Volume 15 Issue 2Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996) February 2010
Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2010.
Remember - be astute when you are handed change - not all the wonders of numismatics have been discovered yet - and they don't have to be shiny and new! This edition again features an assortment of 'trivia' that I think is of interest and I trust it will prove educational and entertaining to you as well.
All or any prices quoted in articles in this newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations.
Wherever possible - illustrations are from the authors' own collection or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition and the 'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition. © 1996 - 2010.
(Fair 'acknowledged' use of any scan is allowed for educational purposes.)
Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale.
Any comments published in this privately produced newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views of the 'Numisnet World' (Internet Edition) nor its Editor.
Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, any Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to:
(2) To provide additional important information.
Some illustrated items - including their designs and packaging - may be subject to existing copyright restrictions. In such instances, they may not be replicated or their images reproduced or republished - unless prior permission is sought from, and given by, the originator of such item, design or packaging.
Please consider my conditional invitation to make a literary contribution if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest and fulfills our stated editorial guidelines. However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication. As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in presentation.
We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has neccessitated the following conditions.
If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbiest collector. - G.E.P.
PLEASE NOTE - RE-STATED DISCLAIMER: Where on-line web-site addressess are supplied, they are done so in good faith after we have checked them ourselves - however, our readers are advised that if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.
CRASH! BANG! - OUCH!
The Editor's 'Nightmare on X Street!'
It had to happen right at exactly the wrong time - but that's 'Murphy's Law'!
That was the sound - and my reaction - to a major computer problem that made mid-January 2010 turn into a logistical nightmare.
To all those who have been through their own faithful old computer's 'mechanical and electronic' collapse - and sudden death syndrome - you will know exactly what I mean. As I winced at the grinding crunch, that came from the direction of my computer Hard-Drive, I vaguely remembered the same thing happening many years ago in early 2000 - and, unfortunately, my alarm was well-founded!
It also meant that all the weeks of extra writing I had done during early December - and the Christmas holidays - to get some newsletters and articles prepared in advance so that I could take a short break, had been absolutely wasted.
The loss of several completed articles, and supplementary items for this month and next, is real 'Humpty-Dumpty' stuff - the inspiration and the words are gone and just - 'can't be put together again' - well, not exactly in the same way! Ever see a grown man cry?!
I cannot hope to remember all the sources of technical and historical information that I had accumulated and prepared back then - so it will be easier to start from scratch for this abbreviated issue to get the ball rolling again - so if things are a bit 'topsy-turvy' for a while, please - bear with me - as it could have been even worse!
I suppose it was one drastic way of doing a 'spring-clean' - but, unfortunately - 'the baby went out with the dirty-water'!
However, the fact that you are reading this means that I have, at least, arranged to have the most essential of computer repairs done.
I have had the Hard-Drives replaced, redeemed some of the information from my back-up system and installed a new up-graded program.
(Incidentally, the new Windows XP won't accept all of the information from the back-up - I think it is because my old Windows 98 system was so ancient that it wasn't totally compatible. We're still working on it, as I prepare to do things the hard way and rewrite a whole lot of stuff and try to play catch-up for next month)
I have since discovered that the graphics card also appears to be impaired and needed to be replaced - the illustrations appeared safe and OK in storage, but they were not as good as they should be when transferred to the newsletter pages and a few weird things have happened.. Currently, I'm using an older, less efficient card to re-access my Picture Library so, hopefully, the result will be reasonable enough until we get better organized.
However, I have now regained some small measure of control - it has come at a great expense of time - and a fair bit of cash, no doubt - when I have a chance to count the cost.
Several now-archived newsletters that had been 'works-in-progress', back in early December 2009, missed the back-up I made at that time and were also affected and only partly saved - but, as I find the anomalies, I will try to address the most important ones ASAP!
This calamity does not only refer to my numismatic hobby interests - but is totally widespread across my computerized life-style.
Obviously, there have been great losses of all sorts of basic information and correspondence - the majority of my Family History reference material and all My Favorites lists have disappeared - as well as my email contact address list and some special Links etc., at personal and business levels going back over a decade. Some I can resurrect from other sources - but others are now in the 'too hard basket'!
Regrettably, I have had to accept the facts and realise that some really precious personal stuff will be gone permanently from my computer records, whilst other items may be recoverable in whole or in part - but it will take time - and, sadly, I can't afford to hold my breath for so long. The thoughts that springs to mind are: 'Too many eggs in one basket!' and 'Technology is a wonderful servant - but a cruel master!'
