Pt. 3). Continuing our study of some slightly mysterious banknotes - or , at least, those worth a second look!

CLOSER TO HOME - Any hobby has to have a 'fun element' within it to save us from going mad - collecting funny numbers helps me keep sane - at times!

HANDY HINT - Those who collect Spanish coinage may occasionally come across terms impressed on older coins that actually relate to their purity of precious metal. This hint may be useful.

COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE! A new site from an old established friend - Australasian Banknotes Pty. Ltd. - is worth putting on the your Favorites List for frequent referral - and perhaps a bargain....!

T.N.S. ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION REMINDER. As a favour to the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' we included an early  request for the annual subscription remittance for the T.N.S. year, commencing January 1st. 2012.




Issue 1. January 2012:-

THE LURE OF EXONUMIA -  Old father 'Numismatics' may be shown as a fairly frugal, staid and patient, comfortably plump gentleman relatively set in his ways - whereas, his elder son - that inquisitive and brash, young-at-heart - 'Exonumia' - will always remain keen, lean and hungry, as he tries to satisfy his gnawing need for something different. He is the human part of the greater hobby - and, he runs on nervous energy, much of the time.

There is rarely a 'state of complete satisfaction' - as the adventures of discovery unfold!

NEW ZEALAND POLYMER BANKNOTES - For those Australian and international readers who are contemplating a holiday, in one of the world's most picturesque and safe environments, while they still have any folding money - and, in case you do feel adventurous and decide to go for a motorcycle tour organized by my friend, Stuart McIntyre -  it's probably a good time to familiarize yourselves once more with the slightly new-look polymer currency of New Zealand 

A BELATED "THANK YOU!" - An unexpected visitor came bearing gifts of the exonumatic kind in December 2011 - my belated 'Thank You' is in order!






The 'NumisNet World'’ (Internet Edition) newsletter has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented free on a monthly basis with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics. 

The ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter abides by the same basic guidelines suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter.

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, or hand delivered, directly to members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions. All titles and matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society.

Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.

Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Editor. 

ALL comments in linked articles are the responsibility of the original authors.

Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, any Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations -  or  - (2) To provide additional important information. 

Some illustrated items - including their designs and packaging -  may be subject to existing copyright restrictions. In such instances, they may not be replicated or their images reproduced or republished - unless prior permission is sought from, and given by, the originator, owner or licensee of such item, design or packaging.



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While the ''NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter may hold writers' addresses and other details for the purposes of communication and copyright protection, it will never make such addresses or details available to any member of the public without the permission of those involved.

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The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. Deadline for any literary contributions or amendment to copy is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication.



The contents of this Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. 

This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article. Explicit permission from the author or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter is required prior to use of that material.


The Editor,

Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.


Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

Email: pwood@vision.net.au