Volume 20 Issue 2    Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)     February 2015



Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2015.


The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


All or any prices quoted in articles in this free newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the authors' own collection - or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' -  Internet Edition © 1991 - 2007.  and the  'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition. © 2007 - 2013.  

Krause-Mishler (KM) Standard and Specialized World Catalogs (also including 'Pick' banknote numbers) - and McDonald and/or Renniks Australian catalogue numbers - are used where applicable.

*Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes.)


Please, also, consider my conditional invitation, to make a literary contribution, if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest - and fulfils our stated editorial guidelines. As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in additional presentation. However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication. 

We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has necessitated the following conditions.

If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagiarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbyist collector.  - G.E.P.



Where on-line web-site Links or addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith - however, our readers are advised, that, if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.



(1914- 1918)



Time is a weird and wonderful thing ....!

 The old drunken sage, Omar Khayyam, coined a famous verse about some of the imponderables connected with Time and implications of the Will of God....


"The Moving Finger writes;

and having writ, Moves on:

Nor all thy Piety nor Wit Shall lure it back to cancel half a line,

Nor all thy Tears wash out a Word of it."


Looking backward over the last 1000 years, there were moments of Piety, Wit and Tears - about a 100 or so, years apart - that have shaped this future that we now have to live with.  I have taken the liberty of including a few selections  that have some relevance to my family - but -  you may select another starting year that has significance to you.


As this year, 2015, is a work 'in progress' - and some prior events were far more momentous than others -  I needed a flexible starting point still relevant to many Australians of my generation, so I decided to encompass the '14 - 18 year beginning of each century' time window - starting at c.1915  - and then I worked back from there to see what occurred. 

As numismatists - with varying flexible areas of expertise, there are, also, obvious connections that we may identify between events and coinages, banknotes and medallions etc. during this window frame of time - so let us first start weaving that elastic string that joins up some of those more noted 'Moving Finger writ bits' on which we may wish to hang our hobby and family interests - and, then, stir in a smidgen of 'hearsay and  rumour'  - and see what emerges.




1915 - The ANZAC tradition is born.

1915 - ANZAC Cove

Great-Uncle Frederick Robert Fox had stated he was 19 years and 6 months old when he enlisted on 13th. September 1914 just 41 days after war was declared.  Several other official documents show variations of his stated age - in fact, he was well underage - but, like thousands of other young men of that era, he sought adventure! 

He embarked from Australia on 20th. October 1914.

The ANZAC landing at Gallipoli took place on April 25 1915 - and Fred told how he celebrated his 18th. birthday under fire from the Turks.


c.1914 Hand-forged, tempered-iron blade Turkish Dagger, retrieved at Gallipoli during 1915 after a period of fierce fighting. It has a damaged, carved 11cms.Bone-handle -  utilizing two beaten silver Ottoman coins as blade locking devices - blade length 29cms.

"The dagger bears dried traces of an 'unknown' substance - containing Iron traces other than rust -  within the handle cavity."  - (Authenticated by QV Museum & Art Gallery, Launceston.)


At the conclusion of the Gallipoli campaign, Pte. Fred Fox spent some time at the Heliopolis Hotel - which had been converted to a General Hospital  to cater for A.I.F. wounded and ill. He had suffered gastric illness - that was eventually diagnosed as the initial attacks of Appendicitis - on returning from Gallipoli, and he was admitted to field hospitals at Ismailia and Seraperum for observation from 7th. February 1916.

It was decided that an operation was required (27th. February 1916) when the need became acute and he was transferred by #4 Hospital Train to Heliopolis.

The appendix was, by then, a serious case and it was treated on arrival.

He suffered complications from an infection of his operation scar and then needed a lengthy convalescence - the  relapse in his recovery meant that he had an extended period of recuperation lasting until 29th. April 1916 - and it meant he was 'Left Behind' when the 12th.Battalion sailed to England en route for France. 


His Casualty Form - Active Service (Army Form B.103. Part 2.) details his medical progress for the next few months until he was placed back on the 'Nominal Roll' and transferred to Tel el Kabir and rejoined training.

He was able to sail on the SS 'Arcadia' from Alexandria on 29th. July 1916 - and, eventually - after a stop-over in England - he was able to rejoin his unit in France on September 22nd. of that year as a replacement - just after the Battle of Menin Road had been fought - and - just in time for the rest of the Flanders Campaign.