* If you are a regular email correspondent with the Editor of the 'Numisnet World - Internet Edition' - please - drop me a note so that I can re-enter your contact address and details into my files.
*If you are waiting on an answer to a query you may have made during January - please re-submit the request - as all my mail-boxes were 'cleared' during the disaster.
FOR THE COMMON MAN - or WOMAN!
by: Graeme Petterwood © 2003 - 2010
Re-edited, re-illustrated and re-printed by request
'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition - Dec. 2003
How many of us own an Australian 1930 Penny or an Australian Star Note - in any condition?
The first is near impossible now for the average new collector - and the second is becoming hampered by rarity and the cost for a good example. I would venture to say that over 90% of collectors do not, and never will, own such a treasure as one of these.
Don't think that, if you are amongst that 90%, that you are a failure - even if sometime you are given a sympathetic 'poor you' smile from those who should know better!
Recently, I was asked to appraise a small range of coins for a friend of a friend and, although I was rather pressed for time that evening, I sat down and spent an interesting half-hour sifting through what many dealers would call 'shrapnel'.
Why was it so interesting?
Because the collector was so enthusiastic, about her handful of pre-decimal well-circulated coins, that it rubbed off on me.
She knew that they were nothing much as far as value was concerned - but the point is that she had accumulated them because she liked them and wanted to know more about them. I felt like a school-teacher with a new student as I watched the eager acceptance of the knowledge I was able to provide.
I felt that, at least, by expressing an interest I may have fanned the numismatic spark a little and who knows where that could lead in the long term.
After she had departed, I reflected on what I had told her about choosing the best example and always trying to upgrade her coins.
It is a fact that the huge majority of collectors are working down in the lower grades of condition. These people are the most genuine of collectors - they get their coins in their change and it is only when they are hooked that they consider actually 'buying' a coin in better than a common circulated grade..
It is a reflection of how most of us first started our hobby.
'COLLECTING AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH COINS'
(an ANDA publication).
A handy reference to collecting and grading Australian pre-decimal coinage. This is an indicative guide to the normal abrasive wear that occurs on a typical coin from this era 1910 - 1964 . Illustration:- King George V 1911 - 1936 Florin (Two Shillings).
Numismatics might well be known as 'the hobby of kings', but every kingdom is made up of lots and lots of commoners who get just as much - if not more - enjoyment from the same sort of hobby. They are the ones who probably call themselves 'coin collectors' - not numismatists.
Numismatics is a Latin-derived word that most uninitiated people cannot even say - and it means nothing to them!
These are the sorts of people whose coins don't have to be locked away and guarded; these are the ones that can drag them out any time they want to admire the design, and feel their texture, and hand them around without needing cotton gloves, and even flip them in the air to hear the distinctive ring that silver has in comparison to Cupro-nickel, for instance.
Each of their coins still has the same basic story to tell as a prime example - in fact, if they could talk, some could prove to be far more interesting!
Below: A typical sort of selection from a coin collector's 'treasure' box.
(From left - reading down)
1st row - Japanese 500 Yen, New Zealand 20 Cents 1978
2nd row - U.S. Cent, Thailand 25 Satangs, Singapore 20 Cents 1968
3rd row - Palestine (1927) 2 Mils, U.S. Quarter 1999D, Spanish 200 Pesetas 1997
4th row - Australian Florin 1951, Australian (U.N.) 20 Cents 1995.
Some numismatists and dealers have a tendency to become - for want of a better definition - 'elitists', when they come in contact with common coin 'collectors' - and every one of these 'snobs' has the potential to kill the enthusiasm of a new hobbiest and turn them away with their blast of 'expertise' - but, thankfully, those types are counted on the fingers of one hand.
They expect relatively new collectors to have an immediate grasp of their own specialised collecting fields, a huge reference library and a desire for every coin ever made - or so it appears - and, though all of the facts mentioned are admirable goals, few of us will ever score a complete winner in their eyes.
It is also a fact that many major coin dealers, inadvertently, appear to support that idea of elitism by always advertising coins in Proof, Uncirculated or in extremely high grades. There may be a lesson in the old adage that 'little fish are sweet' - many small profits equal one large one. It just needs to take a little longer.
Still, after saying that, I have been in business and realise that different levels of expectations have to be met - and bills have to be paid.
Equally, not everyone can dip into their pocket and pay hundreds of dollars for pristine or rare items.
