Volume 10 Issue 1                                                   INTERNET EDITION                                                        January 2005.

We trust that this issue of the Internet Edition will continue to provide interesting reading. The name of this Internet based newsletter is in keeping with the content so, bearing in mind our disclaimers, the Internet links selected are usually complimentary to the featured article in regard to: (1) illustrations and, (2) additional important information. Please also bear in mind that many Internet links are of a temporary nature.



Anyone who wishes to apply for membership to the non-profit making organization, and who is prepared to abide by the rules of the Society and its aim of promoting the study and enjoyment of the hobby of numismatics, should contact the following address for an application form and details of subscriptions: 


Tasmanian Numismatic Society.

G. P. O. Box 884J

Hobart. 7001.


The fraternity of numismatists stretches around our world and every country has men and women of goodwill who are bound together by our historical hobby.

The 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' wishes all of our readers a safe and peaceful 2005.




The 'Tasmanian Numismatist' welcomes all our Tasmanian Numismatic Society members and readers for the New Year. This year we hope to bring you a broad range of numismatic entertainment, as well as a little education - and answer a few questions along the way. If you like our Internet Edition or have any positive comments about a particular subject we are always glad to hear from you!

We always encourage readers to contribute medium-sized numismatically based articles that may be suitable for publishing - so if you think that you may have something that fits this broad ranging category, please don't be hesitant in bringing it to our notice. Whilst we cannot promise publication in all instances we will certainly give it our sincere consideration and, if required, we can smooth off any rough edges and undertake editing on your behalf.



Notices have been sent out to existing members to remind them to forward their 2005 subscriptions to the Secretary as they are now due.

If it has slipped your mind, please make a note to put it in the mail at your earliest convenience.

Current rates:

Full adult membership (with voting rights) -                    A$20.00 p.a. Eligible for all Society Awards.

Associate or Internet membership (no voting rights) -    A$10.00 p.a. Eligible for some Society Awards.

Junior membership (no voting rights) -                          A$10.00 p.a. Eligible for some Society Awards.

Full international membership -                                     A$25.00 p.a. Eligible for all Society Awards.

Our Secretary thanks those member who have already done the deed and sent in their subs early - it saves a lot of extra postage not having to chase them up



It is confirmed that the A.G.M. of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society is set down to be at Tolosa Park, Glenorchy on Sunday 20th February 2005, commencing at  11.00 a.m. The Meeting will be held in conjunction with our Annual BBQ and all financial members and guests are invited to attend. It will be B.Y.O everything and that way everyone gets to have what they like or whatever fits in with dietary requirements. 

We need to point out that those T.N.S. members, and their guests, who choose to attend do so at their own risk.

All present elected Committee positions* will be declared vacant on the day, and nominations will be called to fill these positions for the next twelve months.

In the event of more than one nomination for the vacancy, a ballot of members present at the Meeting will be held to determine the incumbent.. Previous Committee members are eligible for re-election to any position. All financial members are eligible for nomination and should try to attend this most important annual meeting.

If you are considering nominating for any of the above positions and, if you consider that you may be unable to attend the event for any legitimate reason, you may contact our T.N.S. Secretary, Mr. Chris Heath, and lodge your intention in advance if you wish. Normal Society election procedures will be observed.

Committee positions are currently held by:

Honorary Patron:                                                  Mr. Bill Bleathman.

President:                                                           Mr. R. McNeice OAM; FRNS.*

Vice President (North)/Editor/Public relations:       Mr. G. Petterwood.*

Vice President (South)/Public Officer/Secretary:    Mr. C. Heath.* 

Treasurer:                                                            Mr. K. Hogue.* 

Committee/Internet Webmaster:                            Mr. P. Petterwood.* 

Honorary Auditor:                                                 Mr. R. Watson. 



DATE:       FEBRUARY 20th; 2005

PLACE:      HUT 12, "Bottlebrush" - TOLOSA PARK, GLENORCHY.

TIME:        11.00 a.m.

Email Note

A short email from Bill Mira, in early December 2004, has alerted us to the fact that he has now completed his research on the life and times of Joseph Brickhill of Campbell Town, Tasmania and the tokens Brickhill had issued in 1856.  Hopefully, Bill's article may be forthcoming in the N.A.A. Journal very shortly.



A Review of a forthcoming book by Ian Hartshorn (T.N.S. Associate Member)

In late November 2004 I had a phone conversation with our Victorian-based Tasmanian Numismatic Society Associate Member, Ian Hartshorn, and it proved to be very interesting indeed. As many fellow T.N.S. members know, Ian is a dedicated collector of Australian Varieties and Mint Errors coinage - both pre-decimal and decimal - and has had a Glossary of Variety - Error Terms published in this newsletter (as well as the Australasian Coin and Banknote Magazine).

Refer:  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/march04.htm

Ian is currently in the final throes of producing a handy-sized 15 x 21 cm. spiral-bound book, currently with a working title of 'Pocket Change', to cover the decimal years. The book is to be primarily aimed at 'beginners' - but it will also has a lot of interesting information for those a bit further down the track in this growing area of numismatics. "The book's intent is to allow anyone to pick it up and know which coin is worth holding on to." says Ian.

Ian was kind enough to forward an A4 'rough' for me to have a look at - and I must  admit I was very glad to get it for my own use.

The professionally finished product will be available later in 2005 at a price still to be costed so, at this point, I will give you my own impressions of the contents.

As this is intended to be an economical purchase over the counter, the book will not be a 'glossy' state-of the-art type of production but, more importantly, it is designed to be very functional for the average collector. It has a well thought out 'step by step' progression through the decimal years, 1966 up to date.

Almost every known type of variety and error has been illustrated or explained clearly with a comprehensive table - by denomination and dates - of many of the coins that exhibit the features that make them different to the norm.

The Glossary of Terms is included plus an estimate, based on recent market trends, of prices that are being obtained for notable items.

The book also preaches the usual gospel of 'do's and don'ts' that every aspiring numismatist needs to know about caring for his/her collection.

