Volume 13 Issue 12Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996) December 2008
Remember - be astute when you are handed change - not all the wonders of numismatics have been discovered yet - and they don't have to be shiny and new! This edition again features an assortment of 'trivia' that I think is of interest and I trust it will prove educational and entertaining to you as well.
All or any prices quoted in articles in this newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Please note that the photoscans of numismatic items are usually not to size or scale, but - wherever possible - they are from the authors' own collection or the extensive picture library of the 'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition.
Any comments published in this privately produced newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views of the 'Numisnet World' (Internet Edition) nor its Editor.
Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, the Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations and, (2) to provide additional important information. These items may be subject to copyright.
We trust that this issue of the 'Numisnet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter will continue to provide interesting reading.
PLEASE NOTE - RE-STATED DISCLAIMER: Where on-line web-site addressess are supplied, they are done so in good faith after we have checked them ourselves - however, our readers are advised that if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.
'NUMISNET WORLD'INTERNET EDITION
Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2008.
Please accept my invitation to make a contribution if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest and fulfills our stated editorial guidelines. I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in presentation.
However, not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication if common courtesy and acceptable moral standards are not upheld or the subject matter is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, nor if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions.
This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, in an entertaining way for the average hobbiest collector. - G.E.P.
THE RING OF FIRE
The coins and banknotes of the Pacific earthquake and volcanic region.
What is the "Ring of Fire"?
The 'Ring of Fire' is a horseshoe shaped area of the Earth's crust, stretching from New Zealand up through the Philippines, across to Indonesia, northwards to Japan, eastwards across to Alaska and then down the West coast of the U.S.A. and Mexico, down the West coast of South America to Peru and Chile and reaching as far South as Antarctica. The 'Ring of Fire' is also the most active volcanic and earthquake prone region in the world.
It is a loose lid over an ever warping pressure cooker of white-hot liquid magma - and it follows the lines of several tectonic plates that make up the Pacific Ocean Basin - which is the home of many, many millions of the human inhabitants of our planet..
The Pacific Ocean's undersea basins - particularly those to the South, East and North are predominately made up of relatively flattish areas surrounded by pressure ridges and plateaus - some of which protrude from the depths to form land masses such as the Hawaii and the Aleutian Island chains amongst others.
The Pacific Ocean 'Ring of Fire' major fault-lines.
To the North-west of Australia and New Zealand, however, adjoining the Asian continental mass, are a series of extremely deep and volatile trenches that are the visible signs of an ocean bed in relentless upheaval - it is forcibly sliding under the adjoining tectonic plates and forcing the land to buckle and rise - and that is one of the most dangerous area for seismic activity in our changing world.
This is one of the Earth's key points where the fault-lines come together and where the pressure is unimagineably tremendous - and things can often go horribly wrong for the area's inhabitants, in a remarkable short period of time, once a violent process has been initiated..
The trenches and ridges on the western fault-lines of note are:- the Tasman Sea Ridge between Northern Australia and New Zealand up to the Solomon Islands, the Kermadec Trench near New Zealand's East coast which nearly abuts the Tongan Trench then its ridge which then veers westward to join the Tasman Ridge and then northwards to the Planet Deep, passed Papua New Guinea and on to the Challenger Deep (35.640 ft ).
The illustration (shown above) is only general, as there are several other significant branch trenches and ridges scattered through the South Pacific - like the veins and sinews in the human body.
Within the Indonesia - Philippines region for instance, the most important anomalies are - the Java Trench, the Philippines Trench - then northwards to the Marianas Trench (36,198 ft.deep), the Japan Trench and the Kuril Trench - before veering north and eastwards along the Aleutian Trench towards Alasksa. These are truly some of the most volatile 'stretch-marks' on the outer crust of our planet.
The 'Ring of Fire' then heads south from Alaska - to the Clarion and Clipperton Fracture Zones off the West coast of California - these zones both stretch back across the Pacific towards the Hawaii islands - and the main thrust of the 'Ring' continues down along the coast of Mexico and the Middle America and Guatemala Trenches and then it is found hugging the South American continent down to the Peru and the Chile Trenches and stretching out its arms towards Antarctica - and the trenches and ridges of the Falkland Islands in the Argentine basin of the South Atlantic Ocean - but that is another story.
