Volume 19 Issue 8    Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)     August 2014



Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2014.


The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


All or any prices quoted in articles in this free newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the authors' own collection - or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' -  Internet Edition © 1991 - 2007.  and the  'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition. © 2007 - 2013.  

Krause-Mishler (KM) Standard and Specialized World Catalogs (also including 'Pick' banknote numbers) - and McDonald and/or Renniks Australian catalogue numbers - are used where applicable.

*Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes.)


Please, also, consider my conditional invitation, to make a literary contribution, if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest - and fulfils our stated editorial guidelines. As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in additional presentation. However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication. 

We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has necessitated the following conditions.

If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagiarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbyist collector.  - G.E.P.



Where on-line web-site Links or addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith - however, our readers are advised, that, if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.





There is a widespread supposition that every snowflake that has ever fallen is slightly different! That may also be the broad description applied to the early coinage that was minted ,and circulated, on the Indian sub-continent during the past four centuries.

With its motley collection of Princely States, Empires that came and went - as well as the European influences of England, Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, France and even Denmark - is it any wonder that the plethora of coinage from the 1600's - to the mid 1900's has always excited and enraptured those international numismatists with an eye for the mysterious and difficult to define.

Unfortunately, there is such an overload that it tends to stifle the average new collector with its various abundances - unless a small fortune is readily accessible - as well as the need of boundless patience.  This very brief article barely touches the edges - but we hope to point out a few facts that may be helpful building blocks to a worthwhile accumulation.


Due to the domineering forces at work during the era mentioned, the overlaps in regard to monetary terms has created a confusion - so let us first do a little sorting of 'who's who' - and what coinage denominations did they use!  .

The names of some of the more common early Indian coins changed slightly as they moved across borders from state to state. e.g. - a TANGA, for instance, may be called a TUNGA a short distance away. 

There were DIO and DIU - DOUDOUS and DOKDO's - as well as FANUN, FANO  and FANON

Many Indians - particularly of lower castes - were illiterate and it soon was apparent that appearance and weight  was what determined the value of each coin - so the interchanges continued within the societies that had access to these pieces of metal..

It must be noted that the early methods of hammered production - poor strikes, clipped coins - and the amount of normal wear 'n' tear from a huge population - on low value denominations, means that good examples from the early era are hard to come by. As with other colonies around the world during this period, special coinages were minted in Europe by the major colonial investors for use in India and adjacent nation states. Of course, they have added a little more confusion to the already existing hodge-podge of numismatic mystery

Some of the main 'players' were commercial interests in the Madras area such as the Danish East India Co.., Danish Royal Colony and the Danish Asiatic Co.  These commercial entities produced their own trade coinages at Tranquebar Mint - with interchangeable features for local use between their enclaves.  Denominations called KAS, (1, 2, IV, 10 of Copper); ROYALIN (ER) (1, 2 of Silver);  FANO (1, 2 of Silver) and PAGODA (Gold) were noted -  but not all were minted by each of the individual Danish groups.


The French 'Compagne des Indes Orientales' , located at Arcot, produced several series of the RUPEE - and its fractions of 1/4; 1/2 - in Silver, and a series of the better quality 32mm  NAZARANA RUPEE of approx. 11.40g  which became an acceptable 'trade' coin on major shipping routes..

The Rupee denominations were minted at Pondichery and Surat  mints. (Surat is in mid North-Western India and also produced coinage for British interests.). Other common coins used by the India-French influenced areas were:- 1 CACHE (Bronze); 1/4, 1/2, 1 BICHE; (Copper) 1/2 DOUDOU, 1 DOUDOU (Copper); 1/2 FANON (Bronze), 1, 2, FANON (Silver); PAGODA (Gold).


The Portuguese - courtesy of early explorer, Vasco de Gama, who seized bits of India in 1498.- at places like Goa, Darmao and Diu on the Western Coast  - held the area until 1962 when the new Indian Republic forcibly annexed all their settlements.

The Portuguese had opened a Mint at Damao in 1611 that produced various denominations of Copper REIS coinage 3, 15, 30 and 60. - another mint was established at Diu in 1685 that made Lead or Tin BAZARUCOS (5, 10, 20 ); Copper REIS (30, 60) and Silver REIS (150, 300) and Silver RUPIAH.

The mint at Goa had been established early - in 1510 - and had been making various denomination small change coins mainly from Tin and Copper.

During the early 1800's, it  started to produce  some denominations in various grades of Silver and Gold - as well as the usual Bronze - and finally the more modern Copper-Nickel CENTAVOS and ESCUDOS in the mid 1950's

Whilst the earlier coinage may have been given names such as TANGA (60 Reis), PARDAO (300 Reis), XERAFIM and RUPIA - they had a  whole or fractional equivalent REIS value for trade purposes...

To be concluded.....






5-1-1942 - 13-8-2005






JULY 2007 - DECEMBER 2013.

Full details of 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  (2007)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm  - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm  -  (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec09.htm  -  (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2010)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec10.htm  -  (Volume 15 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2011)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jun11.htm  - (Volume 16 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec11.htm  - (Volume 16 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2012)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june12.htm  - (Volume 17 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec12.htm   -  (Volume 17 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World (2013)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june13.htm  -  (Volume 18 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec13.htm   -  (Volume 18 - Issues 7 - 12)



Issue 1. January 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan14.htm

HOW COLLECTORS FIND THE THINGS THEY COLLECT! - Sometimes 'Lady Luck' plays a part in how we collectors put together our accumulations.