In my opinion, it will be a very handy book to refill that knowledge gap that has haunted us for the last 20 years or so - it will make a fine addition to our numismatic reference libraries. Watch for it later this year.



by Graeme Petterwood © 2005

This first edition for 2005 again features an assortment of  'trivia' that I think is of interest and I trust it will prove educational and entertaining to you as well.

Remember - be astute when you are handed change - not all the wonders of numismatics have been discovered yet - and they don't have to be shiny and new!

Please note that all prices quoted in articles in this newsletter are my estimates only and they also should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations.  Note - the photoscans are not to size.



This is not an offer to professionally evaluate items or an offer to purchase or become directly involved in commercial dealings. The most interesting or most frequently asked questions will be answered - to the best of our ability - through these columns in a general manner as well as immediately and directly to the questioner if possible. All names and direct contact addresses that may be supplied will be kept anonymous unless advised to the contrary.


In November 2002, we received a query regarding the British Trade Dollar and we attempted to answer the question WHY it was not included in mainstream British numismatic catalogues. Refer: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/nov2002.htm

We have recently received an email that puts forward a convincing argument to support the inclusion of the piece amongst Malaysian and Singaporean numismatics.



1899 (Bombay) British Trade Dollar - Britannia Series
The British Trade Dollar is listed as Great Britain #T5 in the Krause publication 'Standard Catalog of World Coins'

"Dear Sir,

I collect coins from Malaysia, Malaya & British Borneo, Malaya, British North Borneo, Straits Settlements and British Trade dollars.
I have been re-reading the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition (
Volume 7 Issue 11), where the question of 'where the British Trade Dollar should be catalogued' had been discussed. It is a pity (and also a blessing in some ways) that it has not been accorded its place in British Numismatics. This may be due to the fact that these coins carry in addition to English; Chinese and Jawi (Malay) scripts. Also these coins never actually circulated in the U.K. although some were made there.
At that point in time, it was only in the Straits Settlements, Federated Malay States & Unfederated Malay States, that had sizeable populations that could read either or both foreign scripts and English. Due to this, I feel that the British Trade Dollar should properly belong to Malaysian & Singaporean numismatics. I disagree that they be placed in Hong Kong numismatics, although it was widely circulated in Hong Kong and China.
It cannot be placed in Indian numismatics, because, although they were mostly minted in Bombay and Calcutta, they were not intended to be circulated there. Also one must remember at that time, administarial duties, printing of stamps and mintage of coins for the Straits Settlements were carried out in India.
Hence, I feel that it has been correctly listed in Malaysian & Singaporean catalogues; the most prominent one being
"The Standard Catalogue of Malaysia - Singapore - Brunei; Coin & Paper Money" issued by International Coin & Stamp Sdn.Bhd.
Regards, Gerard D' Cruz "

P.S. - Gerard is still looking for several BTD to make up his collection - "BTD coins that I do not have are the 1895B, 1900, 1900C, 1921B, 1934B and 1935B.
I have seen a 1894 BTD offered for sale on ebay, but due to lack of literature, I wonder if this coin is genuine or not."




With my interest in all things numismatic, I have found that Chinese notes are proving to be very compelling because of their great diversity and I tend to refer to the post- Imperial era of Chinese banknote issuance, from the late 1800's - early 1900's and onwards, as the 'modern era.

Most of the many banks in China, after the revolution of 1911-12, issued notes prepared for them by o/seas firms such as Thomas de la Rue (London), American Bank Note Co., British American Bank Note Co., Waterlow & Sons (London).  I have posted below a couple of examples of the notes of the Bank of Communications, which was established in all major cities at that time, that were printed by two of the major banknote producers in the world..

(With the exception of the Central Reserve Bank of China 10,000 Yuan all notes are from the author's collection. Illustrations are not to scale.)



Bank of Communications 10 Yuan and 5 Yuan banknotes issued (ABNC) - 1914 (Shanghai) and (TDLR) - 1935 respectively

(Sizes approx. 16 x 9 cms. and 15 x 8 cms.)


The number of private or district banks issuing notes during the 'modern' period was quite substantial and cannot all be listed here - but suffice to note that the first  bank of substance to be recognised as a central bank was the Manchu Ch'ing government controlled Imperial Bank of China with branches in major trading cities such as Peking, Canton and Shanghai. In 1913, the bank changed its name to the Commercial Bank of China more in keeping with the contemporary political scene.

Notes were also issued by various institutions such as the Imperial Chinese Railways Bank, the Agricultural Bank of the Four Provinces, the China Silk and Tea Industrial Bank and many, many others - all of which went through name-changes as they amalgamated with newer institutions, or they simply folded, as time went by.

During 1912, after the revolution that overthrew the Manchu Ch'ing dynasty and created the Republic of China, the first Bank of China notes appeared as o/prints on Ta Ching Government Bank notes that had originally been issued in 1906. The same year, officially printed notes bearing the legend 'Bank of China' in English also made their appearance.

Many notes adopted the portrait of Dr. Sun-Yat-sen - http://www.time.com/time/asia/asia/magazine/1999/990823/sun_yat_sen1.html - and this vignette is still found on notes of the Republic of China Bank of Taiwan.

Initially most modern era notes were in denominations worded from 1 Dollar - 10 Dollars but from 1914 onwards the Yuan (Dollar) system was implemented and notes from 1 Yuan - 100 Yuan were produced as well as a range of 'small change' notes from 20 Cents - 50 Cents. Also during this period, dual worded currency was being used with the introduction of denominations such as Fen (Cents) and the Chiao (Jiao = 10 Fen) with 10 Chiao = One Yuan (Dollar). These were designed to compliment the existing coinage system which started at 10 Cash equalling One Fen (Cent.)and worked through  to One Yuan (Dollar) in the basic denominations.

Many Chinese banknote issues overlapped with their denomination wording and I suggest that readers, who are interested in this fascinating area, consult a dedicated source covering the various aspects of Chinese note issuers.






Bank of China 10 Yuan banknote issued (ABNC) - 1940 (Size approx,17.5 x 8 cms.) Temple of Heaven reverse.

Central Bank of China 100 Yuan banknote issued (Waterlow & Sons) -  1936 (Size approx. 18 x 10 cms.) Peking Palace of China reverse.


