Volume 21 Issue 4  Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)    April  2016



Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2016.


The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


All or any previous prices quoted in articles in this free newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the newsletter's library collection - or that of the extensive library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' -  Internet Edition © 1991 - 2007.

Krause-Mishler (KM) Standard and Specialized World Catalogs (also including 'Pick' banknote numbers) - and McDonald and/or Renniks Australian catalogue numbers - are used where applicable.

*Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes.)



Where on-line web-site Links or addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith - however, our readers are advised, that, if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk!



of the





Readers should note that this 'Anniversary of Commencement' issue of the newsletter is shown as ...'Volume 21, Issue 4' ... for a reason!

In fact, this month is the actual 21st. anniversary of the commencement of the Internet newsletter that originally borrowed its name from the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - the official printed publication of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' 

That first experimental Internet version, 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - Volume 1, Issue 1 -  was set in motion in April 1966 - and only had 6 very limited-size issues that year. There had been a few early teething problems that came to light - but, they were soon sorted!

It was later pointed out that two un-numbered printed issues of the post-out 'Tasmanian Numismatist' version, had been produced in July and September of 1995, by another interim Editor in an effort to restart the publication - but they were not uploaded to the Internet.

It appeared that the first of these had borne the words - Volume 1  - amongst the heading, therefore, in theory, our issues starting in April 1996 should have been Volume 2 - however, this was a completely new newsletter - of a different format with a new Editor at the helm - so, this was a matter that we decided only needed to be acknowledged - just for the record - to save confusion for future archivists.


In May/June 1996, the decision was made to confirm the co-ordination of the two publications Volume and Issue numbering systems.

We would retain the new Internet version of 'Tasmanian Numismatist' 1996 as Volume 1 - and, re-commence in January 1997 with Volume 2, Issue 1 in both formats.... so, readers - you now know the early history!


Both publications then came under the voluntary stewardship of this Editor and were to be published monthly, for an extended period - until Volume 5 Issue 12, December 2000. They proved to be a very successful as dual publications -  but, at that time, the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society's 'Executive Committee' decided that its official printed version would need to revert to bi-monthly due to severe postal cost imposts applied that year.

The bi-monthly printed edition would retain the same Volume numbers but Issue numbers would be from 1 - 6 to cover the 12 month period, with January/February 2001 as the first print-out. Things could have become complicated again - but we persevered!


By mutual arrangement, the private Internet newsletter was permitted to continue using the headline banner 'Tasmanian Numismatist' and asked to actively promote the T.N.S. as well as share articles and contacts - however, there were soon some unavoidable differences in content creeping into the two editions. Many T.N.S. members received both copies - so social news of special relevance to the Society was not compromised. It was feasible to continue the existing Volume and monthly Issue number system for the Internet Edition, #1 - 12, starting in January 2001 - so that is how the two versions co-existed. ... with a difference!


The 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' was one of the first Australian numismatic newsletters to be established, privately funded and presented on-line by one of its local club members by arrangement -  it eventually morphed into the 'Numisnet World' international Internet publication in July 2007. The 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) - and its 'offspring' - the 'Numisnet World' (Internet Edition) - eventually became a totally independent publication - and has continued on as a privately-funded monthly newsletter until this point in time.


It is of concern that the very recent huge 30% hike in Australian letter postage - and, a less frequent delivery service - is now sounding a death-knell for some printed items that were traditionally distributed by post by organizations on limited or fixed budgets - as most hobby clubs are!  Many clubs have no other option than to now embrace Internet technology, in one form or another, and use email or a Home Page arrangement. 

The future, however, is an evolving mystery for the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society's own printed publication!

It appears to have been shelved once more - no-one from within the T.N.S. has stepped forward to pick up the editorial mantle . Pity!

By temporary arrangement, the 'Numisnet World' (Internet edition) is being forwarded to selected 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' members



I had made mention - in our Volume 21, Issue 1 of this year - that, depending on health problems, and other factors relating to this Editor's ability to continue, a major decision - on the direction the editorial path would be taking - would be pending. 

I also mentioned it would be a tough call!  At that time, I was not firing on all cylinders, as they say!

