Volume 18 Issue 2Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996) February 2013
Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2013.
All or any prices quoted in articles in this free newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the authors' own collection - or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition © 1991 - 2007. and the 'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition. © 2007 - 2012.
Krause-Mishler (KM) Standard and Specialized World Catalogs (also including 'Pick' banknote numbers) - and McDonald and/or Renniks Australian catalogue numbers - are used where applicable.
*Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes.)
Please, also, consider my conditional invitation, to make a literary contribution, if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest - and fulfils our stated editorial guidelines. As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in additional presentation. However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication.
We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has necessitated the following conditions.
If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagiarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbyist collector. - G.E.P.
PLEASE NOTE - RE-STATED DISCLAIMERS:
Where on-line web-site Links or addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith - however, our readers are advised, that, if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.
COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD
DISAPPEARING WORLD BANKNOTES (ROUND 2)
In 'Round One' we discussed some of the paper-money issuing nations from the 19th - 20th Centuries in Europe and the Orient that have ceased to exist as entities in their own right - either by force of arms or divisive politics - and, those who have voluntarily merged with others, for economic reasons.
We will continue on - in 'Round Two' - to peruse this list of those who didn't quite 'make the cut' to qualify for current membership of the recognised nations. An 'also-ran' of today can be an eligible candidate of tomorrow - and others may fail...!.
According to the best Internet sources - a definitive list of the Countries of the World is continuing to be nebulous. With so many small breakaway sections in unstable regions declaring independence and nationhood - only to be overwhelmed and re-absorbed shortly afterwards - it is virtually impossible to put a list together that is not almost immediately ‘out-of-date’!
According to one excellent source -‘worldatlas’- there is no right answer.
They quote the current number of independent nations as ranging from 189 - 196.
During the 20th. Century, during 1914 - 18 and again in 1939- 45, the world was racked by two major conflicts that expanded beyond the original protagonists to become World Wars - involving millions of people and a score of countries. We have since been plagued by many smaller - but even more vicious - if that can be imaged - events that have influenced the nations and currencies of the era.
By picking the wrong side, some nations fell to the victors by way of armed combat and were sometimes absorbed and lost to history.
Some populations decided that colonial rule was tantamount to economic slavery and chose to become their own masters - in some cases, the will of the people erupted and violent changes occurred; but, in others, it was a peaceful transition as witnessed in the resumption of Hong Kong by China when the 'lease' ran out!
During the Second World War, the forces of Imperial Japan attacked and overwhelmed the major nation islands of the equatorial Pacific Archipelago.
The Philippines, the Dutch East Indies, Singapore, parts of China, Indo-China and Burma and areas of the Central Pacific and the Solomon Islands - as well as New Guinea - which was then under Australian administration - were invaded.
That those forces were eventually defeated after 4 years of the most bitter, bloodthirsty warfare is now on historical records.
In major areas, the Japanese installed a military controlled government and issued occupation currency specifically for that area.
The generic designs of many of the small change notes were interchangeable and a series of Letter prefixes identified where the notes were to be used.
B = Burma (in Cents and Rupees); M = Malaya (in Cents and Dollars); S = Sumatra (in Cents and Gulden - and later in Rupiah); O = Oceania (in Shillings and Pounds); P = Philippines (in Centavos and Pesos) - were the initial letters, occasionally followed by another letter or number that 'fine-tuned' the issue circulation area.
In the Philippines, in particular, an effort was made to introduce a more substantial numbered series similar in size to the US -Philippines currency that it had replaced, and, in Sumatra (now Indonesia), a change in the currency name was made in a successful effort to promote regional nationalism. Although the Japanese were defeated and removed in 1945, the money they introduced was still allowed to circulate - in certain areas - at an agreed rate with the Dutch Gulden for some years prior to complete nationalism and the start of Dutch colonial withdrawal from the region. in the late 1940's .
The Japanese Government - Sumatra
Initially, the occupation currency for Sumatra was issued in Cents and Gulden, but - in 1944 - the Japanese administration printed and issued notes in Rupiah in an effort to break the colonial ties with the Netherlands. Some of these Japanese notes were still being used and accepted as late as mid-December 1949 in the Nationalist-held areas just prior to the final severance from Holland and the start of Indonesian nationhood..
