‘NUMISNET WORLD’


Volume 14 Issue 2           Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)              February 2009


 

Remember - be astute when you are handed change - not all the wonders of numismatics have been discovered yet - and they don't have to be shiny and new! This edition again features an assortment of  'trivia' that I think is of interest and I trust it will prove educational and entertaining to you as well. 

All or any prices quoted in articles in this newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. 

Wherever possible - illustrations are from the authors' own collection or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  local and Internet editions and the  'Numisnet World' - Internet Editions. © 1996 - 2009. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any scan is allowed for educational purposes.)

Please note that the photoscans of numismatic items are usually not to size or scale.

 

Any comments published in this privately produced newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views of the 'Numisnet World' (Internet Edition) nor its Editor.

Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, the Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations and, (2) to provide additional important information. These items may be subject to copyright.

We trust that this issue of the 'Numisnet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter will continue to provide interesting reading.

PLEASE NOTE - RE-STATED DISCLAIMER: Where on-line web-site addressess are supplied, they are done so in good faith after we have checked them ourselves - however, our readers are advised that if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.

 

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'NUMISNET WORLD'

INTERNET EDITION

Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2009.

 

Please accept my invitation to make a contribution if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest and fulfills our stated editorial guidelines. As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in presentation.

However, not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication if common courtesy and acceptable moral standards are not upheld or the subject matter is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, nor if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, in an entertaining way for the average hobbiest collector. - G.E.P.

 

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THE NATIONS OF AFRICA

An illustrated 'Work in Progress' - Part I

Compiled and written by Graeme Petterwood. © 2009

 

A week or so prior to Christmas 2008, I was fortunate to have received a gift of a few assorted African nations' notes from a great friend, Jerry Adams. 

As many of our long-time readers know, Jerry specialises in exonumia - mainly U.S. traders' tokens - but, like most of us, he dabbles in other facets of the hobby and is always wanting to learn more about world coins and banknotes - and he is even willing to assist me educate him - if need be - by supplying some of  the 'tools' I need to put some of these thoughts into substance.

During the course of cataloguing and filing the notes that Jerry had sent me, I realised it had been some time since we, as readers and students, had visited Africa - numismatically speaking - and - Africa is just too big to ignore!

 

Currently, there are supposed to be 53 nations listed as being part of the continent of Africa.  Unfortunately, the ebb and flow of the political tides of bloody change within Africa during the past 200 years means that the figure is sometimes in dispute as borders change, old alliances are dispensed with, or forcibly absorbed under the guise of new nationalism - or, if a dictator or local warlord decides he has the right to control the area...

It has happened before - and will again - Africa is still a dark and savage, violently cruel  place in many ways, and, genocide is still a way of solving disputes..

As numismatists, we have tended to neglect Africa in favour of Europe, Asia, and the Americas, because of the more 'civilized' cultures and stabilized monetary systems.

In this instance, we need to have a starting point  - and, even if all the names are not familiar to older geographers, they do exist - at the present..

My idea is only to awaken an interest in this numismatic backwater - the rest is up to you - our reader.

 

AFRICA

African nations are in constant state of flux and the violent changes are often genocidal in scope.

Neglected by many collectors - African numismatic challenges abound.

 

So, with grateful thanks to Jerry Adams for a timely Christmas present - I proposed to gradually redress part of the oversight and take a brief look at as many of those nations as I had samples to illustrate the story with  - be it in small change coins or notes (or both).

This was to be a 'work in progress' project - and I thought that I would be starting in January with a few major countries - with the rest being spread out over the next  few issues. Then came the reality check!

It only took me a little time to discover just how many gaps are present in my collection of African coins and notes against the actual nations that are listed.

 

Ed. Note:- My collection is still desperately  barren of African items - I realised that I could not do a January article, at that time, with any sense of justice - but I did want to make a start and commit myself to the project. However, quality stock, either in suitable coin or note form is hard to come by at short notice. As you will see from my current availability range below I still need about  50% more in samples of any description to cover all the nations listed. 

I now know that I will need to be patient - and, as time progresses, I will try to fill some more of those gaps - even if I do need to retread the path at a later date, or at a slower pace. 

This will not be a political - nor judgmental - journey, that I hope to lead you on - but we may need to give a brief history of the tragedies and triumphs of some nations to explain the numismatic atmosphere that may have existed previously - against what exists now.

*To save a lot of what would have been duplicated effort in getting this article started - and - to provide for those readers who like to know more about the nations whose numismatist offerings are not all that common - I have decided to access existing historical and demographical resources through - WIKIPEDIA the online encyclopedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

(Illustrations are for viewing only and are not to scale.)

 

THE LIST

ALGERIA - Coin,  ANGOLA - N/A,

BENIN - N/A,  BOTSWANA - Coin,  BURKINA FASO - N/A,  BURUNDI - N/A

CAMEROON - N/A,  CAPE VERDE - N/A,  CENTRAL AFRICA REPUBLIC - N/A,  CHAD - N/A

COMOROS - Coin,  CONGO REPUBLIC - Note,  COTE d'IVOIRE - N/A

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO (Former Belgium Congo - known as Zaire) - Coin,  DIJBOUTI - N/A

EGYPT - Coin & Note,  EQUATORIAL GUINEA - Coin,  ERITREA - Coin,  ETHIOPIA - N/A

GABON - N/A,  THE GAMBIA - Coin & Note,  GUINEA - N/A,  GUINEA BISSAU - N/A

KENYA (Formerly part of British East Africa) - Coin, 

LESOTHO - N/A,  LIBERIA - Coin,  LIBYA - N/A.