Pvte. Frederick Robert Fox, Regimental #1010, was involved in most of the major battles in Flanders fought by the 12th. Battalion A.I.F. from that point in time  It should be noted that several other great-uncles - Fox and Petterwood family members - were also part of this Tasmanian Battalion. (A section of the 12th. Battalion is shown above, in late July 1916 - on the way to the Somme) 

Great-Uncle Fred sustained gunshot wounds to face and legs on several different occasions.

The first instance was a 'Gunshot wound to the Face' received on 20th. Sept. 1917 in Belgium. - and, after treatment and then recuperating at Buchy and Bologne - he was awarded the Military Medal

On 23rd. April 1918 he was wounded again with a shot to the nose but was back in action by 4th. May and had earned a promotion to Lance Corporal. (11th. May).

He was deeply involved in the crucial Battle of Polygon Wood, in late September 1918, but his health was failing and he was needing attention that couldn't be received in action - so, in  early November 1918 he was given 'furlough' at Havre and scheduled to be returned to Australia after treatment in England.

He embarked on 3rd. December 1918 to the H.T. 'Port Hacking' - which sailed on 13th. December and arrived back in Australia on 27th. January 1919. 

On 29th. March 1919 - L/Corporal Fred Fox MM became a civilian once more. (Register No. 1/162/17)

He passed away 23rd. January 1968 at age 72 after a fruitful life - and I'm glad to say that I had known him!




Australian 12th. Battalion troops preparing to repel the expected strong German counter-attack of 25th September 1918 at the blasted area to their south known as Polygon Wood. (pic)

Records indicate it involved very heavy fighting in the Australia sector.

("Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-18" - Angus & Robertson Publishers 1939.)


Great-Uncle Fred Fox in later years.

*One of Fred's German foes was another Lance Corporal - Gerfreiter Adolf Hitler.


Hitler had also fought in all the major battles - Ypres, Arras, Somme and Passchendaele - as a member of the 16th. Bavarian Reserve Regiment and had also been wounded on several occasions.  (Refer Wikipedia for full details)

He was awarded the Iron Cross 1st  & 2nd. Class, the Bavarian Military Medal 3rd. Class with Swords plus Bar, and the Cross of Military Merit (the Cental Powers 'Purple Heart' of its time) when he was temporarily blinded - there were other awards as well - and he was recognised by his peers as a genuinely diligent and brave soldier. 

In later years, like many other veterans, he rarely wore all the decorations he was entitled to.

Hitler (pictured in uniform), once refused a promotion because it would have taken him out of action in a role he was devoted to. During the Battle of Polygon Wood, while he was a messenger between positions that came under heavy Allied fire, he was wounded, shell-shocked and deafened - and spent the rest of the war in a German military hospital.




Australia: 1915 - 1918 Bronze Halfpennies.


A pocketful of 'Shrapnel' acquired by Fred Fox during his Adventure!

Egypt: 1914 (1333 A.H) Copper-Nickel 5/10 Qirsh; 1916 (1335 A.H.) .833 Silver 10 Piastres.

France: Selection of (Brass)10 & 20 Centimes Wine Tokens c.1917


Handy Numeric Table - with various Arabic versions.

The most commonly encountered and accepted is the Arabic (Turkey) style.

*Anno Domine date = Anno Hejirae date +622.

This A.H. date can be the most easily seen on a coin in Arabic numerals - but be aware that, on older pieces, the term of a rulers time in office may also need to be added - so search for the extra number usually found elsewhere within the coin's field.

This complicated method of dating was/is used in many Arabic nations' dating systems - but not all!

This older Middle Eastern system was/is also based on traditional lunar calculations (11 days shorter than the solar year) and a table of equivalent dates needs to be consulted in most instances.

Refer:- Krause Publications 'Standard Catalog of World Coins'.



1815 - NAPOLEON BONAPARTE escapes from Elba - and the Battle of WATERLOO takes place.

(*It is strongly believed, from historical documentation and family hearsay, that my Great, great grandfather, James Peterwood, may have been in military service with the Royal Marines from a very early age as a boy soldier. He was said to have been involved during the 1812 -15 Canadian border war between England and the United States - but, whilst that seems improbable - it is not impossible - as he would have been about 11 years old at the time - and boys that age were often used for menial tasks and as Royal Marine Drummers etc. There is a supposition he was also at Waterloo during the Royal Marines involvement in 1815 - but further official military documentation is required for this time in his life.)


1814 issue Britannia/Eagle bronze penny-size Canadian token.


