Volume 16 Issue 4          Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)         April  2011





Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2011.


Any comments published in this privately produced - not for profit -  newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views of the 'Numisnet World' (Internet Edition) nor its Editor. 

Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, any Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations -  or  - (2) To provide additional important information. 

Some illustrated items - including their designs and packaging -  may be subject to existing copyright restrictions. In such instances, they may not be replicated or their images reproduced or republished - unless prior permission is sought from, and given by, the originator, owner or licensee of such item, design or packaging.


Please consider my conditional invitation to make a literary contribution if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest and fulfils our stated editorial guidelines. 

As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in presentation.  However, please be aware that not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication.  We regret the imposition of 'editorial control' - but previous experience has necessitated the following conditions.

If common courtesy, and normally acceptable moral standards are not upheld, or, the subject matter is considered to contain plagiarized or defamatory content, or, if it is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, or, if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions - it may be refused, held aside or selectively edited.  This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, hopefully, in an entertaining way for the average hobbyist collector.  - G.E.P.


Remember - be astute when you are handed change - not all the wonders of numismatics have been discovered yet - and they don't have to be shiny and new! This edition again features an assortment of  'trivia'  that I think is of interest and I trust it will prove educational and entertaining to you as well. 

All or any prices quoted in articles in this newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. 

Wherever possible - illustrations (*enlarged or otherwise) are from the authors' own collection or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' -  Internet Edition and the  'Numisnet World' - Internet Edition. © 1996 - 2011.

(Fair 'acknowledged' use of any original scan is allowed for educational purposes.)

*Please note that the photoscans of items are not always to size or scale.


PLEASE NOTE - RE-STATED DISCLAIMER: Where on-line web-site addresses are supplied, they are done so in good faith after we have checked them ourselves - however, our readers are advised that if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.





ANZAC DAY 25th. APRIL 1915 - 2011

A Personal Observation

by (former) Gun-Sgt. Graeme E. Petterwood

F Troop. R Battery,

6th Field Regiment.

Royal Australian Artillery.


Australian Defence Medal (2006)-retrospective 1945-current.

Anniversary of National Service Medal (2001)-retrospective 1951-72.

Order of wear precedence is shown.


Royal Australian Artillery

Guard Duty members (author-standing centre)

Brighton Army Camp - early Winter 1956

(Author's private collection.) ©


Many older Australian families still have first hand knowledge of the effects of both World Wars and the ensuing conflicts that claimed or changed the youth of this nation in so many ways.

Even in times of relative peace in our homeland, however, we must be vigilant. 

Our young men and women are still making sacrifices and devoting themselves to our national well-being in either part-time or full-time military service, and their willingness to continue extending their shielding hands to those less fortunate, can be reflected in the more recent events in the Middle East and elsewhere.

It comes at a terrible price at times.

Like most Australians on Anzac Day, I unashamedly share the triumph of the spirit over adversity, weep at the underlying sadness about lives lost and, sometimes, terrible injuries - and also express my gratitude for the freedoms, so hard won, that have given our nation a sense of destiny on the world stage.


Anzac Day does not just honour the Gallipoli landing anniversary in 1915, but it has grown to encompass all sacrifices made by Australians, and New Zealanders, in all theatres-of-war - and even during times of peaceful readiness.

Each year, at this time, we are invited to join with all citizens of Australia and New Zealand - to commemorate the sacrifices made on our behalf during times of conflict or dire need  - and, if we have ever attended any of the Anzac memorial services held at memorials all over our nations on this special day, we will have heard or taken part in the solemn saying of the ‘Ode of Remembrance’.

History has now claimed all of the original Australian Anzacs; and, time is gradually softening the shattered earth where they once fought, but, to those of us who have been left behind to honour them - or to pick up the pieces - we will repeat that vow again on 25th April this year - and every year - on behalf of those who continue to serve and defend our country and its people.


Most older Australians also know the fourth verse of Laurence Binyon's famous poem written in 1914 'For The Fallen'; - it has been recited every year since 1921 at Remembrance Day and Anzac Day as the 'Ode of Remembrance'.


"They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old: 

Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. 

At the going down of the sun and in the morning 

We will remember them."


Dedicated to those of my great-uncles, uncles and cousins who never came home - and, to those family members who did - but who are now also remembered by history.

We, who are left - growing older -  may also have cause to remember our own adventures, as we honour and respect those who have served our nation in some military capacity in more recent times of conflict - and, in maintaining the peace. Of the seven young men shown with the author, in the RAA Guard Duty photo (above) taken in 1956, only two others still survive to relive that experience.


We will remember them!’



Burial at El Alamein - 1942


Medal References:-





Lt. Colonel 'Mad' Harry Murray VC.

Medals and personal memorabilia to be shown in Northern Tasmania.

May 16 - June 26, 2011.