Netherlands-Indies (Sumatra - later Indonesia) - featuring Queen Wilhelmina.
This Sen and Rupiah series of currency was introduced by the returning Dutch colonial administration after the end of WWII - but it was to eventually fall victim to the country's militant nationalism which had been awakened by the Japanese during their occupation.
France has been a major dominant colonial power for many centuries - and its influence, both militarily and commercially, has also been entrenched in the Pacific and Indo-China areas for nearly as long. The Franc and Centimes currency and coinage was adapted to suit conditions wherever the French established outposts - sometimes, however, it was easier to over-stamp existing notes, in particular, to save printing a dedicated currency for a small population on a long extended colonial line..
Several of the notes shown below fit into that 'second-hand' category and cover the era from the 1930 - 70's - and reflect life before the relative independence that some now enjoy in this ever-changing area!
The CFP Franc (Change Franc Pacifique) that reflected the economic differences between France and its colonies was later designed for the French Polynesia region of the Pacific and continued into the late 20th. Century. Unfortunately, I do not possess a good example - as yet.
The current CFP(XPF) Franc exchange rate with the Euro or our Australian Dollar is only about. XPF119 Francs = One Euro or XPF92 Francs = AUD$1.00 - but, the prices charged for fine retail numismatic examples are often higher..
In most instances, these types of notes will be found from 'Very Good - Fine' condition in dealers stocks.
New Caledonia - Noumea
The over-stamped notes - originally for use in Indo-China - gave way to the over-stamped notes of the "Institute of Emission of the Outer Sea" that specifically covered the French Polynesia regions of the Pacific from the 1950-70's (Shown are New Caledonia - Noumea notes.)
The notes were part of the generic series that covered the Gilbert and Solomon Islands - and other smaller Pacific island outposts of the New Guinea archipelago - that had normally shown allegiance to Australia, New Zealand and England. The denominations were in Shillings and Pounds and bore the initial prefix 'O' - usually with another letter. OA and OC are the most common..
As we all know, the history and fate of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland have been interwoven for centuries. Separate currency and coinage has circulated in some of those countries that make the United Kingdom - that was once not so 'united'.
The story of the medieval coinage of Ireland has been related previously in some depth..
The situation in Scotland, in particular, has been relatively unique with the Imperial Pound, Shilling and Pence currency - north of the border - having a slightly different 'worth' than that just across the line in the northern part of England - and whilst the English Pound is acceptable by the Scottish at full value - the courtesy is not always extended in reverse - without some local unofficial discounting.
Travellers should be aware that their Scottish Pounds - though officially on a par with English Pounds are 'not quite' equal....!
The Russian Empire consisted of numerous districts that were so large that they often needed a local currency to facilitate trade.
Districts like South Russia had numerous issues of elaborate notes during the late 1800's - early 1900's prior to the Revolution, and - whilst they are similar to the Moscow-oriented notes - they usually bear a differentiating icon. These notes usually bore the same signatures as the contemporary Imperial notes so they can be confusing if you don't read Cyrillic script or have access to a good Krause World catalogue.
Another over-stamped generic note from the series issued by the French "Institute of Emission of the Outer Sea" to cover one of their colonial gems in the Polynesia area of the Pacific up until the 1970's. It is identical to the Noumea notes with the only difference being the location overprint.
Another huge Russian district that warranted its own currency. These notes, issued from the late 1800's were often inscribed with details in several scripts that reflected the local dialects.
As with South Russian notes, these were eventually overwhelmed by the Revolutionary issues after 1918 and had disappeared by 1922 when the Civil War ceased. Reference to a good catalogue will provide extra detail for collectors who find the early Russian currency of interest.
Historical events, within most reader's lifetimes, are well known about thedemise of South Vietnam - so I won't enter a debate about the political direction the now 'united by war' nation has taken. It is a sign of the times that the Communist nation has chosen to have some issues of its new polymer banknotes produced by a former protagonist, Australia, and welcomes other former enemies with open arms as paying tourists. The old paper notes of the former southern government were used for a short time - between April 1975 - June 1976 - but, eventually, with unification - they were phased out. There would be many of these notes in private hands - now only as curiosities or as collectables.