MADAGASCAR - N/A,  MALAWI - N/A,  MALI - N/A,  MAURITANIA - N/A, 

MAURITIUS - Coin,  MOROCCO - Coin,  MOZAMBIQUE (Formerly Portuguese East Africa) - Coin & Note.

NAMIBIA (Former German S-W Africa) - N/A,  NIGER - N/A,  NIGERIA (Including former Biafra) - Coin & Note. 

RWANDA - Coin.

SAO TOME and PRINCIPE - N/A,  SENEGAL - N/A,  SEYCHELLES - Coin & Note,  SIERRA LEONE - Coin,  SOMALIA - Coin,

SOUTH AFRICA - Coin & Note,  SUDAN - Coin,  SWAZILAND - Coin..

UNITED REPUBLIC of TANZANIA (Formerly German East Africa and also as Tanganyika) - N/A,   TOGO - N/A,  TUNISIA - Coin.

UGANDA (Formerly part of East Africa) - Coin.

ZAMBIA - Coin,  ZIMBABWE (Formerley - Southern Rhodesia and Rhodesia & Nyasaland) - Coin & Note.

 

THE SCHEDULE

Algeria, Botswana, Comoros, Congo Republic - and the separate entity, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (often refered to as Zaire - former Belgium Congo), Egypt, Equatorial Guinea and the State of Eritrea will be the first nations featured -   because I already have a few coins, and a note or two, available to cover those places. The following articles will then continue, in alphabetical order from the List, and will feature the nations - as shown by the names printed in black - but, if I obtain a coin or note from a nation that I have previously missed - shown in red -  I shall add that, at the first opportunity, during subsequent issues of the newsletter.

 

THE EXTRAS

Due to the variety of nations to be covered in this series - and their very diverse cultural aspects - there will be some items that may need extra attention paid to them in an effort to make life a little easier.  For instance, some of the nations of Africa also use Arabic-based numeric scripts - so  I have included a guide herewith for perusual, if need be. Not everyone bases their idea of time on the Christian era 'Julian' solar  calendar - so we will take that into consideration as well for we numismatists who all need to be aware of dates - for the record.

 

Basic Arabic numerals.

Slight variations of the shapes of some Arabic numbers are seen and used in different areas of Asia and Africa. The Arabic script is impossible for me to condense into an easily accessible form so I have included a Wikipedia link .

Refer:- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_numerals.

Refer:- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_alphabet

 

Dating on some Arabic language coins and notes

It is also useful to know how some Arabic dates are arrived at.

The main one is primarily based on the lunar calendar - and a brief study of some of the dates shown below will make us realise it is not a simple one. Combining that with the fact that the most common Arabic secular dating system is based on Mohammed's flight from Mecca to Medina on 16th. July 622 A.D.,  we are faced with a complicated system of reckoning.

The event is known as the 'Hejira' and, in the Muslim dating system, time is based on 'Anno Hejira' - and numismatic items, usually shown with anAH year, will also appear so in most catalogues.

However, the Arabic AH lunar calendar has only 354 days per year - 11 days shorter than a normal year - that is exactly 3.03% less than our Julian 'Christian era' calendar of 365 days - and we mustn't forget that + 1 day for leap years.

To arrive at the A.D. year, a simple formula can be used - deduct 3% from the Muslim year and then add 622 to convert to the A.D. date.

It may require a slight 'rounding' of numbers - but it will usually be close enough for normal numismatic use. 

However, the compounding effect over many centuries is profound and the simple formula gives us only a close estimate..

At certain times of any year, the add on figure is only 621.

Check the Internet for further detail - there are some very comprehensive charts available if finer accuracy is required.

 

The following dates were extracted from the well-known Krause Publication "Standard Catalog of World Coins 2001" - by Chester L. Krause and Clifford Mishler - Colin R. Bruce II (Editor)

Examples

January 4th. 1650             = AH1060;

October 26th. 1688           = AH1100;

June 8th. 1700                   = AH1112;

November 30th. 1750       = AH1164;

November 4th. 1785         = AH1200; 

May 25th. 1800                   = AH1215;

November 6th. 1850         = AH 1267

November 12th. 1882       = AH1300; 

May 1st. 1900                     = AH1318;

October 13th. 1950            = AH 1370

November 21st. 1979        = AH1400;

April 6th 2000                     = AH1421.

 

Some places, like Afghanistan and Iran , for instance, have opted to use a basic solar calendar formula (SH) for many years.

e.g. - Afghanistan converted in 1973 A.D. = SH 1352 and Iran converted to the solar calendar in 1932 A.D. = SH 1310

The modern Arabic Solar Hejira year calendar in basically a simple conversion - still based on that famous flight of Mohammed on 16th July 622 A.D. - and it is arrived at by simply adding 622 years on to the local SH date as shown on the coins to convert to the A.D. date.

At times the 'add on' is only 621 to fit with with the Hejira and the leap-year adjustments are as normally occur with the solar calendar system. The confusing AH style lunar dating compounding effect does not occur.