It has not become much easier over the Summer - I have been procrastinating - but, I did need time to get some personal things into order and then try to decide when to draw that line in the sand - even if it would probably become a shifting nebulous thing for a time.

After several heartfelt discussions, with some of my numismatic peers, this private Internet newsletter will be now  probably be finalized at a rational time - most probably at the end of this year - after certain commitments are met and obligations are fulfilled  - and -  hopefully, before I'm carried away drooling into my dotage! 

Perhaps, a less frequent social numismatic-based informal commentary - or perhaps, a basic 'Q and A' blog - might evolve as I wander off into the sunset - without the pressure of a monthly deadline .....  we shall see!

In the meantime, I'll plod along along just a little further ......





A Touch of History.

The Gun in the Park.


As far back as I can remember, this old greenish-brown - almost black - bronze 'cannon' has overlooked the slopes in Launceston's City Park in my home state of Tasmania, Australia.

When I was a kid I used to sit astride it - and pretend I was a gunner preparing to blow the bejabbers out of any invading enemy ships coming up the Tamar River or foreign troops advancing over the river-flats near the old defunct Railway yards.

Little did I know that, in a way, I would fulfil part of that fantasy, in later years, as a Gunner training with the 6th Field Regiment., Royal Australian Artillery.


Generations of kids, including mine - and my grandchildren, have rolled down the neat grassy slopes below its foreboding barrel without a thought of its history - they may only know that it has been a part of their playground for nearly 150 years.

However, as I eventually became involved in part of the local Artillery Trust responsibilities, I consider that a little history lesson may enlighten some of us on why an old Russian gun came to be mounted on lawns of the Launceston City Park. 

 The gun appears to be a naval gun adapted for land warfare. It is to be noted that to make using these heavy naval guns far easier to handle, the Russians had remounted a few on cast-iron gun-carriages  - just as the park gun has been.


In 1990, to celebrate the 130th Anniversary of the Launceston Volunteer Artillery, the Artillery Historical Trust of Tasmania, Northern Branch presented the City of Launceston with a bronze plaque that contained the inscription shown below.

Note:- (Trunnions are the 'axles' that the barrel of the cannon tilt on to get the correct elevation -  the high angle of shot). 



Inscribed Trunnions.

Hidden away on the right trunnion is the inscription in Cyrillic Russian script.

My translation may be a little rough - but, I think it reads:-

36 - H(?)

Cannon - Carronade

Weight 142 ˝ - Pounds.

1840 - Year.

On the left trunnion, the roughly translated Cyrillic inscription reads:-

No. 26851

Alksnd (Alexander) Factory

Origin : Armstrong


The double-headed Imperial Russian Eagle crest is positioned prominently half way down the barrel - with the large letters M and A on each side of the top breech vent - the hole through which the gun-powder was fired.

The mention of Armstrong refers to the original designer of the rifled muzzle-loading cannon and it was made, under licence, in Russia prior to hostilities. The English manufactured Armstrong guns were later produced in breech-loading form and were the fore-runners of modern artillery.


The Siege of Sebastopol 1854 - 55.

The Crimean war started in 1853, and initially involved Russia versus Turkey.

By 1854, Britain and France had also become involved and declared war on Russia.

Sardinia joined the Allies in 1855.

Sebastopol was originally developed to be the most important Russian naval base, and its main arsenal, on the Black Sea.

The brick-and-masonry fortifications had been commenced in 1783 and upgraded periodically to make it considered impregnable by the standards of the day. In 1837 the Czar ordered further works but nothing was done until the war broke out in 1853.

By April 1854, Colonel Frants Todleben had been appointed to upgrade the fortifications but, because he considered that any invasion would come from the sea, he took his time with the inland facing defences.


The French and British landed on September 13th 1854 at Old Fort - 30 miles to the north of Sebastopol - and, after defeating Prince Menshikov's army at Alma, the Allies were within sight of the northern defences of the port.

They considered the northern approaches too strong, so they decided to march to the south - however, they over estimated the strength of the partly constructed defences and decided that an estimated 500 casualties was too high a price to pay to breach them. Todelben was let off the hook and immediately set about strengthening the fortification by using every able-bodied man he could muster.