Wedding Certificate, dated June 1836, of James PetterWood and Sarah Wyatt

(As all the participants - except the Curate - were illiterate, this misspelling of the name PETERWOOD created some unresolved problems for future generations....)


A Digest of official (Adult) Service records.

(via Ancestry.com - extracted from Royal Archives)

Corporal James Peterwood (Royal Marines) was serving aboard HMS 'Vesuvius' during 1840-42 (Ship's Book #96)

(HMS 'Vesuvius' was a Paddle-steamer Sloop - it had been grounded in Cork Harbour in July 1840 (12th or 21st) and had to be refitted at Plymouth before resuming troop-carrying activities.)
James Peterwood was involved in 'Operations' at Sidon on the coast of Syria in 1847 as a member of the Battalion of Supernumerary Royal Marines - he was a member of the Portsmouth Division - and he had been awarded the Naval General Service Medal by this time.  He was, eventually, discharged c. 1849 as being -'worn out'!




(*Records dated 6th. Dec.1850 show ex- Cpl James Peterwood (now aka James Petterwood) - as a former member of the Royal Marines and as an ex- Pensioner-Guard - was receiving an annual Pension of 10 Pounds 4 Shillings while he lived in the  Longford Municipal District in Tasmania.  He had been granted 5 acres of land in the nearby village of Perth.

He died at age 92 on 12 Oct. 1896 and it is presumed he was buried in St. Andrews Cemetery, Perth, Tasmania; but defining details are not available from the rediscovered, shattered, gravestone of his wife, Sarah, who predeceased him in 1870 (age 57). As his son, Robert Peterwood and family, lived in the township of Longford at that time - it is conceivable he may have been buried there if he had been in their care at his advanced age. 

Still searching.... it's an ongoing family mystery.....!)


1715 - LOUIS XIV, King of France dies.


1615-16 - Great authors, William SHAKESPEARE and Miguel de CERVANTES Saavedra (the author of 'Don Quixote') both die during the reign of JAMES I.


1515 - THOMAS WOOLSEY becomes Chancellor of England and Cardinal during the tumultuous reign of HENRY VIII.


1415 - Battle of AGINCOURT is fought.


1314 - King ROBERT the BRUCE of Scotland wins the Battle of BANNOCKBURN by defeating HENRY V of England (1413-22).

The use of sturdy Pikes against the English cavalry charge was crucial in this battle.


1215 - This was the culmination of the MIDDLE AGES and the CHURCH of ROME - and the PAPACY - was at its zenith. We all know that KING JOHN of England (1199-1216) signed the MAGNA CARTA under protest - with his fingers crossed behind his back - just in case Robin Hood* and his Merry Men turned up!


It is of interest that King John - during his time as Prince John - visited Ireland with 400 of his young crony knights in 1185, at age 19,  after being declared 'Lord of Ireland' in 1172 by his father, Henry II ...and he didn't like it much!  He had a little money  made at Waterford - some little silver halfpence - but he created bigger problems by taxing everybody - including his father's allies and friends - and using his knights as 'enforcers'.

He was ordered home - with his retinue - but the Prince's visit still resonates in that nation's history.

A brief rendition of events is available in the more complete story -'The Harp and the Shamrock'.

Refer:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june04.htm


Other generational marital connections were made with  many Irish expatriate families - like the Collins' and the Flynn's etc. - and, I know that most of my family tree - which has deep Irish roots on both sides -  is as interesting as it was claimed to be.

My late O'Byrne uncles - whom I always presumed had 'kissed the Blarney Stone' on more than one occasion - mentioned that famous actor/swashbuckler/womaniser, Errol Leslie Thomson Flynn - who was born here in Hobart, Tasmania on 20 June 1909 and passed away in Vancouver, Canada on October 14, 1959 - was a relative of sorts - a distant cousin - and - that just might be historically true!

(On reading Errol Flynn 's biography - I found, coincidently, that there were similar family health issues and other specific things that resonated.)


Errol....as Errol - and Errol ...as Robin Hood!*

Refer:- www.immdb.com/nams/nm0001224/bio


1115 - The CRUSADES were still in full swing.


1014-16 -  The unifying King of Ireland, BRIAN BORU, defeats the VIKINGS.

In England, the Danish Viking leader CNUT (1016-1035) has himself crowned King, after the  reign of AETHELRED the 'Unready' (978 - 1016) left a divided kingdom.