Krause Publications -"The Samoan group of islands was discovered by Dutch navigator Jacob Roggeveen in 1772. Great Britain, the United States and Germany established consular representation at Apia in 1847, 1853 and 1861 respectively. The conflicting interests of the three powers produced the Berlin agreement of 1889 which declared Samoa neutral and had the effect of establishing a tripartite protectorate over the islands. A further agreement, 1899, recognized the rights of the United States in those islands east of 171 deg. west longitude (American Samoa) and of Germany in the other islands (Western Samoa). New Zealand occupied Western Samoa at the start of World War I and administered it as a League of Nations mandate and U.N. trusteeship until Jan. 1, 1962, when it became an independent state. Western Samoa is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The Chief Executive is Chief of State. The prime minister is the Head of Government. The present Head of State, Malietoa Tanumafili II, holds his position for life. Future Heads of State will be elected by the Legislature Assembly for five-year terms.
RULERS: British, 1914-1962, Malietoa Tanumafili II, 1962-2007"
With the collapse of the Communist bloc, the political, economic and military disarray in Serbia and Yugoslavia after the death of Marshall Tito - the currency of the area took a massive jolt and inflation rivalled that of the post WWII era. The formation of a new Republic Of Yugoslavia consisting of the former Serbia and Montenegro, in 1992, did little to alter the dire monetary situation and hyper-inflation until the Currency reform of 1996 took place with the introduction of the Novi (New) Dinara.
As mentioned, the changing number of world nations - those that are truly independent entities and exist under their own auspices - means a possible change in the ways that will be used to represent their public spending currency. It may well be that - within some of our lifetimes - we will see the world's cash money disappear into the thrall of imaginative electronic transfer technology.
I hope you have enjoyed this sojourn back into recent banknote history - it may be - that, one day, these sorts of records will be our only reminders of what it was like to have colourful paper money in our wallets or pockets.
Standard Catalog of World Paper Money - Standard Issues 1368 - 1960 (12th. Edition). - Krause Publications
Standard Catalog of World Paper Money - Modern Issues 1961 - present (14th. Edition). - Krause Publications.
(An Always Timely Reprise!)
Why is it that when we see the sign 'WET PAINT' we tend to reach out and touch it?
What is the first reaction when we show one of our prize numismatic pieces to a non-collector - they reach out to touch it! Touch is one of the main senses we possess - probably the most important. It conveys pain or pleasure and myriads of other information and sensations with just a brief brush of the fingers.
Most numismatists are taught, from the earliest stages, that valuable coins - or other such collectibles - are not to be handled aggressively and that caution must be exercised when allowing others to handle specimens - particularly bronze - that may not protected by plastic, glass or paper.
It seems a pity that the most important part of sensory enjoyment is denied to a novice by an experienced numismatist who knows only too well the damage that can be done by the chemical reactions involved in that brief touch. Like some other unprotected bodily functions, the exchange between collectible and toucher may be devastating. What is the answer?
If we prepare an easily accessible 'package' in advance - something that we can have ready for use to make the whole process painless - we have already won the first round.
First of all - we LET them touch something of little value to get rid of that first impulsive NEED to touch.
An assortment of interesting circulated loose coinage in various conditions.
O.K. for handling & touching - for educational purposes.
We then quietly explain the need for care in handling as we take another step up the educational stairway with a few more samples that we keep especially for the purpose and only then - if we are prepared for the possible outcome - do we clearly and deliberately demonstrate the care we expect by presenting them with a SPECIAL item in the most appropriate way.
1927 Canberra and 1934-5 Victoria Centenary Florins in Brilliant Uncirculated Condition.
1923 Half-penny in Very Fine Condition
No un-supervised touching with this lot.
While we cannot stop the toucher from dabbing the finger on the'WET PAINT' we can protect our numismatic assets by these few very quick lessons and by our demonstration.
However, I must admit that I love the simple 'ornate-ness' of some of the older and well-worn silver coins in my Middle East collection.
It is not just because they are a noble metal with tons of history behind them - but for that warm sensory pleasure that only touch and imagination can convey.