In the meanwhile, the Allies began a formal siege.

By mid- October, Sebastopol was one of the most formidable fortresses in the world.


Due to lack of bricks-and-masonry materials, Todelben had his men raise massive earthwork bastions connected with trenches and supporting batteries.

He had so many guns, over 3000 - most of these from the Russian Black Sea Fleet - that many had to be stored.

The bombardment started on 17th October 1854 and was destined to continue until September 8th 1855.

After terrible carnage (over 300,000 men) the Russian commander, Prince Gorchakov, - who was losing up to 1000 men a day - blew up the town and retreated across a pontoon bridge to the stronger northern defences.

It was estimated that the allies had fired 1,250,000 projectiles into Sebastopol before the withdrawal.


Packaged One Dollar coin commemorating Australia's first Victoria Cross recipient.

(Awarded to Capt. Neville Howse, N.S.W. Army Medical Corps - July 1900, during the Boer War)

Other pics. - Sebastapol Guns and smashed fortifications - the bronze from the guns became the raw material for the Victoria Cross. 


Main References.

Modern Military Series - ARTILLERY.

Published 1975 - Octopus Books.

Pears Cyclopaedia - 92nd Edition.  Published 1983 - 84. The Chaucer Press.



 Kiang Nan Dragon Silver Dollar


At an APTA stamp and coin show in Launceston in 2006, at which I was accompanied by my grandson (near 9 y.o. at that time) who had succumbed to the lure of numismatics, we spotted a small basket that had a few Crown-sized coins within.

As we all know, size and shape mean everything to a new young collector so - on his behalf - I parted with a few dollars and added a 5 coin selection to our ever increasing pile.

Later, at home, along with his own coin and banknote purchases - (he got extremely good value for his AUD$28.00) -  he selected a couple of the Crown-sized coins that really took his fancy and passed the other 3 over to me. 

*I must say that the local dealers, Stephen Cole of Salamanca Rare Coins and David and Kim Newell of the Stamp Place as well as the gentleman from Stephen's Coins & Banknotes of South Yarra, Vic. made his day with their interest in my grandson's new interest - and he was soon talking about his next coin show visit.


The point of this little story is to let you know how I came into possession of a mysterious Chinese 7 Mace and 2 Candareens (Dollar) coin.


With the realisation that some Chinese entrepreneurs are churning out more fakes - and other world coins as well - than the amount of originals that were minted (only hal-kidding), I gave the coin the beady-eyed attention of the sceptic.

At first, I easily dismissed it as another good fake because it wasn't slotted into the good, old Krause catalogue, but, being the inquisitive old collector that I am, I delved a little deeper to see what its origin may have been.


With Pandora's box wide open, I found that I became of two minds about my coin's authenticity - but, I still couldn't make an informed decision - I needed more information other than the visual opinion of my own.

I contacted fellow collector, Mr. Y.K. Leung of Hong Kong  who has studied the real and the dubious Chinese items at some length and, at his request, I forwarded some scans to him for his opinion. 

A few days later, I received a return email from Mr. Leung to confirm that the 7 Mace and 2 Candareen coin was, indeed, a recently made fake.

It is currently retailing at about $1.00 in China and, as it has noticeable variations from the genuine coin, it can avoid being classified as a counterfeit and falls into that magical area of 'fantasy'. 

Whatever it is called - it is really still a fake when sold or traded as a genuine coin.

For the relative pittance I paid for this coin - whether it be fact or fiction - it has earned its cost in the fun of learning more about the fascinating area of Chinese Fakes, Fantasies and Charms as well as the genuine articles.


While I was waiting on an answer from Mr. Leung, I had fossicked around and located some Internet information - with an illustration - that lent credence that it may be a fantasy (sometimes called a 'charm') issue - in other words - a fake.

Vladamir Belyaev, the Russian author of an internet article written in July 1998 entitled, "Set of forgered (sic) silver and gold struck coins.", freely admits that, whilst he is not 100% sure that it may not be a legitimate variety, he considers it as worthy for inclusion in the article as a probable fake. His illustration appeared to be identical - and, with certain details on my coin agreeing with his description below, I started to confirm my suspicion about mine being a nice fake.