Some non-secular Arabic states are now adopting the same calendar as we use, for accurate dating convenience, and their coins and notes may show both dates. It always pays to double-check when dating Arabic-style numismatic items if you are not sure whether they are AH or SH dates as there is no indication shown as a rule. If the final calculation shows a date that is highly unlikely - recalculate using the alternate formula.

 

 

ALGERIA - Republic since 1962. (former French colony) Area 2,381,740 sq.kms. Population approx. 29 million.

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algeria

 

Algerian Centimes - (AH dating system as well as European system)

Low value 1964 Aluminium and Al. Bronze coins - 1, 2, 5 and 10 Centimes denomination rev. - (National Arms obv.)

 

ANGOLA - N/A

 

BENIN - N/A

 

BOTSWANA - Republic. (former British protectorate) Area 600,370 sq. kms. Population approx. 1.5 million.

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botswana

 

Botswana Thebe

Bronze 5 Thebe (with Toko bird rev.) and 1976 C.N. 10 Thebe (with Oryx rev.) - (National Arms obv.)

 

BURKINA FASO - N/A

BURUNDI - N/A

 

CAMEROON - N/A

CAPE VERDE - N/A

CENTRAL AFRICA REPUBLIC - N/A

CHAD - N/A

 

COMOROS - Islamic Republic. Island archipelago, land mass of 2,171 sq. kms. Population approx. 550,000.

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comoros

 

Comoros 2 Francs

French Colonial issue 1964 Aluminium 2 Francs with Island scene - (standard French Winged Mercury obv.)

 

CONGO - Republic. (former French protectorate)  Area 342,000 sq. kms. Population approx. 2.5 million.

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_the_Congo

 

Republic of the Congo 50 Francs

Banque Centrale du Congo - 31st. July 2007. Featuring a ceremonial mask (obv.) and a fishing village on the banks of the River Congo (rev.)

 

CONGO - Democratic Republic (Formerly ZAIRE and part of the original colonial Belgium Congo) Area 2,345,410 sq. kms. Population approx. 47.5 million. 

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo

 

Belgium Congo 10 Centime C.N. coins 1910-11

 Starfish shape (rev.) - King Albert I monogram (obv.)

 

DIJBOUTI - N/A

 

EGYPT - Arab Republic. (Strong European influences since antiquity) Area 1,1001,450 sq. kms. Population approx. 62.5 million.

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egypt

 

   

Egyptian 10 Piastre .833 Silver Coins - British Occupation

Hussein Kamil adminisration - Accession date A.H. 1333 (A.D. 1914) as well as actual AH and European dates

Coin issue date A.H. 1335 (A.D.1916) Weight 14 grams - featuring calligraphic designs

 

 

Egyptian One Pound 1977 -  Arab Republic of Egypt.

Issued by the Central Bank of Egypt - features the Mosque of Sutan Quayet Bey (obv.) Ancient statues (rev.)

 

 

EQUATORIAL GUINEA - Republic (Formerly Spanish Guinea) Area 28,050 sq. kms. Population approx. 420,500.

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equatorial_Guinea

 

 

Equatorial Guinea 1970 .999 Silver 100 Pesetas

Features Crossed Ivory Tusks and national symbol (obv.) - Goya's 'Naked Maja' (rev.) Proof coin

 

 

ERITREA - Independant State (Formerly part of Ethiopia) Area 117,600 sq. kms. Population approx. 3.5 million.

Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eritrea

 

 

State of Eritrea = C.N. 5 Cents coins

1997 Featuring a Leopard on a tree branch (obv.) and 1991 Independence flag-raising group (rev.)

 

ETHIOPIA - N/A

 

To follow: - The Gambia; Kenya; Liberia; Mauritius; Morocco; Mozambique; Nigeria and Rwanda.

 

Main References.

'Standard Catalog of World Coins' by  Chester l. Krause and Clifford Mishler - Colin R. Bruce II (Editor) - Krause Publication 2001

WIKIPEDIA - the online encyclopedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

All Illustrations are supplied from the author's private collections  © 1996 - 2009.

 

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RESERVE BANK OF INDIA ANOMALY?

or

'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money' mis-list?

This has been a small mystery for some time as far as I am concerned - I have asked the question before, and,  I still am no closer to the official answer.

During the period 1975 - 92, a dated series of Government of India paper notes, and a non-dated series of Reserve Bank of India paper notes were being produced that bore the signature of R.N. Malhotra as either the Secretary of the Government Ministry of Finance (1980-81) or, as Governor of the RBI (1983 - 84) - according to dates supplied in the 'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money'.

Of course, there were many other Secretaries and Governors who signed these notes but RBI Governor, R.N. Malhotra, is my main concern - and it is those notes, issued by the Reserve Bank of India at a time of change during 1985, that are under my current scrutiny..

Due to the number of signatories and a series of underprint letters, the Krause 'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money' has given each issue an identifying item letter (in lower case) to add to its Catalog No. 80 that identifies the RBI 5 Rupee note - which is the note in question that occasioned the original question.  "Why was R.N. Mulhotra not shown as the signatory of the 'D' underprint issued in 1985?"

 

A Brief History of the RBI Five Rupee note - (Krause #80).

The initial SCWPM items '80a' and '80b' indicated notes without a large capital letter under the serial number - however, starting at -  '80c'  - the list details the various underprint capital letters and signatories which were featured - this continues in alphabetical order until -  '80h'.  (Refer list below).