A notification placed in Northern Tasmanian newspapers on April 1st. 2011, indicate that the total medal collection of Lt. Col. Harry Murray is currently on display at the Tasmania Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart - and will be forwarded North to the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery in Launceston for showing from May 16th. - June 26th. 

For those with an interest in the medals of our greatest true military hero - this display should not be missed.


As a member of the Royal Australian Artillery Association of Tasmania - Historical Wing, and an ex-Sergeant with the 6th Field Regiment R.A.A.,

I had certainly heard of Henry William 'Mad Harry' Murray, V.C. and his early Launceston Volunteer Artillery connections, but it was only just the ‘bare bones’ of the man - it was time for me to give him some more substance during 2006..

The idea was initiated after a visit to Evandale’s Local History Centre some years ago  - mainly to check details of one of my own great-uncles from Evandale who had also followed in Harry's footsteps - albeit less prominently.

They would have known one another reasonably well - and I like to think that they may have met up again during lulls in the Gallipoli campaign..

A very pleasant ‘phone conversation with the very obliging local historian, former Lt. Colonel C. David von Steiglitz - OAM, RFD, ED  of Evandale, who was Chairman of the Murray Memorial Committee at that time, made me realise that we were beholding before us a man who deserved all the military honours that had been bestowed on him.


Harry's full story has already been recorded in other publications, including the biographical books titled ‘Mad Harry’ and 'Murray VC'. and the 51mm Bronze medallion (shown below) was produced in 2006 by Mastercast Mint in Hobart for the Murray Memorial Committee of Evandale, Tasmania.

It was one of the commercial features that the Murray Memorial Committee organised to celebrate the exploits of the hero during the commemoration event..


On 24th February 2006, a larger-than-life bronze statue of Lt. Colonel Henry 'Harry' William Murray – a man larger-than-life - was unveiled in Evandale by Major-General Michael Jeffery AC, CVO, MC, who was Governor-General of Australia at that time. 

Major-General Jeffery, also a returned soldier - and a distinguished man of medals in his own right - publicly  stated that he stood in awe at Harry Murray’s exploits, in horrendous conditions under fire, during WWI.



2006 Mastercast Mint 51mm Bronze Medallion celebrating the military exploits of Lt. Colonel Henry 'Harry' William Murray (1880 - 1966)


Former RSM 6th Field Regiment RAA, Joe Ferguson, Major-Gen. Michael Jeffery and Lt. Colonel C. David von Steiglitz at the unveiling.


The dramatic statue of Captain Harry Murray VC - with revolver in hand.

Harry Murray is shown in the action of having just thrown a grenade while advancing on 'Stormy Trench' in France during the advance of 4 - 5th. February 1917. He became the most highly decorated soldier in Australia and the British Commonwealth and is claimed as Evandale's most distinguished son.

His awards consisted of:-

The Victoria Cross (VC), Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George (CMG), Distinguished Service Order - and Bar (DSO), Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM),. Mentioned in Despatches 4 times (MID****) and the Crox de Guerre along with his entitlement of campaign medals - the 1914-15 Star, the War Medal, the Victory Medal, the War Medal 1939-45, the Australia Service Medal 1939-45 plus the King George VI Coronation Medal and the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal.


He was also recommended for the American Distinguished Service Medal for his contribution in training American machine-gunners at the Front - but the award process was never completed. It is interesting to note that Harry Murray is not 'officially' on the Tasmanian list of V.C. winners as his enlistment took place in West Australia.



Born on 1st. December 1880, in a cottage at ‘Clareville’, where Launceston Airport now stands, Henry William Murray was the 8th. of nine children born to the wife of a farm labourer, the late Mr. E. K. Murray. The family eventually moved on to a property, ‘Northcote’, near the village of St. Leonards on the outskirts of Launceston, where Harry grew up and was well known as a young man.

Harry’s grand-father had been a convict, so it is evident he came from relatively humble stock. 

Harry’s mother had been a Miss Littler, and two of her nephews, Harry’s first cousins, would also distinguish themselves during the ‘War to end all Wars’!


Harry had moved to West Australia and found work in the timber industry as a Bushman, and it was there that he enlisted on 13 October 1914, at age 34 - although he gave his age as 30 on his Attestment Form because he thought he might be rejected as being too old for combat.

He started out as a machine-gunner with 16th Infantry Battalion A.I.F. and, 20 days after his unscathed Gallipoli landing, he and his best friend Percy Black had both been wounded by the Turks while maintaining their machine-gun under murderous fire - and he had been promoted to Lance Corporal.

Murray rose extremely rapidly through the ranks due to his own personal bravery and dedication to duty.


On August 8, he was wounded again, and, on August 13 1915, he was promoted from Lance Corporal to Sergeant to Second Lieutenant in the one day of bitter fighting. and by March 1st. 1916 in Palestine he had gained further promotion to Captain.