Is there common ground? Of course there is!
In fact, most reputable dealers started out just like us!
They know that the items they usually choose to advertise are their 'Showcase' stock-lines - but, like any other businesses worth their salt, they are prepared to try and supply what you ask for - if you ask! They usually have plenty of basic stock under the counter in varying grades of condition for the average customer who just 'wanders in' - be it, in person, or by any other of the more modern means.
Don't ever be scared of dealers - they usually do what they do because they actually like playing with coins and, also, they want to please you - as well as the fact that they need to make a living. Buying and selling should be a mutually rewarding experience - you diet for a while, and the dealer can afford to eat.
From personal experience I have found that if you show a dealer that you trust his judgement he will also reciprocate by elevating you, the buyer - his bread and butter - to 'customer' status and treating you accordingly.
Some are even known to enjoy a little bit of reasonable 'haggling' with an affable client!
Australian coin and banknote catalogues have become very economical as well as more informative and professional over the last ten years - and, these days, it is a real asset to have one on the shelf for reference - collector or not. McDonald’s and Rennicks are two that are highly recommended.
How many times have we seen kids - and some adults - rifling through the grotty old pennies that someone always has at the markets.
Do they pick up something far more valuable than it appears to be? How would they know?
With a quality catalogue, the most amateur of collectors will then be able to see what they might have - or what may be within their financial grasp if they are getting serious about expanding their collection into a fantastic hobby that will kept them enthralled for a lifetime.
Once this transformation occurs, the next step up the knowledge ladder is to find a dealer that they can feel comfortable with, and finally join a coin club where they can mix with other collectors - or numismatists of any age - and swap information and ideas.
They may even become comfortable and do a bit of 'horse-trading' - as well as learn the finer points of coin 'collecting' that will eventually earn them the deserved title of 'numismatist' ..... and by then they will know how to say the word and know what it really means!
Somewhere, in there, it also is handy to have access to a good coin magazine to keep supplying the most up-to-date market values that advertising dealers can provide - and by this time the 'collector' will be able to make a sound judgement on whether it suits their pocket as well as their desire to own a particular piece.
The illustrations below show some of the design differences between the two lowest value notes issued by the U.S. Mint during last century. The recent redesigning and modern colouring of U.S. Federal Reserve Notes will be dealt with in a future article.
1963 $2.00 United States Note - Jefferson (obverse) 'Monticello' (reverse) - Red Seal.
1935C S1.00 Silver Certificate - Washington (obverse) iconic symbols (reverse)
1995 $1.00 Federal Reserve Note - Washington (obverse) iconic symbols (reverse)
Amongst my accumulation I have one solitary 'star note' from the U.S.A. - it is not pristine by any means - but it is a star note as defined by the U.S. Mint.. It should be noted that the United States Notes, and the former Silver and Gold Certificates, had the star placed at the beginning of the serial number as a replacement of the prefix, whereas the Federal Reserve Notes and Federal Reserve Bank Notes have it at the end to replace the suffix. All U.S. star notes have their own individual serial number - and it is not the same number as the note it is replacing.
1957B One Dollar Silver Certificate - Blue Seal (Pick 149b)
Star (Replacement) Note with the 'star' replacing the suffix.
'Official Blackbook Price Guide to United States Paper Money'. - (32nd. Edition) - by Marc and Tom Hudgeons 2000.
THE DISPLAY CASE - (Part 6)
Compiled by: Graeme Petterwood © 2009 -2010
The original purpose of 'The Display Case' - series was to occasionally feature a few photoscans - and a little detail - of those 'forgotten' treasures we all have in our collections. References numbers, if quoted, are from the Krause Publications - "Standard Catalog of World Paper Money" (SCWPM) by Albert Pick and others - both General and Specialized Issues, in the main. Catalogue numbers will be either designated as - Pick #'s or Kr. # 's - depending on the involvement of Albert Pick - or other writers or newer editors. Not all of the banknotes illustrated were officially issued - nor are some samples pristine - some were produced in times of conflict by opportunistic conquerors and illegal governments - or individuals - and later repudiated.
These few nations make up the final selection that I have chosen to illustrate in this particular edition of 'The Display Case'.
In view of last month's computer disaster - which completely deleted the original article from my advanced pages - I needed to rescan and replace the illustrations and supply some detail in this issue. Please note illustrations are not to actual size.