 

RBI GOVERNORS 1970 - 1985

(l. to r.) - S. Jagannathan (1970 - 75) (W/O Letter); N.C. Sen Gupta *(3 months 1975);

*It should be noted that N.C. Sen Gupta is not listed as a signatory on the (Kr. #80) RBI 5 Rupee note.

 K.R. Puri (1975 - 77) (W/O Letter and Letter A); M. Narasimham (7 months 1977) (Letter A);

Dr. I.G. Patel (1977 - 1982) (Letters A, B, C); Dr. Manmohan Singh (1982 - 85) (Letter D).

 

At SCWPM item -  '80i'  - when the new two language seal was introduced, the u/print capital letter was omitted again - the signatory was R.N. Malhotra at that time; but then -  at item  '80j'  - the re-introduced underprint letter was 'A' - and the signatory was R.N. Malhotra once more.
According to SCWPM,  the item '80k' for - u/print 'E' (Malhotra) was followed by item '80l' - - u/print 'F' (Malhotra) then item  '80m' u/print 'G' (Malhotra) - a situation I can't verify personally as I do not have any of these notes.
SCWPM records the next lower case letter in the series as item '80n' for u/print letter 'D' and the signatory is listed as A. Ghosh  - again I regret haven't a sample. (Note:- Abhitam Ghosh was only in office as Governor of RBI for 20 days in 1985)

 

RBI GOVERNORS 1985 - 1992

(l. to r.) A Ghosh (15th. Jan. 1985 - 4th. Feb. 1985) ; Kr. #80n - (Letter D)

R.N. Malhotra (4th Feb. 1985 - 22nd. Dec. 1990); Kr # 80i - (W/O Letter); Kr. #80j (Letter A); Kr. #80k - (Letter E);

Kr.#80l - (Letter F); Kr. #80m - (Letter G) 

 S. Venkitaramanan (22nd.Dec. 1990 - 21st. Dec. 1992); Kr. #80o - (W/O Letter); Kr. #80p - (Letter B).

.

However, I do have in my collection, a Reserve Bank of India 5 Rupee note Kr #80 which was part of that non-dated series of 1985.
However, the scan of that RBI 5 Rupee note (below) clearly shows u/print letter 'D' and the signatory as being R.N. Malhotra - which has not been listed.

 

Reserve Bank of India 5 Rupee (N.D. 1985) new seal with u/print letter 'D' - signatory R.N. Malhotra. Kr. #80?

SCWPM list of signatories (with applicable serial number underprint letters) indicate that  A. Ghosh was the Governor for the 'D' underprint letter but the list does not show the 'D' with the R.N. Malhotra signature.

 

Ghosh's brief tenure there in 1985 has been noted  by SWCPM with item '80n' to indicate his presence as Interim Governor of RBI during the initial issue run in 1985 prior to Malhotra taking over. If so, SCWPM item '80i' should have been applied to Ghosh - and Malhotra would have #80 j, k, l, m and n .

It now appears that the u/print letters may not have been issued in alphabetical/chronological  sequence as would be expected. 

It was also awkward that several u/print letters  'A' and 'D' were used twice - once before the new seal, and once after - so the signatures are important.

Due to these apparent chronological inconsistencies - and the possibility of confusion in the SWCPM edition I was using for a reference -  it soon became obvious that a bit of neccessary double-checking was needed - and where better to get some sort of confirmation than the RBI itself.

Refer:- http://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/governors.aspx

 

The official list gives the dates and details of RBI Governors and  certainly continues to throws doubt on the SWCPM time/letter sequence.

Perhaps a reader may be able to advise if this anomaly has been recognised, and possibly simplified and put in a more appropriate sequence, in the later editions of SCWPM and, perhaps, they also may know the approximate scope of the serial numbers that may have been encompassed by the underprint  'D' with both Ghosh's and Malhotra's  individual signatures.

 

Main References

'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money - 7th. Edition - Volume 2'  - Krause Publication.

Reserve Bank of India - http://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/governors.aspx

 

THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS

The end of the U.S. Administration era commenced in 1941 .........

Ceded by Spain to the U.S. after the Spanish American War in 1898, the Philippine Islands were still a financially reliant dependent of the United States of America in 1935 even though they had an elected president  and were recognised as a self-governing commonweath under U.S. patronage.

The relationship with the U.S. was not all rosy - the loss of the Spanish identity was not an easy one for  some Filipinos to accept, and, with nationalist fervour actively pursued for decades, the relationship was not an easy one and it sometimes erupted in violence of a scale bordering on civil war.

As the Pacific war descended upon the Islands, the Philippines Emergency Currency Committees, in different provinces and cities, churned out million of Pesos to keep their economy alive.

Much of it was 'rough and ready' currency printed under difficult circumstances - but it served its purpose and heralded the end of an era!

 

The local Philippine Islands currency notes, from 1904, had been printed by the U.S. - based on the U.S. style notes in size and layout - and backed by the U.S. Government - and, like the U.S. Dollar bills - some of the early issue Pesos notes even bore the image of U.S. President  George Washington

However, the notes were clearly marked as Philippine Island issues, with local prominent leaders or famous personages featured - even some other U.S. presidents and politicians - but, the familiar  'green-back' had been omitted in favour of various other colours so that the notes would not be confused with the similar U.S. notes.