Along with other A.I.F. forces, he eventually ended up in Europe fighting the Germans under the most terrible of conditions. 

Shortly after his arrival in France, during mid-September 1916, it was reported in the ‘London Gazette’ that Captain Murray was again wounded twice, this time in the thigh and back.

In all, he was wounded 5 times during his 'great adventure', and on his Casualty Form - Active Service B.103 - a notation is said to have declared - ‘Unfit for further service’ - but it didn’t stop Harry, who just ignored it and went back into action.

He had actually turned 36 years old when he won the Victoria Cross, during the advance of  4-5th. February 1917, at Stormy Trench, which was N.E. of the village of Gueudecourt in France.

The following citation gives an insight to this gallant man’s actions that earned him the right to wear his V.C. with pride.

CITATION: For most conspicuous bravery when in command of the right flank company in attack. He led his company to the assault with great skill and courage, and the position was quickly captured. Fighting of a very severe nature followed, and three heavy counter-attacks were beaten back, these successes being due to Captain Murray's wonderful work. Throughout the night his company suffered heavy casualties through concentrated enemy shell fire, and on one occasion gave ground for a short way. This gallant officer rallied his command and saved the situation by sheer valour. He made his presence felt throughout the line, encouraging his men, heading bombing parties, leading bayonet charges, and carrying wounded to places of safety. His magnificent example inspired his men throughout. (London Gazette: 10th March1917.)                                                                 

Murray had an ability to bring out the best in troops under his command. and he became (affectionately) nicknamed 'Mad Harry' - it was said that his Company would follow him anywhere - and die for him to a man.

Harry enlisted again during WWII and, by putting his age down once more, he was accepted - but he was ruled ‘not suitable for combat’, however, because of his record and his determination to serve, he was given a command in Queensland’s home defence units.

Eventually, he was discharged, on 8 February 1944, after being commanding officer of 26th Infantry Battion AMF (Militia) and the 23rd Queensland Regiment, Volunteer Defence Corps, due to ill-health from the results of his WWI wounds.


Time had caught up with Harry - but it didn’t slow him down much - and he contributed much to Australia in his civilian capacity over many years

On 7th January 1966, in Queensland, Harry was a passenger in a car that was involved in a crash.

He was taken to hospital where he suffered a heart attack brought on by the trauma and he died the same night.

He was 86 years old

 Harry was always an unassuming and  humble man - a genuine hero in the true sense of the word..

He often said that his 6 years of  training with the Launceston Artillery from 1902–8 gave him the discipline and sense of duty that he displayed throughout his military career - and it is because of this connection, as a fellow Tasmanian ex-gunner, I salute Lt. Col. Harry Murray as our 'bravest of the brave' and I was honoured to be invited to the unveiling of his statue back in 2006.

Main References.

The Examiner ‘The Great War. The Anzac Tradition.’ Copy of article dated March 1917, (reprinted April 25th. 1989).

‘Tasmania in Focus.’ Southern Cross Television interview featuring local historian Mr. C. David Von Steiglitz. (1998).

Australian War Memorial. AWM on-line Internet site of V.C. winners. (Details originally extracted Jan.1999)

Mr. C. David von Steiglitz. Personal recollections and documentation. (Jan. 1999)

Various pamphlets - produced by the Murray Memorial Committee, Evandale 2006.




Once a fire has been lit - it tends to warm and light up a room that has been cold and dark - and we keep it burning for the comfort it brings.

Once an idea arises - or a question has been asked - it can have a similar effect in our minds and on our psyches.

Occasionally, we blow gently on the memory coals - perchance - to start a small flame to build that blaze upon.


They say that all things old are 'new again' - at some time or another - and the following subject is one such qualified to that statement. 

I never (well - rarely) get asked by readers about "Who's signature is that?" on the banknotes that I have accumulated from all around the world - and may choose to show here.

When I am asked, it is not an insistent nor clamorous call - as the signatories are, usually, nowhere as in important as the other more striking features on the note - but the question is one of those things that I tend to nurture  - and 'blow softly upon' - until I am softly warmed by the splinter-glow of knowledge. Sometimes, the knowing of a name may even intrigue me - and I may even choose to go 'off - on a tangent'!


The Confederate States of America has held my interest for many years, as I had same-name relatives - albeit 'very distant' - who lived in the divided states of America at that time in history. Perhaps, some of their descendants may even read these words one day and wonder in return about the Australians in their family tree!

The original 'Peterwood' family name originated in South East England - in Sussex, Southampton and Surrey - and they had been farmers and soldiers.

Some of my other name ancestors were also old soldiers - a few were Irish convicts - but Fate decreed that, eventually, all their paths would cross.