The Central Reserve Bank of China 10,000 Yuan note issued during 1944, by authority of the Japanese Government, through a 'puppet' bank

(Size approx. 18.5 x 9.5 cms.)


Eventually, the Bank of China became the major issuing body after World war II and continued on under the dominant Communist regime which had won contol of China during 1948 - 9. The Bank of China banknotes that were issued from 1949 onwards until 1960 were all worded in Chinese script but at that time the words Zhongguo Renmin Yinhang (People's Bank of China) were incorporated into the reverse side of the 1960 issue.

In the People's Republic of China, the Communist regime also instigated the practice of only allowing foreigners - particulary Westerners - access to Bank of China 'Foreign Exchange Certificates' to prevent the 'illegal' flow of hard currency to/from those countries that  China considered to be at arm's length. The Foreign Exchange Certificate denominations were in Fen and Yuan but only in small units and these notes were to be used in local business transactions with/by tourists and the removal of official Chinese currency from the country was frowned upon quite severely. The Foreign Exchange Certificates originally issued in 1979, ranged from 10 Fen up to 100 Yuan  (a second issue was produced in 1988 in 50 and 100 Yuan denominations). The series shown below has since been discontinued but they were replaced in 1988 with similar certificates with a higher denomination range and featured new designs.


Bank of China Foreign Exchange Certificate 1960 issues - (Generic reverse)

10 Fen (Size approx. 13 x 4.5 cms.)

50 Fen (Size approx. 13.5 x 5 cms.) Temple of Heaven obverse.

 One Yuan (Size approx. 15.5 x 6 cms.)


In 1980, a colourful range of notes issued by the People's Bank of China  with denominations from 1 Jiao up to 100 Yuan was released.

It featured the people of China in all their cultural diversity and iconic scenery was shown on the larger value notes. There is no do doubt that these notes have been very attractive to numismatists for many reasons. The reverses of the low value Jiao notes are relatively un-inspiring but, in my opinion, the obverses make up for that.


People's Bank of China 1980 issues. Denominatio range 1 - 5 Jiao and 1 - 100 Yuan

One Jiao (Size approx. 11.5 x 5 cms.)

Two Jiao (Size approx. 12 x 5.5 cms.)

Five Jiao (Size approx. 12.5 x 6 cms.)


When the victorious Communists led by Mao Tse-tung,  forced the remaining Nationalist Army, under the command of General Chiang Kai -shek, out of mainland China the Nationalists fled to the island of Taiwan and eventually started to issue Yuan-based notes, manufactured by various official printeries, under the authority of the old Republic of China banner. They were similar in style to notes issued prior to the Communist take-over and featured Sun-Yat-sen (who was instrumental in the attempts to form the original Republic of China after the overthrow of the last emperor Hsuan T'ung (Pu-yi)



Republic of China - Taiwan 100 Yuan issued 1975 (o/printed on 1972 design). Presidential Office Bldg reverse.

(Size approx. 16.5 x 7 cms.)

Main Reference:

'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money' - edited by Colin R. Bruce II and George S. Cuhaj.

Recommended Reading:

Refer: The Birth of a New China  http://www.vrg.utoronto.ca/~sjcma/history.html




Coins on Coins

In 1984, the Australian One Dollar banknote that had started life in 1966 was superceded by the Al.Bronze One Dollar coin - and, in 1988, the Two Dollar note followed suit and an Al.Bronze $2.00 coin was introduced, The changeovers were met with a mixed reaction as we lost our two lowest value paper notes that we had since Federation in the form of Ten Shillings and One Pounds. The weighty addition of another two coins to our pocket change was also met with some concern but the economical logic of the wearing capacity of metal over paper won the day at government level - so we lost the notes and gained the coins.

(It sometimes crosses my mind that, with the advent of the better wearing polymer substrate materials, if it would be feasible to drop the coins and resurrect the notes.)

To commemorate the 10 year anniversary of the Dollar changeover event in 1994, a limited amount of special uncirculated coins featuring a depiction of the new style coin over the old $1.00 paper note were produced - mainly as DIY units at the Mint (123,318) as well as the Sydney Royal Easter Show (74,426) and the Melbourne Agricultral Show (65,440). The Mint coins had a 'C' mintmark while Sydney and Melbourne had 'S' & 'M' respectively.


1994 Ten year commemorative Al-Br. One Dollar coin



An Aluminium-Bronze One Dollar coin replaced the traditional paper One Dollar note in 1984


A quantity of Sterling Silver proofs were also made available at the NAA Fair of March 1984 (5,000) and also to selected dealers and RAM customers (20,000)  These coins had no mintmarks although the NAA issue had an event Certificate. 

In 1996, the Royal Australian Mint released a Proof $1.00 Pure Silver coin retailing at AU$45.00 to celebrate the 30th Anniversary of Decimal currency that was introduced in 1966. The features of the coin were the tiny reproductions of an (undated) Oz Penny plus the original coinage range issued in 1966 - the Bronze 1 & 2 Cents, Copper-nickel  5, 10 and 20 Cents as well as the round 80% Silver 50 Cent coin. The mintage was only limited by demand and the final figure is recorded at 19,927. Current CV is approx. AU$120.00 so I am lucky that my sample was bought at the right time and at the right price. A spot of haggling at the last ANDA Show in Hobart in early October 2004 was well worthwhile and filled a small hole in the Coins on Coins thematic section of my collection

In 1997 and 1998, the Royal Australian Mint produced two more 40mm Pure Silver commemorative Dollar coins that featured coins within the design.

The 'old' Australian Provisional Parliament House was originally opened  as a temporary home on 9th. May,1927 by the Duke and Duchess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother) acting on behalf of King George V. The building was 70 years old in 1997 and had remained in use 20 years beyond its 'Use by Date'. Building plans had been approved in 1978 for a new Parliament House but it took 10 years to complete. On 9th. May, 1988 the current Parliament House was opened by HRH Queen Elizabeth II and on its 10th Birthday a Proof coin was released. The 1997 'old' Parliament dollar and the 1998 'new'  Parliament coins both had a retail price of AU$45.00 and currently have CV's of $90.00 and $60.00 respectively. Mintages were  limited to 21,791 and 17,096 so there is a possibility the the 1998 coin will 'improve with age'.  The 1997 coin featured a reproduction of a circulating Florin released in 1927 to celebrate the opening and the 1998 coin features an icon of the NCLT 1988 Five Dollar.