In the centre, in Chinese script, are the 4 characters of the standard legend - Guang Hsu Yuan Pao (basically, this means 'valuable currency') - at the top centre also in Chinese charcters - Made by Kiangnan Province- and at the bottom 7 Mace and 2 Candareens, on the sides are the mint-master's initials HAH (H.A. Holmes) and CH (the unknown engraver) and the date 1904 in Chinese numerals. 



Dragon with flame pearl in the centre. Two English inscriptions - Kiang Nan Province and 7 Mace and 2 Candareens.
Diameter: 39.5 mm (my coin is barely 40mm as measured with a Vernier gauge - nearly close enough)
Weight: 26.7 g  (my coin appears to be about 1oz. = 28.39g - which is about 1.5g heavier )

Dated: 1904



               Author's Kiang Nan Province 1904 Dollar (7 Mace and 2 Candareens)


As I didn't wish to destroy my coin, I tried several unobtrusive 'home remedy' tests - such as trying to get it to stick to a magnet -  to try and identify if the coin has a decent silver content or if it is only plated. I have read that high silver content will not stick whereas some alloys or plated coins will show a certain amount of 'stickiness' but, from my own efforts, it was a 'hit or miss' experiment at best.

I even used the old face tissue trick over a genuine coin to see if the 'silver' showed through with varying degrees of reflected white - compared to the greyness of copper-nickel or another base alloy - and it actually did show a fair percentage of white in the real coin's field.

Try it sometime........ it seems to have some validity.

The 'chop' marks in Chinese silver coins weren't made just to decorate the coin but to test the depth of silver as Chinese entrepreneurs are very, very clever and sometimes the silver content is relatively higher than expected in fakes - especially those with a high numismatic value -  it would seem barely worthwhile with this coin .........but who knows, quantity may play a part.........?

Electronic testing or metallurgical analysis is often the only way some of these fakes are detected - but some that have been discovered have had a very basic mistake - like a wrong date for the type or a mintmark being used that is not correct for the minting era.


My coin is without the 4 central Manchu characters that are on other similar coins from this era, .and, it is virtually identical with the Internet example even to the strange character at the left of the central major characters of the obverse - which is without its bottom right stroke at the base to form the Chinese symbol for 'Pao'.

The correct depiction should be




That there are at least two coins with this identical difference, leads one to suspect they came from the same mint source.

There is another common 'flaw' evident that points to either a deteriorating die - or a poor copy of an original - being used in the manufacture of these two pieces. The character above the right-hand dot on the obverse has the same damaged right side (thickening) on both mine and as shown on the Belyaev's illustration.

Slight striation marks, even a slight porous appearance of the surfaces of some of the characters, and a small area of roughness across the field of the obverse are evident under x10 magnification and hint that this 'coin' may have been carefully prepared from a cast - but these things are not conclusive enough with today's knowledge of mint errors and, no doubt, we have all seen similar flaws in our own modern coinage - otherwise, at first glance, the obverse is standard for a Kiang Nan silver dollar.

As one Chinese coin collector remarked - "Perhaps, I should collect the forgeries!"


Out of courtesy, I advised the innocent dealers, who unwittingly sold me the item, so that they were aware of the problem in case any more turn up at their counter.

However, as previously mentioned, it does highlight the fact that the effort of some Chinese 'coin' manufacturers is of a very high level and that anything of a 'special' or 'unusual' nature that comes from this area should be examined carefully and, a process of consultation with other more knowledgeable collectors should be undertaken, especially if the price structure appears a bit dubious - either way.

In a fine example of business 'know how', a high profit margin for fakes in not always the goal - nor are all fakes based on scarcity of the original - the aim is to establish a high turn-over - like a good supermarket - and simply concentrate on making a few cents on each relatively common copy 'coin'.

If it is not already occurring, a mass produced fantasy item such as this could eventually be marketed at a wholesale price and distributed through vendors - then on-sold as a genuine 'souvenir' coin to unsuspecting members of the public.

Once seen, and accepted by enough people in the fringe numismatic community,  it may be only one step away from being considered a genuine variety.