As a hobbyist collector, first and foremost, I believe my hobby should give me all the pleasure it can - so, perversely, I will probably continue to store some of them in easy-access plastic pockets - and, I must admit, I nearly always reach out to touch 'WET PAINT'!
Egyptian .833 Silver (1916 - 1335 AH) 10 Piastres and .833 Silver (1908 - 1326 AH) 20 Qirsh
Clean hands - holding permitted - for pure pleasure purposes only.
'TASMANIAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY'.
11th. APRIL 2013
Location: Shot Tower - Taroona
Date: Thursday 11th. April.
Commencing: 8.00 p.m. (approx.)
Schedule for 50thAnniversary Celebrations (November) will be discussed.
Members are invited to submit contributions to a 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' Souvenir publication.
Meet new members. Any other relevant business.
GENERAL INDEX UPDATE.
'TASMANIAN NUMISMATIST - INTERNET EDITION' 1996 - June 2007
'NUMISNET WORLD' July 2007 - December 2012
Early issues of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition', from 1995 - 1999. were permanently archived in 2000 and articles are not linked directly.
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug03.htm - 1995, 1996 - 1997 (Volumes 1 and 2) Archived. Content detail only.
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/Sept2003.htm - 1998 - 1999 (Volumes 3 and 4) Archived. Content detail only.
By referring to the 'Newsletter Archives' or 'Search' function located on the Home Page, you can directly access all current Volumes online.
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html - January 2000 (Volumes 5 - to date).
In January 2006 it was decided to grant each new issue its own URL link. which would henceforth appear in the current Index.
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar07.htm - 2006 (Volume 11)
The final Index of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition'
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm - 2007 (Volume 12 - Issues 1 - 6)
Full details of 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (2007)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)
For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm - (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)
For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec09.htm - (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 12)
For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2010)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec10.htm - (Volume 15 - Issues 1 - 12)
For full details of 'Numisnet World (2011)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jun11.htm - (Volume 16 - Issues 1 - 6)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec11.htm - (Volume 16 - Issues 7 - 12)
For full details of 'Numisnet World (2012)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june12.htm - (Volume 17 - Issues 1 - 6)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec12.htm - (Volume 17 - Issues 7 - 12)
'NUMISNET WORLD' - INDEX - January 2013
Issue 1. January 2013:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan13.htm
DISAPPEARING WORLD BANKNOTES (ROUND 1!) - Over the last two decades or so, the world has become very much smaller, numismatically speaking!The formation of the Euro zone - and the break-up of several major power blocs - can be likened to tossing a handful of stones into the currency pond. The waves and ripples are still bouncing from shore to shore, and some weaker currencies have been submerged and drowned - or in desperate need of salvation. It is a time for reflection by note collectors, as some prized collectables are being relegated to the 'also rans' sections of our albums - with the knowledge that we will be unlikely to see another national issue - as these states disappear into history.
A FEW 'TAG ALONGS - A few extra interesting pieces of paper that we sometimes overlook in the larger picture.
CASH FROM THE ORIENT! - TASMANIA'S CHINESE CASH - Over the years, the story of the CASH coins has been told on numerous occasions - however, we continue to get regular inquiries - "I have an old brass coin, a bit bigger than a 10 cent coin, with a hole in the middle - it has Chinese writing on it! What is it?" The purpose of this newsletter has always been educational - so - we have reprised the archived stories once again for that reason.
WANTED KNOWN - The 2013 schedule for the 'COIN & STAMP PLACE' 'travelling' coin and stamp shop locations is now available. Contact them if you need to reserve any of the 2013 essentials or need them to bring something special along to the venues.
Issue 2. February 2013 :-
DISAPPEARING WORLD BANKNOTES (ROUND 2) - Concluding our perusal of some of the paper banknotes of 'yesterday' - or from those odd corners of the world that don't always attract a lot of numismatic attention.
A NUMISMATIC HOUSEHOLD HINT! - It's OK to allow non-collectors to touch your coins 'n' stuff - as long as you select the pieces that you hand to them! Be prepared - have a 'goodie-bag' ready to absorb that first impulsive reach and touch before you have a chance to educate them. .
T.N.S. MEETING - A general meeting will be held on 11th. April to discuss the 50th Anniversary celebration arrangements and to meet new members..
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