I have records that show that most of my military ancestors  travelled extensively with the British Army in the 1700's - 1800's, and they fought the French, the Americans and the Irish - and, that some stayed wherever they were when their enlistment terminated.

In 1825, one of my g.g.g.g. grand-fathers, Joseph Allen.  volunteered to leave England and to come to Australia as a Veteran private, and on completion of his service in 1829, he opted to take his discharge at Cornwall (Launceston) in Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) before moving to George Town where he married and raised a family.


"Recruiting for the group had started in September 1825, when a Proclamation issued by the War Office in London stated that three Companies of Veterans were required for service in the Colonies, Coys 1 and 2 in New South Wales and Coy 3 in Van Diemen's Land. Details of eligibility included the requirements that enlistees should be former servicemen of good character, honourably discharged and must have references from members of the clergy or some other respectable citizens. They were to be less than fifty years of age and have no serious body infirmity. It was necessary to pass a medical examination. As it was intended that these soldiers should be discharged in the colony and remain as permanent settlers, they could bring their wives and children with them, provided these were not too numerous! Among the inducements offered to the men to enlist were that they were offered cavalry rates of pay and could count their time as Veterans for further pension entitlements.
The enlistees who arrived in the "John Barry"
in 1826 were:  Captain John D'Arcy, Lieutenants Robert Travers and Stephen Collins, Sergeants James Burnip, Samuel Johnson (Johnston) and William Lee. Corporals Joseph Costello, Thomas Homer, John Kenworthy and Stephen Meaney, Private Joseph Allan - (and 49 others). 

Also accompanying the Veterans were forty-five women and forty-two children.
After arrival, the Veterans were sent to various parts of the island. Captain D'Arcy took a detachment with him on the Government brig 'Prince Leopold' to George Town, while others were based at Swansea (at the appropriately named Waterloo Point), Brighton, the Clyde and the Huon (Birch's Bay) settlements. In all these areas some of the Veterans were overseers on the public works, supervising convicts as they built roads, bridges and public buildings. Originally eight Veterans had asked for farmland grants of fifty acres. (According to the Almanac of 1831, my great-great-great-great grandfather,
Joseph Allan, amended his original request for land at East Arm to a suburban grant in Launceston; instead, he received a suburban grant in George Town! 

He was to remain living there until his death in 1858, rearing a large family who intermarried with the locals. 

Source: http://www.users.bigpond.com/iglaw/royvets.htm


Another Peterwood ancestor from Lancashire chose to come to Australia - also as a 'Pensioner-Guard' - after his formal Army discharge as 'worn-out'; he travelled with his family aboard a convict ship in the mid 1850's  and was granted 10 acres of rural land as his reward for his services.

I know my g.g. grandfather had older brothers - also military men who also fought Napoleon in Egypt and at Waterloo - but what happened to them is lost in time. Perhaps, they also migrated to a new land of hope after they finished their usefulness to the British Army.

Records show that others, with our relatively uncommon family name, made their earliest marks in the Americas by settling in Kentucky, North Carolina and Louisiana to grow cotton.

Two Peterwood families had property and looms in Granville NC  - and even owned a few slaves in 1810 - but they disappeared from Census details after 1815 when the world's most devastating  volcanic disaster occurred on April 5th 1815 at Mt. Tambora near the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia)

The resultant dust and ash cloud changed the world climate for several years and caused food crop to fail.

It created a traumatic change across the agricultural southern states of America - where starvation occurred and whole populations were forced to scatter.

I often wonder whether any descendants of those families may have survived the ensuing rural disaster and stayed in North Carolina and were later swept away with the Confederacy - or had they fled to greener pastures elsewhere before it became a catastrophe?


A search of old Census records even uncovered a few Peterwood families or individuals who moved backwards and forwards across the border from Quebec, Canada into Illinois and back during the late 1890's - early 1900's.  However, where they came from at that time is still a mystery - maybe some of my American cousins had gone north to escape starvation and poverty and became Canadians for a while?

Of course, they may have come directly from England to start a new life - so like any family tree - this one has several branches that bore fruit..

Names alter with marriage - or are lost to pronunciation or spelling variances - and with privacy now a big issue it has become almost an offence to ask questions about our ancestors or family off-shoots.



These updated reprises - below - are from articles originally written in 1999 and March 2006 about the teasing subject of names and faces.

The questions I asked myself, at the time, are still as relevant to me - as they were when I first obtained the first of my Confederate States of America notes - and who knows - some of those signatories may even have been related to me.



The Confederate States of America Treasury employed many women within its workforce due to the shortage of man-power during the war between the States. Whilst many of the more established genteel ladies and their families stated that would rather starve than demean themselves by taking paid employment - there were many others who had no such qualms.

The more affluent, gallant and prominent members of Southern society had been the first to enlist - and many were the first to die.