Each of these .999 Silver Proof coins is encapsulated and contained in a quality hinged box enclosed within an illustrated cardboard outer.



1949 typical Pre-decimal Australian Penny; 1927 Parliament House commemorative Florin; 1988 New Parliament House commemorative $5.00 coin


Examples of Australian Decimal coinage originally issued in 1966 - including 80% Silver round 50 Cent coin.

(Illustrations not to scale)



Main Reference.

Greg McDonald's 'The Pocket Guide to Australian Coins and Banknotes - Eleventh Edition'.


P.S. The newest updated Pocket Guide (12th Edition) is available and our readers are urged to place their orders for this always outstanding catalogue at AU$24.95 or the 464 page hard-cover version (only 1000 available) at AU$34.95 (Post Free) as soon as possible by contacting:

Greg McDonald Publishing & Numismatics Pty. Ltd.

P.O.Box 649, Lavington. N.S.W. 2641 Australia.

Email: greg.mcdonald@optusnet.com.au

Tel: (02) 6026 2833 or Fax: (02) 6026 2822



Due to several requests, I have resurrected the following article from our 1999 archives. The faces on Confederate States of America notes are not well known outside of those states of America who decided to secede from the Union in 1861 and, perhaps, it is time to acknowledge them once more with a brief biographical encore.



Selection of hand-cut and signed Confederate States of America note issued in 1862 & 1864

C.G. Memminger (5 Dollars), R.M.T. Hunter (10 Dollars) and A.H. Stephens (20 Dollars),

J.P. Benjamin (2 Dollars), R.M.T. Hunter (10 Dollars) and C.S.A. President J.F. Davis (50 Dollars)



by Graeme & Paul Petterwood.

The tragic story of the ‘War Between the States’ is extremely well documented by American military historians.

For some time we have been compiling information, via books and the multitude of Internet sites devoted to this conflict - but, frankly, our interests were based on the military aspect until we realised we knew virtually nothing about some of the faded ‘faces’ on the currency that we have in our small Confederate States of America banknote accumulation.

Due to lack of hard currency reserves and many basic resources the Confederate States of America made do with whatever they could and, as supplies diminished ever further during the period of conflict, inflated value banknotes were issued with no backing whatsoever. Towards the end of the period even suitable paper on which to print these valueless notes became scarce.

There are many C. S. A. notes that feature mythical or picturesque scenes, and even some that portray the famous first American president, George Washington, who was born in Virginia - but 12 other faces are also shown, and it was in the identities and stories behind those relatively unknown personalities - that we found ourselves becoming engrossed.

It was an oversight that we have now attempted to address - and share with any interested readers, even some from the Southern states of America.

Not all of the faces shown were contemporary members of the Confederacy, some were notable representatives, or historically prominent ‘sons’, of the states that were involved in the conflict and, as such, many were recognised by both sides as great Americans.

It is also to be noted that some of the members of the Confederate Congress went on to faithfully serve the United States after the cessation of hostilities in 1865.

The war has been simplified as being a conflict to free the slaves - and no doubt this was a major moral issue that was used as a rallying call by the Federal Union government - but the issue from those states that had seceded from the United States, was the point of view that their rights, as sovereign nations who had voluntary joined the Union, were being usurped by the northern based Federal government for political and economic reasons.

Many average Southerners did not own slaves, or even believe in slavery, but considered they were fighting for their state and its individual sovereignty and rights, and expressed the opinion that it was a similar set of circumstances that had occurred to create the break-away from England in the 1777 American revolution.

Judah P. Benjamin - John C. Calhoun - Clement C. Clay - Jefferson Finis Davis - R. M. T. Hunter - Andrew Jackson -

Thomas J. ‘Stonewall’ Jackson - Christopher Gustavus Memminger - Mrs. Lucy Holcombe Pickens - George W. Randolph - Alexander H. Stephens - John E. Ward and, of course, George Washington, are the names of those faces on the currency of the Confederate States of America.

Some need little introduction, as their deeds live on by word-of-mouth and they are well known as legends, but, hopefully, these somewhat brief biographic sketches will gives us enough bare facts to start out with, if we feel the need to explore further with those who are not so well known. These snippets of their lives have now been painstakingly researched from many and varied sources.


Judah Philip Benjamin, (1811-1884)


Born in St. Croix, Virginia, on August 6th., 1811.

Member of Louisiana state legislature, 1842; and then elected as U.S. Senator from Louisiana, 1853-1861;

Confederate Attorney General, 1861.

Confederate Secretary of War, 1861-1862.

Confederate Secretary of State, 1862-1865.

Judah Philip Benjamin was a member of the Confederate government, and became a close confidant of C.S.A. President Jefferson Davis.

Benjamin’s family had originally moved from the West Indies to North Carolina and then South Carolina, but he is recorded as having been born at St. Croix, Virginia on August 6th. 1811.

As a young man he attended Yale to study law and, after graduating and moving to New Orleans, he became a nationally renowned lawyer and successfully engaged in a commercial practice.

While he was there, Benjamin also became interested in local politics and, after holding several minor public offices, he decided to enter the Federal political sphere and was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1852 as a Whig, but during the late 1850’s Benjamin changed his allegiances and joined the Democrat party - and became an ardent defender of the Southern states rights.

Like many other Southern politicians he supported secession and, in 1861, he felt morally bound to resign from the Senate and was immediately appointed to the position of Attorney General in the Confederate interim Government headed by Jefferson Finis Davis. In 1861-62 he became Secretary of War and, eventually, he was appointed as Secretary of State from 1862-65.

Benjamin was a good administrator, and Jefferson considered him to be the most competent member of his cabinet.

However, during his short term as Secretary of War several major military defeats resulted in criticism of Benjamin by other politicians who were jealous of his influence with President Davis and they created and directed a wave of anti -Semitism against him. His recommendation to use slaves as soldiers also saw a further downturn in his popularity amongst slave owners, but President Davis still considered him as a good friend and servant of the Confederacy.