Formerly part of the New Hebrides Condominium, Vanuatu is a group of volcanic and coral islands located in the South Pacific Ocean. The population of approx. 160,000 is mainly Melanesian. The islands were discovered by the Portuguese in 1606 but they had other European influences - such as Capt. Bouganville of France in 1768 and James Cook from England in 1774 - that proved to be longer-lasting. Independence from joint Anglo-French rule was attained in 1982.
N.D. (1982) Central Bank of Vanuatu 100 Vatu (Pick #1)
- with text in the three official languages, English, French and Bislama (Pidgin)
This tiny group of islands is located in the South Pacific to the north-east of the New Hebrides. It is reliant on tourism, agriculture and fishing. Discovered in 1772 by the Dutch explorer, Jacob Roggeveen, the islands have had a colonial past that included Great Britain, the United States and Germany. The change of world power bases that occured after WWI saw the islands change hands several times - from a tripartate, of those nations mentioned, into a New Zealand administered mandate of the League of Nations and eventually as a U.N. trusteeship. It was a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and became an independent state on Jan. 1st. 1962.
N.D. (1980) Monetary Board of Western Samoa - One Tala (Pick #19)
This Balkan nation has had - and still does - a thoroughly convuluted history due to its geographical location. I suggest that our readers should examine this history in an appropriate place with an up-to-date reference book - as it is too complicated to explain here in a simple manner. Suffice to say that it was first proclaimed on Dec. 1st. 1918 and, after an amalgamation of Serbian, Croatian and Slovenes states, it officially became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. It was never a completely happy union of cultures and religions and this was evident in later years. The political history includes dominance and influence by invaders during and after WWII - and the proclamation of a People's Republic under Marshall Josip Broz Tito in Jan. 1946
After Tito's death, various factions struggled for dominance - and the major collapse that occurred during 1991-2 when the federation split asunder once more - was not unexpected. It led to 'ethnic cleansing' of disputed regional areas (massacres were not uncommon) and that eventually created a situation where the European Union, and other world powers, were forced to step in and take control.
1989 Serbian Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 100,000 Dinara (Pick #97)
Formerly part of the the Republic of Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia, the Republic of Zimbabwe is another nation that has had a very troubled recent past. Currently it is an economic basket-case - from once being the 'bread-basket' of Africa.
Independence was a drawn-out, highly political, process - and it was not a successful parting off the ways when Great Britain eventually relinquished its control on April 18th. 1980.
The white dominated government was eventually forced from office by the political decisions emanating from the Commonwealth of Nations and the U.N. Security Council.
The new African dominated regime and its political administration, headed by despotic President Robert Mugabe, then commenced to seize assets from the European owners by force or other forms of coercion without recompense - and the level of graft, murder, blackmail - orchestrated at the highest levels - soared to even more epic proportions.
Common Zimbabweans were not immune to this treatment and many thousands have 'disappeared'.
Many Europeans fled the country, thus leaving the national infrastructure without much of the expertise that had made it prosperous.
The nation was thrown out of the Commonwealth of Nations and became a pariah when the Commonwealth of Nations finally saw the light.
In recent years, cosmetic political changes have allowed the world to ease back from its condemnation of Zimbabwe - but the economy is a wreck.
Zimbabwe's currency was 'temporarily' suspended in 2009 - and, presently, U.S. Dollars and other more stable currencies - such as the Euro and the South African Rand - are being used. It seems unlikely than the Zimbabwean Dollar will be seen again in the near future.
Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe - Hyper inflation currency (Not to scale).
(top) 2007 - One Zimbabwean Dollar (revalued) Banknote.
(bottom) 2008 - ZBW$100,000,000 Bearer Cheque.
This short series of articles from 'The Display Case' - stretching from September 2009 until now - was designed to show a variety of notes that are a little unusual or normally not that plentiful in the collections of non-specialist gatherers.
As more interesting examples appear in the Editor's world banknotes' cache - they will be shown, periodically.
Wikipedia Encyclopedia - various Internet pages.
'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money' - various editions.
A.P.T.A. - NO SHOWS - 2010.
Jan. 30th. 2010
An email received from 'The Stamp Place' of Hobart - has advised that no official Australian Philatelic Traders Association (APTA) shows are scheduled to be held in Launceston or Hobart this year.
The Stamp Place's own events schedule for 2010 is available from:
The Stamp Place We buy and sell
110 Collins Street, Hobart Stamps, Coins,
Ph 62243536, Email email@example.com Banknotes, Postcards,
Website www.thestampplace.com Catalogues and other accessories
Hopefully, the local philatelist communities in Tasmania will continue to survive and thrive after this exclusion from the traders' national circuit this year. As APTA usually combine with several local numismatic and philatelic dealers for these events - we, occasional collectors, have been served notice as well.