Tragically, because of the horrendous slaughter that was occurring daily, many of their wives soon became 'well-educated widows from good backgrounds' with young families. As time rolled on and the economic burdens grew, and the wealth started to dry up, the putting of bread on the table was still a necessity for those left behind and working for the good of the Confederacy, and accepting payment, offered them an honourable way to keep a portion of their way of life intact. The hours were long and the work was tedious to the extreme and they were envied, sometimes unfairly, but clerical work and writing skills were probably the only qualifications they had.


Within the CSA Treasury, raw materials such as good quality banknote paper and ink were in short supply as well as sophisticated printing presses, so economies were of the highest priority and much of the finishing and the handling of notes was performed manually. Notes which were lithographed or printed in close proximity to each other needed to be hand-cropped and the legion of young women were given the task of cutting the sheets apart and signing the notes on behalf of the Register and the Treasurer.

The average rate per clerk was 3200 notes during a working day that lasted from from 9.00a.m. until 3.00p.m. but records show that some more proficient teams managed up to 4500 each. The annual pay for female clerks in 1864 appeared to be quite high at CSA$3000 p.a. which was far more than a soldier's wage -  and they were paid in the ever depreciating paper currency that they had worked to produce. 

By December 1864 a female clerk's total annual wage of $3000 in paper currency would only buy the equivalent of $60 value at 1861 prices

Other women employed in manufacturing had it a lot worse financially but, at least, many of them had a skill they could call upon outside of the workplace to supplement their income without the currency restraints. By 1865, barter had become a way of life amongst the working class.


Selection of hand-cut and signed Confederate States of America note issued in 1862 & 1864

C.G. Memminger (5 Dollars), R.M.T. Hunter (10 Dollars) and A.H. Stephens (20 Dollars),

J.P. Benjamin (2 Dollars), R.M.T. Hunter (10 Dollars) and C.S.A. President J.F. Davis (50 Dollars)


The signatures on some the illustrated notes are hard to decipher due to fading ink and confusing hand-writing peculiarities and flourishes.  

I have tried to identify them as best I can - and I have also included the readable note numbers for those readers who may have some interest in filling small gaps in knowledge - and, perhaps, to lighten up a 'dark room' with my small candle.

Where the initials, or name, is not absolutely clear I have used un- highlighted script or italics.

No doubt, there are more brighter lights to show the way - and I suggest that readers use them seek out  the path that leads to fuller understanding!



CSA$5  - Dated Richmond - December 2nd. 1862.  Note number 115302 (?) -Obverse features Christopher G. Memminger.

Signatures appear to be G.M.(?) Hunter and R.T.(?) Ball.

CSA$2  - Dated Richmond - February 17th. 1864.  Note number 33263 - Obverse features Judah P. Benjamin.

Signatures appear to be B.V. (? )Harper and M.B. (?) Walker (?)


CSA$10  - Dated Richmond - December 2nd. 1862. Note number 60779 (?) Obverse features Robert M. T. Hunter.

Signatures appear to be C.R. (?) Smith and G. Craw.

CSA$10 -  Dated Richmond - February 17th. 1864. Note number 55256 - Obverse features Robert M. T. Hunter.

Signatures appear to be (?) Bryan and H.C. (?) Dusee (?)


CSA$20  - Dated Richmond - December 2nd. 1862. Note number 6590 (Red Ink) - Obverse features Alexander H. Stephens.

Signatures appear to be C. L. (?) Taylor and N.(?) G. Allen.

CSA$50  - Dated Richmond - February 1864. Note number 42330 (stamped) - Obverse features CSA President, Jefferson F. Davis.

Signatures are C. Veal and M. Cooper.


"The salary scale for female clerks reveals their social location and influence as well. Privates in the Confederate army were paid $11 a month. In 1862 and 1863, by contrast, female clerks received $65. By 1864 the annual salary of women holding Treasury posts had risen to $3000 in the South's depreciated currency. These women were seen to be worth more than the Confederacy's ordinary fighting men and to have needs and expectations for special treatment that the Confederacy did not wish to gainsay. Clearly, too, they were regarded differently from most other females in national service. Ordinary women performed a variety of government work across the South. Seamstresses for the Clothing Bureau—3,000 to 4,000 of whom took in piecework in Richmond by the last years of war—made $1.00 for a shirt, $1.50 for a pair of pants, or $4.00 for a coat, which might take days to complete. In Augusta the 500 women employed by the Georgia Soldiers' Clothing Bureau made $6.00 to $12.00 a week. Arsenal workers in the same city sewed cartridges for $1.00 a day. Richmond's female ordnance workers, nearly 50 of whom were killed in an explosion in March 1863, confronted danger as well as low wages, and they organized to express their grievances in a strike for better pay. One supporter of their action saw clearly the differentiation the Confederate government made between these female workers and their well-connected and well-born counterparts. "Why is it that … poor women engaged in a perilous and hazardous occupation .. are denied a living compensation for their labour, when so many of the departments are filled with young ladies (not dependent on their pay) with nothing to do, at salaries equal to and, in some cases, better than the best male clerks in the different departments?"