The pressure of the plate movement, in the South American area of the Pacific, starts below the Earth's crust miles beneath the ocean surface to push up and form the Andes Mountain range - an upward distance of over 8 miles by recent estimate..
Research has shown that, prior to the continents - as we know them - being located where they are now, they were once part of one super land-mass that was gradually split asunder by the erratic rotation of the Earth at that point in evolution - and the pieces actually drifted upon the molten sea of magma that makes up the inner core until such time as the Earth's crust cooled enough for the surface layers to gradually 're-set' into groups of slabs known as Tectonic plates. They are like pieces of a jig-saw - or pancakes swirled around, sometimes colliding and even getting stuck together, while cooking in a very hot pan .
This is a simply explanation for a complex event that is still a very large and violent 'work in progress' !
The scarred shape of the Pacific Ocean floor.
The fine lines point to basins, ridges and trenches of note - but equatorial areas are under enormous pressure and the results are also very evident where tectonic plates collide..
The Countries that rest on the rim of the 'Ring of Fire'.
If we start in the South Pacific , and work our way northwards, we will perhaps preceive what living so close to the 'Ring of Fire' can mean.
The nations that are most effected are: New Zealand, Tonga, Noumea - which is a part of the New Hebrides, New Caledonia island group, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan, Alaska, Canada and the western seaboard of the U.S.A., Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile.
The shape of the 'Ring of Fire' is more like a horseshoe than a ring at first glance- but we are not quite sure what is under the thick ice of Antarctica - but we do know from very recent exploration that the seabed, along the Antarctic Ridge, is littered with undersea slumbering volcanoes.
The famous volcanic explosion of 'Krakatoa' in 1883 that 'shook the world' and created climate change for years afterwards occured in Indonesia - but all of the places, mentioned above, have experienced major problems created by movements of the tectonic plates deep under the thin layer we think of as the surface. Sometimes these sliding or colliding plates are matched by corresponding sea movements - such as the tidal waves called 'tsunamis'.
It is also an uncomfortable fact of life that, around - or within - the Pacific Ocean 'Ring of Fire' - in the most dangerous of locations - a large percentage of our Earth's humanity is located.
Many of these land masses adjacent to the 'Ring of Fire' are extremely mountainous (refer the map above) - a legacy of the pressures being applied on their tectonic plates or the continent itself. The continental drift - or should I say 'nudge, nudge - push' - is still occurring at a measureably pace.
From time to time, coin and banknote collectors will note an item from one or more of the nations, large or small, that highlights the fact that their locations may be lovely - but they are also fraught with the possibility of danger at a level they - and we - pray never occurs.
A dormant volcano in the background of a note, a seascape - deceptively calm - may decorate a coin from a country that is prone to disastrous tsunamis. Sometimes, a combination of the two scenes implies a sense that the inhabitants are warily watching a ticking clock - just waiting for the alarm bells to sound!
Central South Pacific - (New Zealand - Tonga - Noumea - New Hebrides)
New Zealand is still a land mass 'in progress' with several active volcanoes, pressure built majestic mountains and fiords - and all sorts of thermal activity is regularly occuring. It is surrounded by several major sea trenches and ridges.
N.Z. Paper $5.00 banknote (issued 1992) featuring the late Sir Edmund Hillary and Mt. Everest. Kr.# 177
Both Fiji - and low-laying Tonga - are in close proximity to the Tonga Trench and are subject to tectonic plate and sea disturbances.
Government of Fiji 50 Cent paper note (issued 1968). Kr.# 37 - Kingdom of Tonga 50 Pa'anga paper note (issued 1995). Kr.# 36
The New Caledonia, French Polynesia and New Hebrides island groups are also located on a tectonic ridge in the Central Pacific.
The whole area is subject to substantial and potentially dangerous sea and land pressures.
Common - Republic Française (Pacific) Noumea 100 Franc paper note (issued 1969). Kr.# 44
Asian Equatorial Pacific - (Papua New Guinea - Indonesia - Philippines - Japan)
Indonesia is in the area of highest volcanic disruption in the world - some of the most famous Asian volcanoes are found here.
The different coloured lakes, within the same group of volcanic calderas at 'Mt. Kelimutu' on Flores Island, are featured on the Rp5000.