The commencement of war in Europe in the late 1930's meant that other areas in the world were drawn into choosing sides, committing finances to defence arrangements, trying to stabilize disappearing or unapproachable markets etc.  and, of course, this eventually spilled over into the Pacific region

With the advent of U.S. hostilities with the Empire of Japan, after the attack on the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor in December 1941 - and the consequent expansion and escalation of the European war into a World War enveloping the United States - a chain of events occured that would have permanent repercussions in the economical and financial ties between the U.S. and the Philippine Islands.

The rapid deployment of Japanese troops and ships into the Pacific Ocean region meant that the Philippines was quickly isolated and things like banknotes and small change, were suddenly in short supply. In an effort to keep the still fragile new  commonwealth economy going prior to the expected invasion, President Quezon and the Philippine Government authorized emissions of a series of notes with a total value of 100,000 Pesos in fractional and Peso value notes. These were  classified as Emergency Circulating Notes, and were dated 1941.

These were printed by La Defensa Press in Iloilo City under the auspices of the Philippine National Bank - with a design with an obvious bias towards its mentor - the United States. They were signed by Cenon S. Cervantes (Manager of the Ioilo Branch of the Philippine National Bank) as Chairman with Bartolome Fernandez as Provincial Auditor and Jose Quisumbing as Provincial Fiscal Member.

As conditions deteriorated with the invasion of the Japanese army, the printing of paper money bearing the authority of the Emergency Circulating Note Committee entered a 'Second Series' - with larger denomination values.

A request was made of the President to authorise more notes, but, when it wasn't forthcoming, the Committee took it upon themseves to proceed with another 3 Million Pesos worth of various Peso denominations  which were printed by La Editorial Press in Biilibagan in Santa Barbara, Philippines..

Presideny Quezon gave belated approval and allowed notes with a value of another 2 Million Pesos to be printed - that was followed by a telegram to the Committee authorizing unlimited amounts - "You are authorized to print all the currency needed by the Army in Panay."

This same indication was given to many other Emergency Currency Committees that had been established under the authority of  President Quezon in major cities and provinces - and the statement was treated as 'carte blanche' to print money as the situation required.

This would eventually create a real 'personality' problem with people like General Douglas MacArthur who was appointed as Supremo as the war progressed and who considered the Philippines as being his special concern.

 

Original Emergency Currency Committee Notes issued in 1941-2  (Pick #S306; S318; S316)

ILOILO CURRENCY COMMITTEE

  Issued under the authority of the President of the Philippines and the Philippine National Bank, the sample show the American eagle on the Philippines Seal on the First Series  - 2 Pesos.

Produced by private printers - with facsimile signatures - the portrayals of President Theodore Roosevelt on the Second Series - 20 Pesos, and General Douglas MacArthur on the Second Series  - 5 Pesos show the changes amongst Committee members as circumstances arose. 

These notes were printed on fairly normal paper and most were subject to hard wear and tear in tropical conditions.

 

The Japanese invasion caused the National Bank printing of notes to cease, a huge amount of the unissued paper money was seized and Chairman Cervantes fell prisoner - by November 1942, to keep the money flowing, Assistant Manager Juan Beunafe, was appointed as Chairman of a second Ioilo Currency Committee that was formed to replace the defunct organization.

With the Philippines and U.S. Army forced to surrender, the attack on the Japanese was continued by a guerrilla force made up of unsurrendered troops.  Printing sites were divided with Dialosa Press printing money for the Philippine Corps and Villalon Press printing currency for the Government-in-exile.

These later issues were produced for use by various groups who needed the money to pay for supplies and services on the 'promise' that the notes would be redeemed at the end of the emergency. The earlier notes were actually hand-signed by the first Committee, but,  because of the amount printed, it wasn't long before facsimile signatures were being implemented - with both first and new design second Committee notes being produced..

Most notes were printed both sides - although with fairly simple designs or text - easily copied if need be.

A few counterfeits started to appear and this was made difficult to control as the Committee membership was in a constant state of flux at this time.

However, the amount of counterfeit material was never a real bother, in most cases, and it was just absorbed into the system - and now it can command a slight premium above genuine notes in some instances. Most is of poor quality.

There were 49 provinces in the Philippines at that time and a dozen major cities - many of which were using Emergency Currency authorized by President Quezon in 1941. Notes of various denominations abounded and a good special issues catalogue should be referred to for full details..

 

BOHOL EMERGENCY CURRENCY BOARD 1942

The Commonwealth of the Philippines 50 Centavos on thick beige paper. (Pick #S134e)

Poor printing with poor quality ink makes this note very difficult to find in really good condition.

 

NEGROS OCCIDENTAL PROVINCIAL CURRENCY COMMITTEE

The Commonwealth of the Philippines 2 Pesos note on heavy white bias paper. (Pick #S647B)

This note was issued in 1942 and was well produced on good paper.

 

In an effort to stop the economy from completely foundering, the Japanese had, initially, turned a blind eye for a while and even allowed the 'puppet' government, that they had established, to borrow money from them - and redeem the Emergency notes with Japanese military currency.

 

Japan issued several styles of Military currency notes into the Philippines.

 

Finally, to stop the rebels having access to funds, they resorted to more direct and brutal ways of controlling the money flow by seizing and destroying as much of the Emergency money that they deemed necessary or could locate in large quantities. Many of these Emergency Peso notes were hidden from the Japanese - as possession was punishable with torture followed by summary execution - and, after the war finished, they were produced and presented for redemption - with mixed results..