Refer: http://uncpress.unc.edu/chapters/faust_mothersc4.html


Who were those people whose once bold, but now faded, hand-written ink signatures graced the thousands of Treasury notes of a soon to be doomed nation - a nation whose currency was to be defaced* by cut cancelling (shown below) and deemed worthless and eternally unredeemable by the victors, the United States of America? 

The defacing of notes in this manner is so commonplace that  collectors treat it as a 'usual' phenomenon and it has little bearing on market value.

The other form was the cut-out cancellation were a piece of the note was removed during the process - these notes are not as popular due to this type of more drastic mutilation - but, in some instances, they are all that will be available.

A few signatures, on notes in my own possession, that are still legible after 140 years appear to be -   Ball,  Hunter,  Smith, Taylor, Allen, Harper,  Veal,  and Cooper - but there are scores of others that were signed with elaborate flourishes that made them undecipherable.

They have achieved an immortality of sorts as we, who tend to collect obsolete currency, ponder on their signatures and perhaps even wonder a little about those persons who spent their days laboriously hand-signing those thousands of pieces of paper which have now become historical documents in their own right. Their family names are scattered throughout the old southern states and it would be great to be able to trace one or two individuals back to the CSA Treasury. These people were not politicians or generals - just human beings, like you and I, who had fallen on hard times.

They may even have been part of the old Southern aristocracy but, at the war's end, they had become a small and unimportant residue in the greater tragic scheme of things - and they would be forced into doing what had to be done, within their capabilities, to survive.

No doubt, there would be a list  somewhere of those who were involved within the CSA Treasury workplace in Richmond  but, from where I am sitting, it is nearly impossible to follow their fortunes after the war was lost - and that is a shame, as they have now been swallowed up by history.


 * Most of the extremely thin C.S.A. notes were put through a 'cut cancelation' process which made the notes unusable as currency.

(The cross-shaped cancellation cuts are located either side of the illustration of the State Capitol building in Nashville, Tennessee.)


Just as a last matter of interest, many fake or replica Confederate notes have been produced to cash in on this era of American history. There are Internet sites that give excellent advice about these phonies so take the time to educate yourself prior to buying CSA currency over the Internet. For instance, genuine notes were rarely signed with black ink - colours used consisted of brown, red and blue inks as a rule, and vivid coloured parchment note-paper was never used by the C.S.A. Treasury. Refer: http://www.rebelstatescurrency.com/reproductions.html




compiled by Graeme & Paul Petterwood.

The tragic story of the ‘War Between the States’ which commenced on April 12th 1861 - 150 years ago - with the attack on Fort Sumter (aka Fort Sumpter) is extremely well documented by American military historians.

Refer:- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Sumpter

For some time we have been compiling information, via books and the multitude of Internet sites devoted to this conflict - but, frankly, our interests were based on the military aspect until we realised we knew virtually nothing about some of the faded ‘faces’ on the currency that we have in our small Confederate States of America banknote accumulation.


Due to lack of hard currency reserves and many basic resources the Confederate States of America made do with whatever they could and, as supplies diminished ever further during the period of conflict, inflated value banknotes were issued with no backing whatsoever. Towards the end of the period even suitable paper on which to print these valueless notes became scarce.

There are many C. S. A. notes that feature mythical or picturesque scenes, and even some that portray the famous first American president, George Washington, who was born in Virginia - but 12 other faces are also shown, and it was in the identities and stories behind those relatively unknown personalities - that we found ourselves becoming engrossed.

It was an oversight that we have now attempted to address - and share with any interested readers, even some from the Southern states of America.

Not all of the faces shown were contemporary members of the Confederacy, some were notable representatives, or historically prominent ‘sons’, of the states that were involved in the conflict and, as such, many were recognised by both sides as great Americans.

It is also to be noted that some of the members of the Confederate Congress went on to faithfully serve the United States after the cessation of hostilities in 1865.

The war has been simplified as being a conflict to free the slaves - and no doubt this was a major moral issue that was used as a rallying call by the Federal Union government - but the issue from those states that had seceded from the United States, was the point of view that their rights, as sovereign nations who had voluntary joined the Union, were being usurped by the northern based Federal government for political and economic reasons.

Many average Southerners did not own slaves, or even believe in slavery, but considered they were fighting for their state and its individual sovereignty and rights, and expressed the opinion that it was a similar set of circumstances that had occurred to create the break-away from England in the 1777 American revolution.