The colours of the waters vary periodically from Red, Turquoise Green, Black, Bright Blue and colours in-between
Interesting site: http://discover-indo.tierranet.com/Volcanoes00.htm
Bank Indonesia 100 Rupiah paper note (issued 1992). Kr.# 127 - Bank Indonesia 5000 Rupiah paper note (issued 1992). Kr.# 130.
The Philippines boasts one of the world's most beautiful active volcanos - Mayon
With a near perfect cone - Mayon volcano is often featured on Philippines coinage.
Filipinas One Peso - .800 Fine Silver - (issued 1908) from San Francisco Mint, U.S. KM# 172
Japan's famous Mt. Fuji is another of the world most beautiful active volcanoes that has featured on national notes and coinage.
Imperial Japanese Government 50 Sen paper note (issued 1938). Kr# 58 - Bank of Japan 500 Yen paper note (issued 1969). Kr.# 92.
Northern Pacific - North American Continent West Coast (Alaska - Canada - U.S.A.)
Damage caused by the Alaskan Earthquake of 27th. March 1964 - the trees were actually moved to this angle.
Privately produced by the privately owned 'Alaska Mint ' in 1995
Alaska State .999 Fine Silver 38mm. encapsulated medallion featuring the Seal of the State of Alaska..
Privately commissioned, from 'Alaska Mint', by the 'Anchorage Coin Club' in 1993 - 'Celebrating 5 years' - a 38mm Bronze medallion.
Obverses and reverses of (Bronze and part-polished Brass) 39mm medallions
Issued to commemorate the Alaskan Earthquake March 27th 1964
The before -and after - when Mount St. Helens in Washington State, U.S.A. blew its top on May 18th., 1980.
2007 Washington State Quarter featuring iconic symbols depicting fisheries and wilderness including Mt. Rainier volcanic peak.
The states of Washington, Oregon and California on the west coast of the United States of America are dotted with volcanic reminders of the area's volatility and mountainous evidence of the effect of Pacific tectonic plate pressure in past millenia..
Volcano sites and recent (2008) Earthquake activity in south-western California and northern Mexico
MOST HIGHLY RECOMMENDED SITE: USGS
Equatorial Pacific - West Coast Isthmus (Mexico - Guatemala - El Salvador - Honduras - Nicaragua )
Major volcano sites in Mexico
Banco Mexico 50 Pesos paper note (dated 1994 issued 1996) Kr.# 107
Major volcano sites in Guatemala - a slumbering but restless giant Mt. Santa Maria
Major volcano sites in the West Coast Panama region include El Salvador, Costa Rica and Panama.
A deceptively quiet cloud-topped Mt. Baru in Panama is listed as an active volcano.
Costa Rica - this small nation has over 200 active or slumbering volcanoes.
1989 Costa Rica 5 Colones - this brightly coloured note reverse - produced by Thomas de la Rue & Company Limited - depicts a famous painting of a theatrical scene at a sea-port in 1897. Kr# 239
1947 Republic of Panama 12.5g .900 Fine Silver Medio (1/2) Balboa featuring the Coat-of-Arms KM# 12.1
Panama - even this small piece of the "Ring of Fire' has its own slumbering volcano, Mt. Baru, and another two - long dormant - located between Bocas del Toro and David
Southern Pacific - South American Continent West Coast (Columbia - Ecuador - Peru - Chile.)
The general South American area showing tectonic plates.
The movement of these plates is responsible for the Andes mountains and the many 'Ring of Fire' volcanoes.
Peru 50 Intis note dated 1987 - featuring off-shore oil exploration that normally occurs on areas of faultlines. Kr.# 131
Columbia 5 Pesos dated 1953 - printed by Thomas de la Rue - featuring mountains, palm trees and the Pacific Ocean. Kr.# 399
Chile 50 Centavos (Copper-nickel) - featuring a Condor perched on an Andes' mountain top KM.# 206
Main References and additional Sources not already acknowledged:
Standard Catalog of World Coins (various editions) - by Chester L. Krause and Clifford Mishler - Edited by Colin R. Bruce
Standard Catalog of World Paper Money (Various Editions) - Edited by Colin R. Bruce II and George S. Cuhaj.
Private coin, banknote and medallion collections - with permission.