However, due to the fact that some issues were not 'authorized' nor recorded in an official manner - they were as useless as the assorted coloured paper they had been printed on - very much as the German Emergency money of the 1920's  had proven to be - except, of course, to numismatists with an interest in things like this..

 

MOUNTAIN PROVINCE EMERGENCY NOTE

10 Centavos issued 1942 (Pick #S592)

Printed on light paper with facsimile stamped signatures - local emergency issues.

 

Eventually, when the Japanese military notes became worthless, the Emergency notes were often used until post war replacement notes became available.

In most instances, the major Emergency issues were serial numbered and carefully recorded and quantities kept within reasonable limits - but it is known that several clandestine issues, including some for small change, were made by independent military units working in remote areas under the control of Lt. Col. Marcario Peralta, and these were 'unauthorized'.

 It is known that Peralta came to believe that he had the right to control the printing of money as his exclusive privilege -  and far more notes than were needed were churned out on whatever printing equipment was available - and on whatever material that could be printed on. Several well-known examples were printed on brown paper that was originally going to be made into sugar-bags.

They often were heavily depreciated and some were only accepted at 10% of their stated face value.

It is also known that, for reasons only known by himself, General Douglas MacArthur had not authorized Lt. Col. Peralta to print of some currency issues that had been needed in areas that were technically  'under his command'.

The local commander exercised the option of Philippines President Quezon's edict of 1941 - and his own initiative  - and went ahead and printed regardless!

Due to some of this currency not having his approval, MacArthur chose to exercise his 'power-of-one' and deemed it to be 'unredeemable' at war's end when he was in full military control of the Philippines.

It is believed that 'power-plays' by some other Filipino officers close to MacArthur had a bearing on MacArthur's initial mistrust of Peralta who he didn't actually meet for some time.  (Refer:- http://musictimeline.net/tours/Peralta/ )

 

ISLAND of NEGROS

Treasury Emergency Currency Certificate

One Peso 1944 (F3) - (Pick #S672)

This note, on thick brown sugar-bag paper, states that it is issued under authority of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.

Due to General MacArthur refusing to authorize some of the Lt. Col. Peralta issued notes they became unredeemable at war's end.

 

 

1944 (N.D.) Commonwealth of the Philippines 2 Pesos VICTORY note (Pick #94)

 Issued in Silver Peso denominations - 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 - prior to the end of U.S. administration.

 

In 1949, the Republic of the Philippines was born.

Initially, it used the same range of 1944 VICTORY notes, overstamped in red with the words 'CENTRAL BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES' on the back, as an interim measure. A new range of undated English language fractional and Peso currency was issued that year by the Central Bank of the Philippines - the notes were similar in design to previous issues but featured Philippines scenery and famous leaders. They would continue with this design range until 1966.

It covered denominations from 5, 10, 20 and 50 Centavos which were printed by the U.S. company Security Bank Note Company (SBNC) and the English company Waterlow & Sons Ltd. (W & S) - and the larger notes from 1/2, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 Pesos were printed by Thomas de la Rue.

 

 

1949 CENTRAL BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES - ONE PESO (Pick #133)

A Republican guaranteed Peso note - featuring A. Mabini on the front and the Barasoain Church on the reverse.

 

MAIN REFERENCES

'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money' - Specialized Issues - 6th Edition. Volume 1.

'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money - General Issues - 7th Edition Volume 2.

- by Albert Pick and Neil Shafer and Colin R. Bruce II - Editors.

 

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BLAST FROM THE PAST

POINTERS FROM AN OLD NEWCOMER.

'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition'.  February 1999

Anchorage Coin Club member, Mr. Ben Guild - aged 74 at the time, was published in the December 1998 edition of "The Numismatist".

His article, courtesy of the A.C.C. - one of our sister clubs -  was republished in the "Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition" in February, 1999.  It says a lot - most of it is good old common sense - that applies to collectors from all over the world - and it deserves to get a fresh airing at times when we become a little blasé about the basics of our hobby. Perhaps now is that time for some of us.......!

 

"I usually don’t gripe and groan. I make my choices as carefully as I can, and if they turn out to be wrong, I take my lumps and go on with my life. Even though I am 74 years old, I am relatively new to coin collecting, being in the game a little less than 10 years. Perhaps what sets me apart from the majority of newcomers is my extensive library of numismatic books. I believe it was Q. David Bowers who impressed upon me to "buy the book before the coin," an axiom I have followed faithfully.

Because of my interest in history, I collect Early American coins and paper money. I attempt to obtain specimens in the highest "circulated" condition possible. To me, mint-state coins do not have the appeal of those that actually circulated in our nation’s formative years. (This includes the coins of Great Britain, France, Spain, and Mexico that found their way to the New World.) Circulated coins also are much less expensive and more easily found, but may not be worth as much when the time comes to sell them.

Eventually, all collectors confront the question of whether the money tied up in their coins would have been better spent on other investments that might insure a greater return. (I am reminded of British General John Burgoyne, who, after his rousing defeat by the Continental Army and General Horatio Gates at the battles of Bemis Heights and Saratoga in 1777, wrote a long poem decrying the fact that he soon would be called back to England in disgrace: "Good heav’ns! how deep I’m plung’d in woe.")