A 'not-quite-random' phone call in mid-December 2013 put me in touch with another numismatic gatherer who was searching for information about some of his 'stuff'. A mutually beneficial exchange occurred - which gave me the chance of making another potential friend with a compatible interest  - and, as a bonus, I was also able to add a few pieces to my collection.

THE FACES OF MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATÜRK - A fast scan over a few of the portraits of Turkey's famous leader!


Issue 2. February 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/feb14.htm

TASMANIAN TRADESMEN'S TOKENS REVISITED 2014 (Part 1.) - This is one of those subjects that are treated as essential reading for collector's of our local tradesmen's tokens. Readers and collectors have now access to several excellent sources of literature - but, a general nudge may encourage a newcomer's start on a long journey into this intriguing facet of numismatics.


Issue 3. March 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar14.htm

CHINA - THE MODERN ERA (Part 1.) - The giant that is - CHINA - awoke during the early part of the 1900's and flexed its muscles. This two part article cannot cover the political upheaval and agony of China as it found its feet and strode into the modern era. We will touch gently upon some of its more modern numismatic history in an effort to stay reasonably contemporary with how it is all developing.

TASMANIAN TRADESMEN'S TOKENS REVISITED 2014 (Part 2.) - The continuation of the reprise of the story of Tradesmen's tokens in Tasmania. This part covers the north of the island.

THE CHANGING FACE OF MONEY! - Over the last two decades there have been some momentous changes to international currency and coinage with the overwhelming onslaught created by electronic technology now that the 'BITCOIN' has materialized in tangible form.. However, political changes have also played a decisive part with new states appearing and some old ones disappearing.


Issue 4. April 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/april14.htm

ANZAC DAY 1915 - 2014 - The Allied landing at Gallipoli. on 25th. April 1915 is again commemorated by this newsletter.  As Editor, I have been somewhat selfish by honouring my Great-Uncle Fred Fox for some years. From reading various records, I feel that the story of this one man's war  - a period of 4 years and 198 days on overseas service - was probably a typical example of the experience that thousands of other Australians had as well! 

AN INDIVIDUAL'S VIEW - THE "A - Z" - OF PAPER MONEY! - There are notes that sometimes get overlooked in favour of the 'pop' selection from major nations. This thumb-nail literary sketch - with a few pictorial examples - allows us to fill in some of the gaps between A - Z . As space and time permits, we will feature a few more!


Issue 5. May 2014:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/may14.htm

CHINA - THE MODERN ERA (Part 2.) - The inscrutable face of China changed dramatically after WWII with the rise and rise of the Communist regime. Chinese resolve and practicality kicked in and now the giant has stirred economically and the world will never be the same as it was 50 years ago..

PRESENTS by POST...and the POKIES - plus a PARTY POSTSCRIPT - Indulge me a little as I relate a few personal poppets from early April!

AN INDIVIDUAL'S VIEW - THE "A - Z" - OF PAPER MONEY! (Part 2.) - The conclusion of the A-Z of the editor's accumulation of world banknotes.

A selection of illustrations of not-so-well-known national notes.

COIN SHORTAGES and the AMERICAN COLONIES - Like Australia and other English outposts of past eras, the fledgling American colonies had problems with the shortage of specie at the everyday level - They also did what they had to do to concoct a supply of small change!


Issue 6. June 2014:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june14.htm

HOW COLLECTORS FIND THE THINGS THEY COLLECT!(2) - Another look at how collections can start - a little desire and imagination can start us on a lifetime journey. However, a fluke - an undreamed of opportunity - can be as good a way as any well-thought-out plan!  Lets start looking at 'A'

'OLDE WORLD! - NEW WORLD! - Reminisces and a forecast! Changing attitudes and the way we handle cash are about to alter forever the way we live.

T.N.S. MEDALLIONS _ EXCESS FOR SALE - 'Excess to requirement'  - some extra  medallion stock has been discovered and is detailed for sale.

GET WELL, JERRY ADAMS! - Our long-time member has been poorly of late! We wish him a speedy recovery!.



Issue 7. July 2014:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/july14.htm

TIMETABLE TO DISASTER - It was like dominos falling!The events at Sarejavo on 28th. June 1914 lead to a great conflict on a scale of horror and tragedy that the world had never seen previously. The consequences of this conflict and the period of nervous peace that followed - within a financial context - were long-ranging and were harbingers of further international disaster within 21 years for another generation to bear.

CANCELLATION OF EVENTS - The 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' has advised that it has -reluctantly - cancelled its series of Coin Fairs scheduled for the final half of 2014 due to circumstances beyond its control.


Issue 8. August 2014:-

THE GEM THAT IS INDIA! - The first of the footsteps that we will take into the mystery that still is India!

IN MEMORIAM - It has now been 9 years since this Editor's dearly loved wife, Ailsa, passed away. She is missed.





The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


The 'NumisNet World'’ (Internet Edition) newsletter has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented free on a monthly basis with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics. Whilst the 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter abides by the same basic guidelines originally suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter, it is a separate, independent publication.

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, email or hand delivered, directly to financial members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions.

All titles and matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society


Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.

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Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, any Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations -  or  - (2) To provide additional important information. 


Some illustrated items - including their designs and packaging -  may be subject to existing copyright restrictions.

In such instances, they may not be replicated or their images reproduced or republished - unless prior permission is sought from, and given by, the originator, owner or licensee of such item, design or packaging.



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The Editor,

Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.


Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

Email: pwood@vision.net.au