Judah P. Benjamin - John C. Calhoun - Clement C. Clay - Jefferson Finis Davis - R. M. T. Hunter - Andrew Jackson -

Thomas J. ‘Stonewall’ Jackson - Christopher Gustavus Memminger - Mrs. Lucy Holcombe Pickens - George W. Randolph - Alexander H. Stephens - John E. Ward and, of course, George Washington, are the names of those faces on the currency of the Confederate States of America.  Another branch that needs future investigation is that of individual Confederate states' issues.


The State of Louisiana Five Dollars - dated October 10th. 1862 - Baton Rouge

Allegorical scene 'Confederacy slaying the Union' . Note number 24576.  Signatures - G.H. (?)Peralta and B (?) LeFevre.


Some of those pictured need little introduction to CSA historians, as their deeds live on by word-of-mouth and they are well known as legends, but, hopefully, these somewhat brief biographic sketches will gives other readers enough bare facts to start out with, if we feel the need to explore further with those who are not so well known. These snippets of their lives have now been painstakingly researched from many and varied sources.


Judah Philip Benjamin (1811-1884).


Born in St. Croix, Virginia, on August 6th., 1811.

Member of Louisiana state legislature, 1842; and then elected as U.S. Senator from Louisiana, 1853-1861;

Confederate Attorney General, 1861.

Confederate Secretary of War, 1861-1862.

Confederate Secretary of State, 1862-1865.

Judah Philip Benjamin was a member of the Confederate government, and became a close confidant of C.S.A. President Jefferson Davis.

Benjamin’s family had originally moved from the West Indies to North Carolina and then South Carolina, but he is recorded as having been born at St. Croix, Virginia on August 6th. 1811.

As a young man he attended Yale to study law and, after graduating and moving to New Orleans, he became a nationally renowned lawyer and successfully engaged in a commercial practice.

While he was there, Benjamin also became interested in local politics and, after holding several minor public offices, he decided to enter the Federal political sphere and was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1852 as a Whig, but during the late 1850’s Benjamin changed his allegiances and joined the Democrat party - and became an ardent defender of the Southern states rights.

Like many other Southern politicians he supported secession and, in 1861, he felt morally bound to resign from the Senate and was immediately appointed to the position of Attorney General in the Confederate interim Government headed by Jefferson Finis Davis. In 1861-62 he became Secretary of War and, eventually, he was appointed as Secretary of State from 1862-65.

Benjamin was a good administrator, and Jefferson considered him to be the most competent member of his cabinet.

However, during his short term as Secretary of War several major military defeats resulted in criticism of Benjamin by other politicians who were jealous of his influence with President Davis and they created and directed a wave of anti -Semitism against him. His recommendation to use slaves as soldiers also saw a further downturn in his popularity amongst slave owners, but President Davis still considered him as a good friend and servant of the Confederacy.

In 1865, after the Confederate States of America had obviously lost the war, Benjamin fled to Britain, where he again won recognition as a fine lawyer. He died in Paris on May 6th. 1884 and was interred at Pere la Chaise Cemetery, Paris, France.

Judah P. Benjamin was featured on C.S.A. $2.00 notes in 1861, 1862 on two emissions, 1863 and 1864.


 John Caldwell Calhoun (1782-1850)


Born between Abbeville and Mount Carmel, South Carolina, on March 18th., 1782.

Member of South Carolina state house of representatives, 1808; U.S. Representative from South Carolina 6th District, 1811-1817; U.S. Secretary of War, 1817-1825; Vice President of the United States, 1825-1832; U.S. Senator from South Carolina, 1832-1843, 1845-1850; U.S. Secretary of State, 1844-1845.

Calhoun was educated at Moses Waddell’s Log College in Georgia and went on to study law in Connecticut after graduating from Yale University and he was admitted to the South Carolina bar in 1807.

By 1809, Calhoun had entered politics and served in that state’s legislature for 2 years before entering the U.S. Congress in 1811 as a fiery young nationalistic politician.

Ever ambitious, Calhoun was appointed Secretary of War in James Monroe’s Government in 1817 and tried to succeed the President in 1824 but lost out to Andrew Jackson in Pennsylvania, so he settled for the Vice-presidency of the United States.

At that time he was not seen as an advocate of state’s rights, but he was expressing private views that Federal powers were being used to circumvent the expansion of the South Carolina cotton crops, which depended on slave labour, in favour of Northern industrialisation and commerce interests. By 1828 this prominent South Carolinian had secretly developed the theory of nullification, by which a sovereign state could reject any federal law it considered to be in violation of its constitutional rights.

Andrew Jackson was re-elected as President in 1828 with Calhoun again as Vice-president but, by 1832, the political differences came to a head when Jackson opposed an effort by South Carolina to nullify a Federal tariff that had been imposed.

Calhoun resigned as Vice- president but remained in the Senate as a spokesman for state’s rights and the retention of slavery as an economic necessity.