In 1865, after the Confederate States of America had obviously lost the war, Benjamin fled to Britain, where he again won recognition as a fine lawyer. He died in Paris on May 6th. 1884 and was interred at Pere la Chaise Cemetery, Paris, France.

Judah P. Benjamin was featured on C.S.A. $2.00 notes in 1861, 1862 on two emissions, 1863 and 1864.


 John Caldwell Calhoun, (1782-1850)

Born between Abbeville and Mount Carmel, South Carolina, on March 18th., 1782.

Member of South Carolina state house of representatives, 1808; U.S. Representative from South Carolina 6th District, 1811-1817; U.S. Secretary of War, 1817-1825; Vice President of the United States, 1825-1832; U.S. Senator from South Carolina, 1832-1843, 1845-1850; U.S. Secretary of State, 1844-1845.

Calhoun was educated at Moses Waddell’s Log College in Georgia and went on to study law in Connecticut after graduating from Yale University and he was admitted to the South Carolina bar in 1807.

By 1809, Calhoun had entered politics and served in that state’s legislature for 2 years before entering the U.S. Congress in 1811 as a fiery young nationalistic politician.

Ever ambitious, Calhoun was appointed Secretary of War in James Monroe’s Government in 1817 and tried to succeed the President in 1824 but lost out to Andrew Jackson in Pennsylvania, so he settled for the Vice-presidency of the United States.

At that time he was not seen as an advocate of state’s rights, but he was expressing private views that Federal powers were being used to circumvent the expansion of the South Carolina cotton crops, which depended on slave labour, in favour of Northern industrialisation and commerce interests. By 1828 this prominent South Carolinian had secretly developed the theory of nullification, by which a sovereign state could reject any federal law it considered to be in violation of its constitutional rights.

Andrew Jackson was re-elected as President in 1828 with Calhoun again as Vice-president but, by 1832, the political differences came to a head when Jackson opposed an effort by South Carolina to nullify a Federal tariff that had been imposed.

Calhoun resigned as Vice- president but remained in the Senate as a spokesman for state’s rights and the retention of slavery as an economic necessity.

He briefly held the office of Secretary of State under President John Tyler from 1844-45, and was involved in the annexation of Texas while still trying to force the issue state’s right and slavery expansion for economic reasons. In early 1850 he predicted that a civil war would take place if the matter was not resolved or a suitable compromise was not reached in an agreement that was formulated early in that year. It was not!

Calhoun died, a disappointed man, in Washington, D.C., on March 31st. 1850, and was interred at St. Philip’s Churchyard, Charleston, South Carolina.

A cenotaph, in his honour, was erected and remains at the Congressional Cemetery, Washington, D.C.

Calhoun counties in six American states are named after him.

Because of his birthplace, and his national stature as a fighter for state’s rights, J. C. Calhoun was featured posthumously on C.S.A. $1,000.00 notes in 1861 and $100 notes in 1862.


 Clement Claiborne Clay, Jr. (1816-1882)

Born in Huntsville, Alabama. December 13, 1816.

Member of Alabama state house of representatives, 1842; state court judge, 1846; U.S. Senator from Alabama, 1853-1861;

Senator from Alabama in the Confederate Congress, 1862-1864.

C.C. Clay was a graduate from the University of Alabama and went on to study Law at the University of Charlottesville. He was admitted to the bar and opened his practice at Huntsville, Alabama in 1840. By 1842 he had entered politics and was a member of the State house of representatives in 1842, 1844 and 1845. He became a county judge between 1846 - 48 and then, in 1850, he unsuccessfully tried for the first time to be elected to the U.S. Congress.

Clay eventually was successful as a Democrat and was spasmodically involved in the Federal sphere from 1853 until 1861 when he withdrew as Chairman of the Committee on Commerce.

He became a member of the Confederate Senate from 1861 - 63 and he was also engaged as a diplomatic agent for the Confederacy until hostilities ceased. Suspected of conspiring to assassinate Lincoln, he was imprisoned in 1865 at Fort Monroe for nearly a year and, on his release, he settled back on his plantation in Jackson County, Alabama and restarted his law practice. Clay died at ‘Wildwood’ near Gurley, Alabama., on January 3rd. 1882, and interment took place at Maple Hill Cemetery, Huntsville, Alabama.

Clement C. Clay was featured on C.S.A. $1.00 notes in 1862, 1863 and 1864.


Jefferson Finis Davis, (1808-1889)


Born in Fairview, Kentucky, June 3, 1808.

Davis's parents moved to Mississippi when he was a boy. He was given a classical education at Transylvania University and was appointed to West Point, where he was graduated in 1828.

He spent the next seven years in various army posts in the Old Northwest and took part (1832) in the Black Hawk War. In 1835 he married the daughter of Zachary Taylor, but she died three months later and Davis spent the next 10 years in the comparative quiet of a Mississippi planter's life until, in 1845, he married Miss Varina Howell.

Elected (1845) to the House of Representatives, he resigned in June, 1846, to command a Mississippi regiment in the Mexican War and, under the command of his former father-in-law Zachary Taylor, he distinguished himself both at the siege of Monterrey and at Buena Vista.

Davis was appointed (1847) U.S. Senator from Mississippi to fill an unexpired term but he resigned in 1851 to run for governor of Mississippi against his senatorial colleague, Henry S. Foote, who was a Union Whig.

Davis was a strong champion of Southern rights and argued for the expansion of slave territory and economic development of the South to counterbalance the power of the North. He lost the election by less than a thousand votes and retired to his plantation until appointed (1853) Secretary of War by Franklin Pierce. Throughout the administration he used his power to oppose the views of his Northern Democratic colleague, Secretary of State William L. Marcy.

Davis favoured the acquisition of Cuba and opposed concessions to Spain in the Black Warrior and Ostend Manifesto difficulties, and he also promoted a southern route for a transcontinental railroad, therefore favouring the Gadsden Purchase. Re-entering the Senate in 1857, Davis became the leader of the Southern bloc.