Internet References:

Chinese Numismatics in Research - Y.K. Leung. Refer: http://ykleungn.tripod.com/kiangn02.htm

Chinese Coinage Web Site - Vladamir Belyaev. Refer: http://www.charm.ru/


Other Reference:

Standard Catalog of World Coins - by Chester L Krause and Clifford Mishler - Colin R Bruce II, Senior Editor 1998




Observation is one of the most important aspects of our hobby - so, always be aware of those slight variations in design that do occur.

Some are so obscure that major catalogues do not bother listing them - but they sometimes catch our attention and make for some interesting additions to our accumulations. The few items I have chosen are just that - a few! (Krause Catalog references. Kr.)



Bank of China 1937 10Yuan (Kr. #81)

With its enormous population, it can only be expected that any banknote issue for China must cater for that demand.


There are several noticeable differences between these otherwise identical Bank of China notes printed by Thomas de la Rue (London)

(1) The difference in background colours and other ink definitions, and (2) the shift from single to double letter prefixes - details of which are, apparently, still not listed in the Krause publication  'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money.

The colour variation (shown above) can, possibly, be attributed to fading or varying ink application between the production runs - but, they make interesting variables for our collections.



Bank of England One Pound (Kr. #377)

Chief Cashier J.B. Page (1978 - 80) and D.H.F. Somerset (1981 - 84)


Same basic design with different signatories - there is also a little less colour definition between issues

 The Britannia and Newton guilloches are printed in two major colours (Green or Black inks predominate.)

Refer:- 'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money' - Vol. III


1922 German 5000 Mark (Kr. #80 and Kr. #79)

Additional serial number and strong colour variation on the front of the lower note (Kr #79).

With rampant inflation looming, banknote printing was allocated to various printers to keep up with the growing demand!


Soon expiry dates appeared on notes - and hyper-inflation, the next stage in the destruction of Germany's post WWI monetary system - occurred with terrifying rapidity. Wages were being paid by the basketful - and basic prices skyrocketed.

Obsolete notes were gathered, pulped and the mash bleached to be turned to paper once more -  to print higher value currency.

Hundreds of commercial printing business were employed.



(top - Kr #M48 .....bottom - Kr #45 - see note )

It should be noted that these 10P special military vouchers (6th. Series) were printed by two different note printers:- 

First issue (Kr #45) was by De la Rue (formerley Thomas de la Rue)  - and the 2nd. issue (Kr #48) is by Bradbury, Wilkinson & Co .

Slight pattern variations as well as ink variations are noticeable.

The decision to share the workload with two major banknote printers was a Government political prerogative at that time.






JULY 2007 - to date.

Full details of 'Numisnet World' - incorporating 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  (2007)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm   -  (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2008)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm   -  (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2009)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec09.htm   -  (Volume 14 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2010)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec10.htm   -  (Volume 15 - Issues 1 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2011)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jun11.htm   -  (Volume 16 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec11.htm   -  (Volume 16 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2012)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june12.htm -  (Volume 17 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec12.htm  -   (Volume 17 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2013)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june13.htm  -  (Volume 18 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec13.htm   -  (Volume 18 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2014)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june14.htm  - (Volume 19 - Issues 1 - 6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec14.htm  -   (Volume 19 - Issues 7 - 12)

For full details of 'Numisnet World' (2015)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/june15.htm -   (Volume 20 - Issues 1-6)

http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec15.htm   -  (Volume 20 - Issues 7- 12) 


VOLUME 21 - 2016

Issue 1. January 2016:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan16.htm

EDITORIAL - A brief history of the newsletter - and realization that everything has its time in the Sun - but history continues, no matter what!

A NUMISMATIC HINT - ANDA (Australian Numismatic Dealers Association) published a small, handy booklet a few years ago - a 'freebie' - to assist new gatherers of Australian coinage. Worthy of inclusion in any collector's library!

SUPPLY & DEMAND! - Our hobby - be it as pure collecting members of a club, or those with a more altruistic commercial interest - rely on that basic rule - Supply and Demand! This brief memorandum gives a few clues on how to get started - buying or selling - and a few hard-learned handy-hints might allow us to strike a balance that keeps the whole business thing, of negotiating prices, on an even keel.