Time-Life World Library - 'The United States' - (published 1968)
U.S. Mint State Quarters program. Refer: http://www.usmint.gov/mint_programs/?action=50_state_quarters_program
Reader's Digest World Atlas - 4th edition (published 1974)
BANKNOTE PRINTERS TO THE WORLD
A brief resume of a few private bank note printers - past and present.
When we take out a currency note from our wallet or purse we usually look at the colour and/or denomination to ascertain its worth and hand it over to pay for a purchase. However, depending on where we live and how affluent our country is - if we haven't got a massive infrastructure to support the manufacture of currency, the odds are that our money is made somewhere else in the world, in a place has that capacity already, and which is willing to take on the extra work to churn out a few more small fortunes in notes of a suitable design - for a price.
In Australia, for instance, we have that capacity, and the technical know-how and suitable equipment, to produce paper or polymer banknotes for several other nations in this region.
However, in small developing nations with limited assets - who only require a limited run of notes periodically - an official Government printer with the right sort of machinery may be available - but, if tthey are already producing documentation up to their workload limit or their expertise - what happens then?
Just as some governments licence selected private businesses or organisations, and issue contract to supply goods - the money producing market is also geared into this system. The private printing of official national banknotes has been a lucrative business for some specialised companies for a very long time.
We have recounted, on previous occasions, the stories of unofficial issues produced during financial emergencies - often printed by speculative commercial printers - that were not worth the paper they were printed on.
We should also be aware, however, that some national notes are privately produced, under official licence, by quality banknote printing specialists and these high standard notes are (presumeably) given full government backing - but not always. (Refer; Waterlow & Sons vs. Bank of Portugal scandal - link below)
It was a subject that first caught my attention some time ago while I was preparing an article about British Armed Forces military vouchers - which looked like money and acted like money in certain areas after WWII . The two B.A.F. 10 New Pence paper notes (shown below) appear identical at first glance but closer observation will shown various differences.
Top: Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company produced. (Second Issue)
Bottom : De La Rue Company produced. (First Issue)
British Armed Forces 6th. Series Ten New Pence Special Vouchers - N.D. (1972). Kr# M48 and M44
As I prepared the previous article in this issue, I had noticed the name of one prolific private note printing firm - that of Thomas de la Rue & Company Limted (now - De La Rue) - on a banknote for the Banco Central de Costa Rica - but I knew that other notes in my small collection were also produced by other private companies so I decided to spend a short time and browse. I was surprised just how many notes had originated from private printers.
I jotted down some of the countries - and the printing companies that were involved - just as a matter of interest - and I would like to share the information. Please remember, that this in not a complete list and it only contains details of notes that were available to me, and noticed in a very quick check.
The companies, which I have listed in alphabetical order, are not judged or rated by any other criteria.
This is not an in-depth discussion - nor have I covered all aspects or even listed the denominations I have - but, perhaps, one of our readers might find it interesting enough to establish a theme for themselves from the few bare bones and the few links that I have supplied.
Many of the notes that I use, to illustrate articles in this newsletter, have the printer's name in tiny unobtrusive lettering somewhere, usually under the main design, on either side of the note. Occasionally, the name is not shown - but records tell us who made the money - so that is why a good catalogue can be a 'god-send' to a dedicated collector. When we are perusing information in some major world banknote catalogues - such as the Krause publication - "Standard Catalog of World Banknotes" - we are often confronted with the printers identities in initials, so I have listed a few of the most common ones that I have - however, there are a lot more! Usually, a complete listing - matching initials with names - can be found in any of the best catalogues.
ABNC - American Bank Note Company (USA)
BABNC - British American Bank Note Company (Canada)
BWC - Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company (England)
CBNC - Canadian Bank Note Company (Canada)
TDLR - Thomas de la Rue (England)
W & S - Waterlow & Sons (England)
It is of interest that quite a few of the larger nations opted to use several money printing sources - sometimes even at the same time - probably as a result of price tendering or the level of requirement - to supply their bank note needs. It makes for some interesting comparisons - spot the differences!