He actually took little part in the secession movement until Mississippi seceded in January 1861, whereupon he withdrew from the Senate and was immediately appointed Major-General of the Mississippi militia.

Shortly afterward he was chosen president of the Confederate provisional government established by the convention at Montgomery, Alabama, and inaugurated in February 1861.

Duly elected as regular President of the Confederate States, he was inaugurated at Richmond, Virginia., Feb. 22nd. 1862.

Davis realised that the Confederate war effort needed a strong, centralised rule and this conflicted with the states' rights policy for which the Southern states had seceded, and, as he assumed more and more power, many of the Southern leaders combined into an anti-Davis party.

Originally hopeful of a military rather than a civil command in the Confederacy, he closely managed the army and was involved in many disagreements with the Confederate generals; arguments over his policies raged long after the Confederacy was dead. Even General Robert E. Lee surrendered without Davis's approval.

After the last Confederate cabinet meeting was held in April, 1865 at Charlotte, North Carolina, Davis was captured at Irwinville, Georgia and was confined in Fortress Monroe for two years and eventually released on bail in May, 1867.

The federal government proceeded no further in its prosecution of Davis and, after his release, he wrote an apologia, ‘The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government’ which was published in 1881.

He died of bronchitis and malaria in New Orleans, Louisiana, December 6th., 1889.

He was original interred at Metairie Cemetery in New Orleans, Louisiana, but his remains were moved - and the reburial took place in 1893 at Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.

Counties in Georgia, Mississippi and Texas are named after him, as well as a Parish in Louisiana.

Jefferson Davis featured on C.S.A. $0.50 notes in 1863 and 1864, and also on $50.00 notes in 1861, 1862 and 1863.

He also featured on several Confederate individual state notes and Treasury Warrants issued by Arkansas and Missouri.

 Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter, (1809-1887)


Born at ‘Mount Pleasant’ near Loretto, Essex County, Virginia, April 21, 1809.

Member of Virginia state house of delegates, 1834-1835; member of Virginia state senate, 1835-1837; U.S. Representative from Virginia, 1837-1843, 1845-1847 (8th District 1837-1839, 12th District 1839-1841, 9th District 1841-1843, 8th District 1845-1847); Speaker of the U.S. House, 1839-1841; U.S. Senator from Virginia, 1847-1861.

Delegate from Virginia to the Confederate Provisional Congress, 1861-1862.

Confederate Secretary of State, 1861-1862.

Senator from Virginia in the Confederate Congress, 1862-1865.

R. M. T. Hunter was expelled from the U.S. Senate in 1861 for supporting the rebellious Southern states and was appointed Confederate Secretary of State during 1861-62. He represented Virginia from 1862 - 65 on the Confederate Congress and even held the position of Acting President of the Confederacy on several occasions. In February 1865 he was a member of the delegation who met U.S. President Abraham Lincoln at Hampton Roads to try and negotiate a peace settlement.

After the cessation of hostilities Hunter was briefly imprisoned but, on his release, he went on to become the Virginia state treasurer between 1877-1880. He died at his home ‘Fonthill’ near Lloyds in Essex County, Virginia., July 18, 1887.

Interment took place at ‘Elmwood’ a private family graveyard near his birthplace, Loretto in Essex County, Virginia.

R. M. T. Hunter featured on C.S.A. $10.00 in 1861 on four emissions, 1862 on four emissions, 1863 and 1864.


 Andrew 'Old Hickory' Jackson, (1767-1845)


Born in Lancaster County, South Carolina, March 15, 1767.

U.S. Representative from Tennessee at-large, 1796-1797; U.S. Senator from Tennessee, 1797-1798, 1823-1825; justice of Tennessee state supreme court, 1798; general in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812; Governor of Florida Territory, 1821; Twice elected as President of the United States, 1829-1837.

Died in Nashville, Tennessee, June 8, 1845.

Interment at The Hermitage, Nashville, Tennessee.

Jackson counties in 21 American states as well as Hickory County, Missouri, are named after him.

As a true national hero - and because of his birthplace - Andrew Jackson was also posthumously featured, with the late J. C. Calhoun, on the only C.S.A. $1,000 note issued in 1861.


 Thomas Jonathan ‘Stonewall’ Jackson, (1824- 1863)

Born in Clarksburg, Virginia, January 21st., 1824.

Orphaned at age 7, Jackson went on to graduate at West Point (17th. out of 59 in his class) in 1846.

He took up a position as Professor of Natural History and instructed artillery at the Virginia Military Institute and married Miss Elenor Junkin in 1853, who, unfortunately, died early in their marriage.

He remarried again in 1857 to Mary Anna Morrison and built his only home at 8 East Washington St; Lexington where he joined the Lexington Presbyterian Church and became very religious and was nicknamed ‘Deacon Jackson’.

When war was declared Jackson was immediately available and, in 1861, he rode away and never returned home alive again.

He used to ride into battle with one arm raised to offset what he declared was an ‘off-balance of his body’ and ate standing to ‘aid digestion and straighten his digestive tract’ and it is reported that he nearly always carried a Bible with him.

Highly regarded as a gentleman and a competent officer, Jackson’s stand against superior Union strength was regarded as the reason why the Confederate Army won the 1st. Battle of Manassas - also known as the 1st. Battle of Bull Run - on July 21st. 1861.

Affectionately known as ‘Stonewall’ Jackson by his troops and other officers, including famous Confederate Army commander, General Robert E. Lee, he died in the presence of his wife in the bedroom of a Chancellorsville farmhouse on Sunday, May 10th. 1863 from pneumonia that had unexpectedly set in while he was recuperating after suffering severe arm wounds.

On the evening of 4th. May. he and several other officers were fired upon accidentally by their own infantry piquet, just after the successful conclusion of the Battle of Chancellorsville, as they were returning to their own lines in darkness.

His body (minus his left arm which was amputated after the shooting) is buried at Stonewall Jackson Memorial Cemetery in Lexington, Virginia - the arm is buried at Ellwood Family Cemetery, Spotsylvania, Virginia.

Thomas J. ‘Stonewall’ Jackson was posthumously honoured on only one C.S.A. note and that was the $500.00 issued in 1864.