To help assure collectors of the validity of their numismatic investments, third-party grading services sprang up in the 1980s. In my opinion, such firms do the hobby great injury. There is something wrong when you can get a coin graded by one of these services (for a stiff fee, I might add), break it out of its plastic capsule, resubmit it to another service and get a different grade. Any intelligent, experienced group of collectors can pass a coin around and come up with a reasonable grade. If we come to believe that any coin that is not "slabbed" is graded improperly, then we might as well quit collecting coins for fun, education, and relaxation.

Like many collectors, I started out buying from as many as 50 coin firms, participating in mail bids, attending small auctions, traveling to coin shows (when I could afford to) and dealing with private individuals. I made some costly mistakes, but, in the long run, I got a great education. I now do business with a half dozen dealers and one auction house. I attend only those coin shows that strive to educate the public by featuring numismatic exhibits or other programs.

In closing, I’d like to offer my suggestions for enjoying the hobby :-

1. Keep good records. Know when and from whom you purchased your coins and how much you paid.

2. Know the dealer from whom you buy your coins. Establish good business relationships.

3. If you think you got "burned" on a purchase, talk it over with the dealer. Stay friends with your dealer, if possible.

4. If the circumstances force you to sell a coin, offer it to the dealer who originally sold you the piece.

5. No matter the value of your collection, your heirs may not be interested in it. Be sure your will includes information about where or to whom your collection (or parts of it) should be sold. Remind your heirs that there is a difference between a catalog value and dealer price.

6. If you have extremely rare and valuable coins, be sure your records show the value of special coins.

7. Keep having fun and enjoy your finds -  "Remember, there are no baggage racks on hearses."

by Ben Guild (A.C.C. Member #41)

 

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INTERNET NEWS - Q & A's

A note of interest received from HRH John, the Grand Duke of Avram

 

Royal Bank of Avram

Dear Graeme
I wish you a happy New Year and offer an apology for this tardy correspondence.
At the end of last year we decided to produce a rough cast 95% Platinum, 5% cobalt coin. The die-casters required this metal content for the usual technical reasons. The size is about that of a 20 cent coin (approx 30 mm.). The small initial issue varied in weight between 28 and 32 grams (mostly 32 grams) -
[that averages at about an ounce]

Attached are 2 photos to peruse and to alert you of their existence and style.

Due to the current economic pressure on precious metals, such as Platinum, we are basing our retail price on ruling bullion price per gram - plus the basic production and casting costs, packaging and handling, postage and insurance.

Price and delivery information will be "on application" to interested buyers.

 

P.S. - We have noticed that our standard coin sets (dated 2005) are currently selling on the internet for up to US$80.00 - you may remember that the issue price was US$36.00    Refer:- http://www.heraldic.org/rba/download/invite.pdf


Kindest regards
John.

Email: grandduchy@hotmail.com

Internet site: http://www.grandduchy.org/

 

 

2008 Platinum Ducal issued by the Royal Bank of Avram - Weight approx. One Ounce.

This rugged cast coin bears the Royal Bank of Avram's Coat-of-Arms as its obverse and a representation of Prince John, the Grand Duke of Avram, and shows the coin value of 1 Platinum Ducal as its reverse.

 

ADDITIONAL READING:

http://www.taedivm.org/coin-avram1.html

 

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All that glisters is not gold!

Hello, my name is Roderick and I live in Canada. I've come into contact with a 1000 dollar bill from 1811.

It looks like a bearer bond actually. I'm pretty sure it's fake but if there was even a remote chance that it wasn't, I'd at least know that I tried.  

Details: It says: "Twelve months after date the Confederate States of America will pay to bearer One Thousand Dollars with interest at Ten cents pr day" (per was spelt pr).

                        It has the name Montgomery and date May 28, 1811.

                        It is given a Number- 176 A

                        It is signed by a register and a treasurer.

                        It was owned by a Canadian Metis man who has since passed on.

I've been online and seen some similar bills except the faces on my bill look different. My colors are inverted which has me curious. Any help you may have or direction you can offer would be greatly appreciated.

Attached is a colour scan of the bill.

 

 

 CSA $1000 (fantasy) note

 

G'day Roderick,

I think you may be correct in your assumption that you have a replica. If the paper is 'thick' it is most probably so.

The Confederate States of America were formed in 1861 - so that date may possibly read 1861 not 1811 as you presume.

One of the figures depicted, appears to be, a much poorer representation than usual, of former vice-president of the U.S. John Caldwell Calhoun from South Carolina who died in 1850 but was featured on CSA$1000 notes dated 1861 as well as CSA$100 of 1862 - but those notes definitely were different in colour.

However, it is also another point to remember, that Confederate States of America notes were usually signed in Richmond, Virginia - not Montgomery in Alabama.

Any notes from there would probably be presented as a 'State of Alabama' note or bond or warrant. My catalogues don't show a note quite like that one either.

 

*Just on a chance I checked on eBay and they had an identical commercially produced 'replica' note on offer at US$6.99 so I think that answered our question. We won't need to worry anymore!

On further checking I found that this note is already on file on the growing 'replica' list (below) of CSA notes - along with many others. Add this Internet site to your Favorites for further reference if you collect CSA.