American Bank Note Company Refer:- http://www.abncompany.com/
Bolivia - El Banco Central de Bolivia (on El Banco de la Nacion Boliviana notes) 1911;
Brazil - Republica dos Estados Unidos do Brasil N.D. (1961-63);
China - Bank of China 1940, The Central Bank of China 1930;
Cuba - Banco Nacional de Cuba 1959;
Ecuador - Banco Central del Ecuador 1982;
Greece - Bank of Greece (on National Bank of Greece notes) 1926; Bank of Greece 1932;
Mexico - Private banks - El Banco Oriental de Mexico 1914;
Netherland Indies - Nederlandsch-Indische Gouvernement 1943;
Russia (Siberia) - Provisonal Russian Government N.D. 1919, Irkutsk Branch, State Bank 1917, Interest Coupons (used as currency) 1918, 1919, 1920;
American Bank Note Company produced:
200 Rubles originally dated 1917 (o/p with Revolutionary stamps dated 1920) for Irkutsk Branch. State Bank (Siberia). Kr.# S899 .
These interest bearing notes of various denominations usually also had 20 coupons, at a value of 4Rubles 50 Kopeks each, that were redeemable at scheduled times as shown on the reverse of note. Kr.# S904
British American Bank Note Company Refer: http://webhome.idirect.com/~mjp/articles/babn.html
Canada - Bank of Canada 1937, 1954;
China - The Central Bank of China 1944;
British American Bank Note Company produced:
500 Yuan note dated 1944 for The Central Bank of China. Kr.# 267.
Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company 1856 - 1986 Refer:- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bradbury_Wilkinson
(This company was taken over by De La Rue in 1986)
British Armed Forces - Special Vouchers New Pence N.D. (1972);
Brunei - Government of Brunei 1967;
Ceylon (Sri Lanka) - Central Bank of Ceylon 1965, 1974;
Fiji - Government of Fiji 1964;
Hong Kong - Government of Hong Kong 1956; The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation 1970, 1977, 1982;
Isle of Man - Isle of Man Government N.D. (1969);
Malaysia - Bank Negara Malaysia N.D..(1967) (1972-76) (1976-83);
New Zealand - Reserve Bank of New Zealand Dollars 1981-83;
Scotland - Royal Bank of Scotland Limited 1977;
Singapore - Singapore (Republic0 N.D. (1967-73), (1976-80);
Spain - El Banco de España 1928, 1931, 1935;
Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company produced:
10 Peseta note dated 1928 for El Banco de España. Kr.# 76.
Canadian Bank Note Company Limited Refer:- http://www.cbnco.com/corp/corp-about.php
Canada - Dominion of Canada 1923; Bank of Canada 1927, 1954;
Canadian Bank Note Company Limited produced:
25 Cents dated 1923 for the Dominion of Canada, One Dollar dated 1937 for Bank of Canada. Kr.# 10 and Kr.# 58b.
Thomas de la Rue & Company Limited (De La Rue) Refer:- http://www.delarue.com/
British Armed Forces - Special vouchersSterling N.D. (1962); New Pence N.D. (1972);
Bolivia - El Banco de Bolivia 1945, 1962;
Brazil - Republica dos Estados Unidos do Brasil - Tresor Nacional N.D. (1962-64); Banco Central do Brasil N.D. (1966-67)
China - Bank of China 1937; Bank of Communications 1935; The Central Bank of China 1936;
Costa Rica - Banco Central de Costa Rica 1989;
Fiji - Central Monetary Authority of Fiji N.D. (1974), Reserve Bank of Fiji N.D. (1996);
Guyana - Bank of Guyana N.D. (1966);
Hong Kong - The Chartered Bank Hong Kong N.D. (1970-77) (1979-80); The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation 1985, 1986, 1988;
Jamaica - Bank of Jamaica 1987;
Malaya - Board of Commissioners of Currency 1941;
New Zealand - The Reserve Bank of New Zealand Sterling 1940-67 ; Reserve Bank of New Zealand Dollars 1967-81, 1992-94;
Paraguay - Banco Central del Paraguay (dated 1952) issued 1963;
Peru - Banco Central Reserva del Peru 1968;
The Philippines - Central bank of the Philippines N.D. 1949;
Scotland - Royal Bank of Scotland plc 1987, 1988;
Singapore - Singapore (Republic) N.D. (1967-73), (1976-80), (1984-89);
Thailand - Government of Thailand 1953-56;
Uruguay - Banco Central del Uruguay N.D. (1967)
Thomas de la Rue produced:
100 Pesos -not dated (issued 1967) for Banco Central del Uruguay. Kr# 47
Half (0.50) New Peso - not dated (issued 1975) on 500 Peso Provisional Issue for Banco Central del Uruguay during political crisis. Kr# 54.