 Christopher Gustavus Memminger, (1803-1888)


Born at Wurttemberg in Germany, January 9, 1803. Adopted son of Thomas Bennett, a former Governor of South Carolina.

Delegate to South Carolina secession convention, 1861.

Delegate from South Carolina to the Confederate Provisional Congress, 1861-1862.

Confederate Secretary of the Treasury, 1861-1864.

Little information is available on Christopher Gustavus Memminger’s early days except from edited extracts from diaries and papers published late in his life - his memoirs were basically directed to his involvement with the Confederate States of America.

A career politician, Memminger had been elected as the Member of South Carolina state legislature during 1836-1852 and again during 1854-1860 and was an obvious choice for President Jefferson Davis to appoint as Secretary of the Confederate Treasury in 1861. It is known he had, at least, one son who became a doctor with the Confederate forces during the war.

Memminger had little in the way of tangible finances to work with except taxation and bond sales during the early days of the war - and things only got worse as time went on. With an obvious lack of support from the C.S.A. Congress he was always short of funds essential for the cost of running the breakaway states and the war effort, and he was eventually forced into authorising the printing of more paper currency backed by the promise of redemption at the cessation of hostilities and against future cotton exports to European markets.

Rampant inflation was the result as the war dragged on, and all sources of international credit dried up when the powerful Union shipping blockade eventually isolated the South - and the cotton exports to Europe rotted on the wharves.

Memminger was made the scape-goat and forced to resign in 1864 when it became evident that the paper currency had become virtually worthless as the fortunes of war went against the Confederacy.

He died in Flat Rock, North Carolina on March 7th. 1888, and was buried at St. John’s of the Wilderness Cemetery, Flat Rock, South Carolina.

Memminger was featured on C.S.A. $5.00 notes in 1861on three emissions and also in 1862, 1863 and 1864; as well as on $10.00 notes with R. M. T. Hunter in 1861on two emissions.


 Lucy Petway Holcombe Pickens, (1832 - 1899)


The 3rd. wife of South Carolina’s governor, Francis Wilkinson Pickens, and the only woman shown on C. S. A. currency (aside from the mythological types).

Gov. Francis Pickens, who had descended from a long line of influential pioneers and had been a U.S. Congressman from 1834 - 1843, was appointed Minister to Russia from 1858 - 60 just after his marriage to Lucy Petway Holcombe on 26 April 1858 at her family's plantation, 'Wyalusing', at Marshall, Harrison Co., Texas.

Lucy was apparently born at 'Ingleside', LaGrange, Fayette Co.Tennesee on June 11th 1832 after her farmer father and mother, Beverly Lafayette Holcombe and Egina Dorothea Vaughn Hunt had emigrated from Virginia. She had two other sisters, Anna and Martha - although Martha died at age 3 in 1839 -  and two brothers, John and Philemon, all born in Tennessee and she also had an adopted sister, Helen. The Holcombe family had eventually moved again when Lucy was about 17 y.o. and they were enumerated in the 1850 Marshall, Harrison Co.,Texas federal census - and it was in this state that she and her future husband had met and married.

The ambitious Lucy was very influential in Picken’s acceptance of the two year St. Petersburg mission, and she had the honour of meeting and entertaining the Czar during that time. On Pickens’ return to the U.S. he foresaw the coming crisis and resigned from his U.S. post and was nominated for the position of Governor of South Carolina by a group of conservative secessionists.

Pickens was elected and, as Governor, he was responsible for demanding the surrender of Fort Sumter from Major Robert Anderson of the Union Army - a demand which was refused - and this action lead to the shots that were fired at 4.30 a.m. on April 12th. 1861 that started the War between the States.

Mrs. Lucy Petway Holcombe Pickens designed, made and presented a battle flag to South Carolina’s Holcombe’s Legion (or Raiders) - which was originally intended as a South Carolina home guard unit - and which had been named in her family's honour by her husband.

At the start of hostilities, Holcombe’s Legion was expanded to have 5 Cavalry companies and 10 Infantry companies and most of these companies saw action.

The Legion fought in 16 of the most violent major battles of the war as it tried to ‘hold the line’ and it had a total of only 175 men left when it surrendered, with General Robert E. Lee, at Appomatox Courthouse, on April 9th. 1865.

Mrs. Pickens had became the ‘socialite toast of the Southern ladies’ during the early days of the Confederacy, and she became highly acclaimed throughout the South for her "classic features, titian hair, pansy eyes, and graceful figure." She was often called 'Lady Lucy' or the 'Queen of the Confederacy'.

It is recorded that she did have one child. She had given  birth to her daughter at the Imperial Palace in St.Petersburg on March 14, 1859, and named her Eugenia Frances Dorothea Olga Neva (the last two names being added by the Czarina); the daughter came to be known as 'Douschka' (Russian for "little darling"), a nickname that she kept all her life.

Francis W. Pickens died on January 25th. 1869 and is buried at Edgefield Cemetery in South Carolina but Lucy Pickens' fate after the war is not well documented.

It is known that she was vice regent for South Carolina in the Mount Vernon Ladies Association and was also the originator and president of an association that sought to erect a monument to the Confederate dead of Edgefield County, South Carolina

She died at her home, 'Edgewood', on August 8, 1899, of a cerebral embolism, and was buried near her husband and daughter in Edgefield Cemetery.
Mrs. Lucy Petway Holcombe Pickens featured on C.S.A. $1.00 notes in 1862 on two emissions, and also on $100.00 notes in 1862, 1863 and 1864 with George Wythe Randolph.


George Wythe Randolph, (1818-1867)

Born near Charlottesville, Virginia., March 10, 1818. Grandson of Thomas Jefferson

Delegate to Virginia secession convention, 1861.

General in the Confederate Army during the Civil War.

Confederate Secretary of War, 1862.

George Randolph came from a long line of illustrious Randolphs, commencing with William Randolph who had landed in the American colonies from Warwickshire, England in 1673.

William was twice Speaker of the House of Burgesses in the late 1690’s.