Below is a nice example of the sort of object that appeals to both hobby fields - obtained at an APTA show in recent years..
Gold-plated on (low grade) Silver - replica Australian pre-1966 postage stamps.
(Normally set into a plush hinged-top case.)
GENERAL INDEX UPDATE.
'TASMANIAN NUMISMATIST - INTERNET EDITION' 1996 - June 2007
Early issues of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition', from 1995 - 1999. were permanently archived in 2000 and articles are not linked directly.
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug03.htm - 1995, 1996 - 1997 (Volumes 1 and 2) Archived. Content detail only. (Articles can be emailed).
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/Sept2003.htm - 1998 - 1999 (Volumes 3 and 4) Archived. Content detail only. (Articles can be emailed).
By refering to the the 'Newsletter Archives' or 'Search' function located on the Home Page, you can directly access all current Volumes.
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html - January 2000 (Volumes 5 - to date).
In January 2006 it was decided to grant each new issue its own URL link. which would henceforth appear in the current Index for fast find:
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar07.htm - 2006 (Volume 11)
The final Index of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition'
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm - 2007 (Volume 12 - Issues 1 - 6)
'NUMISNET WORLD' July 2007 - December 2009
Full details of initial 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (2007)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)
For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm - (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)
For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec09.htm - (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 12)
'NUMISNET WORLD' January - to date 2010
Issue 1. January 2010:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan10.htm
Is This our Most Iconic Emblem? - The Kangaroo is certainly amongst the most unique of our fauna - and our recognition of this translates to our coinage.
The Questions People Ask ...! - Sometimes our expertise confuses our readers when questions are asked of us. We need to realize that we need to accept a very basic level of understanding - sometimes reader's questions re-open wondrous doors onto aspects of our hobby that need to be re-explored.
Handy Hints - 'The Essential Incidentals' - Every hobby has its 'incidentals' - time-saving devices or hints that makes a collector's life a little easier.
A Collector Re-kindled! - There are always those who look back at a childhood passion and decide to give it another go - and that's great!
The Display Case! (Part 5) - The few more illustrations - depicting notes that were not quite 'run-of-the- mill' issues - (from R - U)
Issue 2. February 2010:-
Numismatics for the Common Man - or Woman. - Too many of us, with years of experience, have a tendency to look down - perhaps from a little too lofty a place - upon our upcoming colleagues who need the benefit of that expertise we have accumulated. Take their hand - and the time to explain the wonders - remember what it was like when we were younger within our hobby and our mentors took us under their care..
The Display Case! (Part 6) - The last illustrations in this series - depicting notes that were not quite 'run-of-the- mill' issues - (from V - Z)
APTA No-Show 2010 - We have been advised that the Australian Philatelic Traders Assoc. have decided not to hold shows in Tasmania's major cities this year. As numismatic traders often combined with stamp traders for these events, it is a blow for collectors in both hobbies who have been deprived of an opportunity to view fresh merchandise from non-local sources. .
The ‘'NumisNet World'’ (Internet Edition) newsletter has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented free on a monthly basis with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics.
The ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter abides by the same basic guidelines suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter.
The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, or hand delivered, directly to members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions. All matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’.
Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.
Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Editor.
ALL comments in linked articles are the responsibility of the original authors.
The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter complies with the Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act.
Under this act, information about individuals can be stored and published only if: the information is already contained in a publicly available document or if personal information has been provided by the individual to whom the information relates, and if that individual is aware of the purposes for which the information is being collected.
All information published by the''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter is either publicly available, or has been voluntarily provided by writers, on request from the Editor of the ''NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter.
While the ''NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter may hold writers' addresses and other details for the purposes of communication and copyright protection, it will never make such addresses or details available to any member of the public without the permission of those involved.
The 'NumisNet World''(Internet Edition) newsletter also respects the privacy of our readers. When you write to us with comments, queries or suggestions, you may provide us with personal information including your contact address or other relevant information. Your personal information will never be made available to a third party without permission.
All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned.
The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. Deadline for any literary contributions or amendment to copy is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication.
The contents of this Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy.
This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article. Explicit permission from the author or the Editor of the ‘NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter is required prior to use of that material.
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