(*Some of my ancestors were the offspring of Swedish Vikings - 'Sons of Bjorn' - who had settled in Northern Ireland and took local women as partners (willingly or not) during this era.  In time, the family name of the begotten children was gradually shortened .... o' Bjorn - and then given the Irish twist to become 'Oberne'. 

As it is very similar to the 'O'Byrne' name in Southern Ireland - some of the OBerne's - who had settled in Mayo, Roscommon, Sligo and Galway - became linked to the greater O'Byrne group (Sept) from the Cork area.

By word of mouth, and by some intermarriage, the names gradually intertwined in that area.. 

When circumstances (getting caught with somebody else's dead sheep) forced 4 of the O'Berne brothers' exodus from Clifden, Connemara to prison on Spike Is. in Cork Harbour -  and, eventually, 3 survivors - to Australia in the mod-1800's - the name change became confused before becoming permanently fixed.

From c.1880-ish the majority of our family were known as O'Byrne  - and, no matter what our offspring are now known as - we have left our indelible mark on Australian history.



The plethora of falling leaves from the multi-hued branches of our Family tree is continuing, and the 'moving finger' never ceases to write!

However, those fallen leaves - that have returned to the earth - have nurtured our Tree with the sustenance needed to guarantee that our little patch of growing humanity will remain well rooted into the pages of international history.

To those great-uncles, and others, in our extended Family , who didn't get to come home from conflicts - and who now lay in foreign fields in France, Lebanon and elsewhere - and to those other cousins, uncles , brothers and parents  and grandparents who had served prior - and have since - and did return from other exotic places and other conflicts bearing scars both inwardly and outwardly  - I dedicate this brief elegy.



Eternal soldier from ages past

You come again like Winter's blast

Forever trapped where conflicts last

To fight the fights that never passed.

Eternal soldier strong and sure

You hear the drums and crash of war

Through ages comes the battle roar

And off you go to fight once more.

Eternal soldier born to die

'Neath foreign skies were eagles fly

And rain-tears fall and breezes sigh

As time goes by, and by, and by....


- 'Fly Ever Free' (2003) by Graeme Petterwood. © 2015.





JULY 2007 - JANUARY 2015.

Full details of 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  (2007)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  -  (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm  -  (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec09.htm  -  (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2010)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec10.htm  -  (Volume 15 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2011)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jun11.htm  -  (Volume 16 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec11.htm  -  (Volume 16 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2012)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june12.htm - (Volume 17 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec12.htm  -  (Volume 17 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2013)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june13.htm  -  (Volume 18 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec13.htm   -  (Volume 18 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2014)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june14.htm  -  (Volume 19 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec14.htm  -   (Volume 19 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2015)


VOLUME 20 -  2015.

Issue 1. January 2015:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan15.htm

T.N.S. ANNUAL DINNER & LECTURE 2014 - This brief report from the T.N.S. Annual Dinner & Lecture held in early December 2014, can only give an inadequate idea of the level of comradeship that many of the members of the Society still enjoy. Established in 1963 - just prior to the introduction of Decimal coinage to Australia - the Tasmanian Numismatic Society has proven to be a great learning institution. However, we members - old and new -  are still being educated about our fascinating hobby from invited experts - such as Dr. David Briggs.

A BLAST FROM THE PAST - The removal of $1.00 and $2.00 notes from our currency was considered a big deal back in 1984 and 1988. These notes were the equivalent of our 'old' 10 Shillings and One Pound Imperial notes from the time of Federation. However, the sky didn't fall in!


Issue 2. February 2015:-

A MISTY WINDOW IN TIME - Over the last 1000 years at , seemingly, regular intervals -  events have occurred that are suitably impressive to have earned a place in written history. Of course, some of those momentous occurrences coincide with lesser instances that connect with us - the grist which is ground and blended to make us who we are. We have all been the victims of the whims of Fate - but, we do still try to rise from the dust and control our destinies!  





The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


The 'NumisNet World'’ (Internet Edition) newsletter has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented free on a monthly basis with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics. Whilst the 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter abides by the same basic guidelines originally suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter, it is a separate, independent publication.

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, email or hand delivered, directly to financial members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions.

All titles and matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society


Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.

Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Editor. 

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Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, any Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations -  or  - (2) To provide additional important information. 


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In such instances, they may not be replicated or their images reproduced or republished - unless prior permission is sought from, and given by, the originator, owner or licensee of such item, design or packaging.



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The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. Deadline for any literary contributions, or amendment to copy, is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication.


The Editor,

Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.


Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

Email: pwood@vision.net.au