By amassing large land-holdings in Virginia and alliances formed with marriages to other notable families, the Randolphs became quite powerful and William’s son, Sir John Randolph followed on with an interest in politics and was the King’s Attorney and held other eminent positions during the mid 1700’s - but it was his son, Peyton Randolph who became first president of the Continental Congress. His nephew was appointed as George Washington’s aide-de-camp in 1775.

After the American Revolution, Peyton Randolph became involved in the formation of the first United States Constitution, while he was the Governor of Virginia from 1786 - 88 and, consequently, created a long list of political achievements which included being appointed as the 1st. Attorney-General of the new republic from 1789 - 94 and then Secretary of State from 1794 -1795.

John Randolph, who served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1799 up until 1829 - and also had some time in the Senate during that period - was a great advocate of individual and states rights, and this trait rubbed off on all the family members including George, who initially chose a military career at the start of hostilities between the states after serving as a delegate for Virginia during the secession convention of 1861.

By 1862, General George W. Randolph had succeeded Judah P. Benjamin as Secretary of War.

He died of pulmonary pneumonia, near Charlottesville, Virginia., April 3rd. 1867 but his actual burial location is unknown.

George Wythe Randolph featured on C.S.A. $100.00 notes with Mrs. Lucy Holcombe Pickens in 1862, 1863 and 1864.


Alexander Hamilton Stephens, (1812-1883)


Born at Wilkes (now renamed Taliaferro) near Crawfordville, Georgia., February 11, 1812.

Member of Georgia state house of representatives, 1836; member of Georgia state senate, 1842; U.S. Representative from Georgia, 1843-1859, Presidential Elector from Georgia, 1860.

Delegate to Georgia secession convention, 1861.

Delegate from Georgia to the Confederate Provisional Congress, 1861-1862.

Vice President of the Confederacy, 1861-1865.

Like many other members of the Confederate Government, Stephens started his state legislature and later U.S. Congress political career with a Law background.

He entered Congress as a Whig and supported John C. Calhoun in attempting to reach a compromise regarding slavery in 1850 and like Calhoun, who died disappointed in the same year, he later became a Democrat in 1852.

He opposed secession but, when Georgia left the Union in January 1861, he resigned his seat in the U.S. Congress and lent his considerable expertise into drafting a C.S.A. Constitution modelled on that of the United States.

As a dedicated fighter for individual rights as well as states rights, he was critical of President Davis’ decision to bring in conscription, impose martial law and other erosions of personal liberty.

Stephens, though a respected as a fine statesman, was criticised for his vocal and public attacks, which tended to lower morale in the Confederate government, and he was seen as a leader in the anti -Davis faction.

After spending 5 months in prison after the cessation of hostilities Stephens went on to become the candidate for U.S. Senator from Georgia, 1872, and then Representative from Georgia 1873-1882 (at-large 1843-1845, 7th District 1845-1853, 8th District 1853-1859, 1873-1882); and finally he was elected as Governor of Georgia, 1882-1883. Stephens was a fearless champion and continued to publicly defended the viewpoint of the Southern states to maintain their sovereign rights, until he died in Atlanta, Georgia on March 4th. 1883.

His original burial was at the Oakland Cemetery, Atlanta, Georgia until he was reburied nearer his home at Liberty Hall Cemetery, Crawfordville, Georgia.

Alexander Hamilton Stephens was featured on C.S.A. $20.00 notes in 1861 on two emissions, in 1862, 1863 and 1864.


John Elliott Ward, (1814-1902)


U.S. Minister to China, 1858.

We have little information about this politician who has been portrayed only once on the C. S. A. currency.

In 1835 Ward had attended Amherst College but had never graduated. From documentary evidence we assume he was born and lived in the Liberty and Chatham counties of Georgia and had obviously contributed to the political development of the Savannah area and of the U.S. at several different levels over a period of time.

During the period 1853 -54, John E. Ward was the Speaker of the 73rd. Session of the Georgia House of Representatives and from December 12th. 1853 to December 11th. 1854 he also held the position as Mayor of Savannah.

As a career politician, Ward was elected to the position of President of the Georgia Senate during the 75th. Session of 1857 - 1858, but he resigned on November 27th. 1858 to take up the duties of U.S. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary commissioned to China.

Ward’s duties officially started on December 15th. 1858 and continued on until December 15th. 1860 when he left Hong Kong.

He presented his credentials on August 10th. 1859. This established an official relationship with the Chinese Manchu authorities, but at that time diplomacy with that nation was being backed up by troops and gunboats from Great Britain, the United States and other nations who had a commercial interest in the Orient.

From 1860 onwards, little pertinent information appears to be available regarding his association with either the Confederate Congress, the United States government or even if he returned to the Georgia state legislature.

Whilst it is on record that Ward died in 1902, his place of burial is not readily known.

John Elliot Ward is only featured on one issue of C.S.A. $10.00 notes in 1861.


George Washington, (1732-1799)

Born in Westmoreland County, Virginia., February 22, 1732.

Delegate to Continental Congress from Virginia, 1774;

General in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War; Member of the U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787;

First President of the United States, 1789-1797.

Died at Mount Vernon, Virginia., December 14, 1799. Interment at Mount Vernon, Virginia.

Washington counties in 31 American states are named after him.

As a national hero to all Americans - and because of his birthplace - Washington was featured on the C.S.A. $50.00 notes in 1861 on three emissions.


Main References.

Epic Land Battles. by Richard Holmes. Published by Peerage Books. (Originally published by Octopus Books 1976)

The Civil War. 10 Part T.V. Documentary Series. Produced by Time-Life.

My Brother’s Face. by Charles Phillips & Alan Axelrod. Published by Chronicle Books. 1993.

World Paper Money. by Albert Pick and Neil Shafer. Published by Krause Publications. 1996.

The New Grolier Multimedia Encyclopaedia 1993. distributed under license by The Softworks Toolworks, Inc. 1991 - 1993

The Political Graveyard. - an Internet site created by Lawrence Kestenbaum of Ann Arbor, Michigan. U.S.A.

It can be located at :- http://www.politicalgraveyard.com/ofc-confed.html

Various U.S. Archival Sites - additional research by Paul Petterwood (T.N.S. Member #350.)

Holcombe Family histories.






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