CORRECTION - We all make mistakes at times....!


Issue 2. February 2016:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/feb16.htm

DECIMAL CURRENCY COMES TO OZ! - The next best thing to 'sliced bread' was the eventual opinion when 'Dollar Bill' started to let the Australian population know that Decimal Currency was coming to town. This reprise may stir a few memories of that day, in February 1966, we started playing with Dollars and Cents!


Issue 3. March 2016:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar16.htm

THE SAGA OF AUSTRALIA'S FIRST POLYMER BANKNOTE 1988 - The trials and tribulations connected with our first issue of 'fantastic plastic' (polymersubstrate) was big news back in 1988 - but it was solved -and our expertise has been adopted all over the world. This brief article gives a brief look at our first effort,

BURIED TREASURE & PARAPHERNALIA! - I'm a bit like an old pack-rat - I hoard 'treasure' away and forget about it - and when I do find it - it is like it is brand new!  In 1991, after the first International Coin, Banknote and Medal Fair in Tasmania,  I did exactly that - and, in 2016, I found some of it!

AN OBSERVATION - Time is creeping up on many older gatherers who started the hobby in 1966 with the advent of Decimal Currency in this country. The market place is seeing, more frequently, various prestige life-time accumulations being offered for auction. Where will prices go? - and will it divide the hobby into two distinctive parts - collectors or speculators ..... or -  has that already occurred?!


Issue 4. April 2016:-

21st. ANNIVERSARY of the INTERNET EDITION - EDITOR'S COMMENT - A decision has been made - and, it HAS been an extremely tough call, after 21 years, to attempt to set a December deadline for the last issue of this newsletter that I have nurtured and watched grow. My reluctance to let it go has been a tangible thing, but, I know that it had to be done!.

A TOUCH of HISTORY - THE GUN in the PARK. - Memories from childhood were linked when we shared the history of the Victoria Cross and a large captured Bronze cannon from Sebastopol that is now located in a local park!

KIANG NAN DRAGON SILVER DOLLAR - FACT or FICTION? -  All that glisters is not Gold - nor are all Silver looking metal coins precious!  Well-made replicas can create problems! Caveat Emptor!

SPOT the DIFFERENCES! - Observation is one of the most important aspects of our hobby - so, always be aware of those slight variations in design that do occur. Some are so obscure that major catalogues do not bother listing them - but they sometimes catch our attention and make interesting additions..






The contents of this independent Internet newsletter, and all prior issues - included the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Editor of the  NumisNet World' '(Internet Edition) newsletter, is required - in writing - prior to use of that material.


The 'NumisNet World'’ (Internet Edition) newsletter has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented free on a monthly basis with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics. Whilst the 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter abides by the same basic guidelines originally suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter, it is a separate, independent publication.

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, email or hand delivered, directly to financial members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions.

All titles and matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society


Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.

Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Editor. 

ALL comments in linked articles are the responsibility of the original authors.

Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, any Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations -  or  - (2) To provide additional important information. 


Some illustrated items - including their designs and packaging -  may be subject to existing copyright restrictions.

In such instances, they may not be replicated or their images reproduced or republished - unless prior permission is sought from, and given by, the originator, owner or licensee of such item, design or packaging.



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Under this act, information about individuals can be stored and published only if: the information is already contained in a publicly available document or if personal information has been provided by the individual to whom the information relates, and if that individual is aware of the purposes for which the information is being collected.

All information published by the ''NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter is either publicly available, or has been voluntarily provided by writers, on request from the Editor of the ''NumisNet World'  (Internet Edition) newsletter.

While the ''NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter may hold writers' addresses and other details for the purposes of communication and copyright protection, it will never make such addresses or details available to any member of the public without the permission of those involved.

The 'NumisNet World'' (Internet Edition) newsletter also respects the privacy of our readers. When you write to us with comments, queries or suggestions, you may provide us with personal information including your contact address or other relevant information. Your personal information will never be made available to a third party without permission.



All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned. 

The 'NumisNet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. Deadline for any literary contributions, or amendment to copy, is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication.


The Editor,

Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.


Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

Email: pwood@vision.net.au