REFER:- http://www.rebelstatescurrency.com/reproductions.html

 

It was an  interesting exercise. I thanked Roderick for the note and passed on my finding -  it is all relevant to collectors to realise there are things 'out there' that can create doubts - and sometimes even real problems.

Last year, it was fake (large) 'silver' dollar sized coins from China....

 

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CHANGE OF OFFICIAL POSTAL ADDRESS

REMINDER

TASMANIAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY (Est. 1963).

We have been asked to remind our Australian readers, in particular members of the T.N.S., that a change of a long established postal contact address has occured. As from January 1st. 2009, the official postal address of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' was altered. All written correspondence, current subscription fees and enquiries etc., should now be forwarded directly to:-

 

Tasmanian Numismatic Society.

C/-  Mr. C. A. Heath - (Hon. Sec.)

P.O. Box 12.

Claremont.

Tasmania. 7011.

Australia.

 

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GENERAL INDEX UPDATE.

'TASMANIAN NUMISMATIST - INTERNET EDITION' 1996 - June 2007

The detail of contents of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' and 'Numisnet World' - Internet Editions can be seen at the following links. Copies of articles are usually available by email, upon request from the Editor or the original author - or, if directly accessed, subject to those copyright provisions laid down in our current terms of use.  Articles will not be posted by mail services.

 

Early issues of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition', from 1995 - 1999. were permanently archived in 2000 and articles are not linked directly.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug03.htm  - 1995, 1996 - 1997 (Volumes 1 and 2) Archived. Content detail only. (Articles can be emailed).

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/ept2003.htm  - 1998 - 1999 (Volumes 3 and 4) Archived. Content detail only. (Articles can be emailed).

 

By refering to the the 'Newsletter Archives' or 'Search' function located on the Home Page, you can directly access all Volumes.

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html  - January 2000 (Volumes 5 - to date).

In January 2006 it was decided to grant each new issue its own URL link. which would henceforth appear in the current Index for fast find:

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar07.html  - 2006 (Volume 11)

The final Index of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition'

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - 2007 (Volume 12 - Issues 1 - 6)

 

 'NUMISNET WORLD - INTERNET EDITION' July 2007 - to date.

Full details of initial 'Numisnet World - Internet Edition' (2007)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World - Internet Edition' (2008)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm  - (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)

 

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'NUMISNET WORLD - INTERNET EDITION' Volume 14, Jan. - to date 2009

Issue 1. January 2009:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan09.htm

The Numbers Game - Some tattered pieces of virtually worthles paper money that have special numbers that we collectors  tend to notice.

Bank Note Varieties - and other things! - At first glance, they look the same - but then those 'little differences' become noticeable and we take a second look..

The Story Behind the Story - Cowra Breakout revisited. - A war story that took place within Australia and had been archived for more than half a century.

Fake Pounds Circulating in Great Britain - "Large quantities of fake One Pound coins are making life miserable for English shoppers" - E-Sylum.

 

Issue 2. February 2009:-

The Nations of Africa (Part I) - An illustrated series that will feature some of the 53 nations that make up Africa - the numismatically forgotten continent.

Reserve Bank of India Anomaly?. - A small sequence inconsistency amongst RBI  Five Rupee notes from 1984 that needs an explanation - or did I miss it?.

The Philippine Islands 1941 - As the Pacific war descended upon it, the Philippines Emergency Currency Committees, in different provinces and cities, churned out million of Pesos to keep their economy alive. Much of it was 'rough and ready' currency printed under difficult circumstances - but it served its purpose and heralded the end of an era!

Blast from the Past.1999 - A gentle reminder, from an elderly 'Anchorage Coin Club' member's article, about the common sense we need when we start becoming too blasé about our our collection and the way we go about maintaining it.

Internet News and Q & A's - It's a case of getting personal with people about their numismatic problems even when they are replicas - and we learn of a new Platinum Ducal release from the Duchy of Avram.

Reminder - Change of the official P.O. address for the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society Inc.'

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'NUMISNET WORLD'

(INTERNET EDITION)

 

The 'NumisNet World'’ (Internet Edition) newsletter has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented free on a monthly basis with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics. 

The ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter abides by the same basic guidelines suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter.

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, or hand delivered, directly to members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions. All matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society.

Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.

Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Editor. 

ALL comments in linked articles are the responsibility of the original authors.

 

PRIVACY PROTECTION

The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter complies with the Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act.

Under this act, information about individuals can be stored and published only if: the information is already contained in a publicly available document or if personal information has been provided by the individual to whom the information relates, and if that individual is aware of the purposes for which the information is being collected.

All information published by the''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter is either publicly available, or has been voluntarily provided by writers, on request from the Editor of the ''NumisNet World'  (Internet Edition) newsletter.

While the ''NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter may hold writers' addresses and other details for the purposes of communication and copyright protection, it will never make such addresses or details available to any member of the public without the permission of those involved.

The 'NumisNet World''(Internet Edition) newsletter also respects the privacy of our readers. When you write to us with comments, queries or suggestions, you may provide us with personal information including your contact address or other relevant information. Your personal information will never be made available to a third party without permission.

DISCLAIMER

All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned. 

The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. Deadline for any literary contributions or amendment to copy is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication.

COPYRIGHT

The contents of this Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. 

This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article. Explicit permission from the author or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter is required prior to use of that material.

 

The Editor,

Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.

Australia.

Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

Email: pwood@vision.net.au