Waterlow & Sons Limited
(Waterlows - a respected family business - produced stamps and currency for overseas customers for many years. After losing their reputation during a huge fraud case in 1931, involving the Bank of Portugal and a gang of highly skilled fraudsters, the company was financially damaged by the cost involved and never fully recovered. They continued to operate, but their assets were eventually acquired by De La Rue in 1961) Refer:- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alves_dos_Reis
Bolivia - El Banco de Bolivia 1928;
China - The Central Bank of China 1936;
Malaya - Board of Commissioners of Currency 1941;
Peru - Banco Central Reserva del Peru 1958;
Waterlow & Sons produced:
5 Soles de Oro dated 1958 for Banco Central de Reserva del Peru. Kr# 71
During the browse through my own collection, I noted that there were also quite a number of mid-European private bank note printers, who were still operating during the middle - late 1990's, just prior to the ECU phenomenon - but, as I only have a few notes from these sources, I have chosen to ignore them at this stage. The merging of individual European currencies into the Euro had a dramatic impact on the number of note designs on offer - and, of course, the manner in which the note printing was allocated. No doubt, some of the commercial printing businesses may have been contracted to produce a portion of the huge amount of new currency that is required and may now be part of the system.
In other regions around the globe, there are instances where technolological advances now mean that some small issuers can produce quite good looking notes using computerized systems that do not require massive capital outlay for equipment. - and, taking a leaf from the European Common Market book of experience, some small nations are slowly forming ties that may, one day, mean a rationalisation of currencies in smaller economic blocs.
I cannot help but ponder, on the state of the world's finacial markets today, if the Japanese instigated - by force of arms - Asian 'co-prosperity sphere ' experiment of the early 1940's had been successful.
Japanese Government produced:
Invasion money, featuring several N.D. generic notes - various 'B' prefixes Kr# 9 - 17 - and 'M' prefixes Kr# M1 - M9 for use in Burma (now Myanmar) and Malaya (now Malaysia) during 1942 - 44.
Standard Catalog of World Paper Money (Various Editions) - Edited by Colin R. Bruce II and George S. Cuhaj.
GENERAL INDEX UPDATE.
TASMANIAN NUMISMATIST - INTERNET EDITION' 1996 - June 2007
Early issues from 1995 - 1999 were permanently archived and were not linked directly - copies are available but only by email on request.
By refering to the Indices listed here and visiting the 'Newsletter Archives' or 'Search' function located on the Home Page, you can directly access articles from 2000 to date. Refer:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug03.htm - 1995 - 1997 (Volumes 1 and 2)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/ept2003.htm - 1998 - 2000 (Volumes 3, 4 and 5)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/Oct2003.htm - 2001 - 2002 (Volumes 6 and 7)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/Nov03.htm - 2003 - to date Nov. (Volume 8 to date Nov,)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec2003.htm - Final 2003 Dec. (Volume 8 final Dec.)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan07.htm - 2004 (Volume 9)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/feb07.htm - 2005 (Volume 10)
In January 2006 it was decided to grant each new issue its own URL link. which would henceforth appear in the current Index for fast find.
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar07.html - 2006 (Volume 11)
The final Index of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' (Volume 12 - Issues 1 - 6, 2007)
'NUMISNET WORLD - INTERNET EDITION' 2007
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12, 2007)
'NUMISNET WORLD - INTERNET EDITION' Volume 13, Jan. - Dec. 2008
Issue 12. December 2008:-
The Ring of Fire. - The rim of the Pacific Ocean is the meeting place of the moving tectonic plates that make up the earth's surface - it is also the area in which a very large proportion of humitity has lived for millennia. The coins and banknotes often show depictions of this uneasy relationship with nature.
Banknote Printers to the World - A brief resume of a few private bank note printers - past and present - who have left a historic, indelible numismatic mark..
Previous contents notes will be condensed in our January 2009 edition and our Indices from 1995 - 2008 will be revised.
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