He briefly held the office of Secretary of State under President John Tyler from 1844-45, and was involved in the annexation of Texas while still trying to force the issue of state’s right and slavery expansion for economic reasons. In early 1850 he predicted that a civil war would take place if the matter was not resolved or a suitable compromise was not reached in an agreement that was formulated early in that year. It was not!

Calhoun died, a disappointed man, in Washington, D.C., on March 31st. 1850, and was interred at St. Philip’s Churchyard, Charleston, South Carolina.

A cenotaph, in his honour, was erected and remains at the Congressional Cemetery, Washington, D.C.

Calhoun counties in six American states are named after him.

Because of his birthplace, and his national stature as a fighter for state’s rights, J. C. Calhoun was featured posthumously on C.S.A. $1,000.00 notes in 1861 and $100 notes in 1862.


 Clement Claiborne Clay Jr. (1816-1882)


Born in Huntsville, Alabama. December 13, 1816.

Member of Alabama state house of representatives, 1842; state court judge, 1846; U.S. Senator from Alabama, 1853-1861;

Senator from Alabama in the Confederate Congress, 1862-1864.

C.C. Clay was a graduate from the University of Alabama and went on to study Law at the University of Charlottesville. He was admitted to the bar and opened his practice at Huntsville, Alabama in 1840. By 1842 he had entered politics and was a member of the State house of representatives in 1842, 1844 and 1845. He became a county judge between 1846 - 48 and then, in 1850, he unsuccessfully tried for the first time to be elected to the U.S. Congress.

Clay eventually was successful as a Democrat and was spasmodically involved in the Federal sphere from 1853 until 1861 when he withdrew as Chairman of the Committee on Commerce.

He became a member of the Confederate Senate from 1861 - 63 and he was also engaged as a diplomatic agent for the Confederacy until hostilities ceased. Suspected of conspiring to assassinate Lincoln, he was imprisoned in 1865 at Fort Monroe for nearly a year and, on his release, he settled back on his plantation in Jackson County, Alabama and restarted his law practice. Clay died at ‘Wildwood’ near Gurley, Alabama., on January 3rd. 1882, and interment took place at Maple Hill Cemetery, Huntsville, Alabama.

Clement C. Clay was featured on C.S.A. $1.00 notes in 1862, 1863 and 1864.


Jefferson Finis Davis (1808-1889)


Born in Fairview, Kentucky, June 3, 1808.

Davis's parents moved to Mississippi when he was a boy. He was given a classical education at Transylvania University and was appointed to West Point, where he was graduated in 1828.

He spent the next seven years in various army posts in the Old Northwest and took part (1832) in the Black Hawk War. In 1835 he married the daughter of Zachary Taylor, but she died three months later and Davis spent the next 10 years in the comparative quiet of a Mississippi planter's life until, in 1845, he married Miss Varina Howell.

Elected (1845) to the House of Representatives, he resigned in June, 1846, to command a Mississippi regiment in the Mexican War and, under the command of his former father-in-law Zachary Taylor, he distinguished himself both at the siege of Monterrey and at Buena Vista.

Davis was appointed (1847) U.S. Senator from Mississippi to fill an unexpired term but he resigned in 1851 to run for governor of Mississippi against his senatorial colleague, Henry S. Foote, who was a Union Whig.

Davis was a strong champion of Southern rights and argued for the expansion of slave territory and economic development of the South to counterbalance the power of the North. He lost the election by less than a thousand votes and retired to his plantation until appointed (1853) Secretary of War by Franklin Pierce. Throughout the administration he used his power to oppose the views of his Northern Democratic colleague, Secretary of State William L. Marcy.

Davis favoured the acquisition of Cuba and opposed concessions to Spain in the Black Warrior and Ostend Manifesto difficulties, and he also promoted a southern route for a transcontinental railroad, therefore favouring the Gadsden Purchase. Re-entering the Senate in 1857, Davis became the leader of the Southern bloc.

He actually took little part in the secession movement until Mississippi seceded in January 1861, whereupon he withdrew from the Senate and was immediately appointed Major-General of the Mississippi militia.

Shortly afterward he was chosen president of the Confederate provisional government established by the convention at Montgomery, Alabama, and inaugurated in February 1861.

Duly elected as regular President of the Confederate States, he was inaugurated at Richmond, Virginia., Feb. 22nd. 1862.

Davis realised that the Confederate war effort needed a strong, centralised rule and this conflicted with the states' rights policy for which the Southern states had seceded, and, as he assumed more and more power, many of the Southern leaders combined into an anti-Davis party.

Originally hopeful of a military rather than a civil command in the Confederacy, he closely managed the army and was involved in many disagreements with the Confederate generals; arguments over his policies raged long after the Confederacy was dead. Even General Robert E. Lee surrendered without Davis's approval.

After the last Confederate cabinet meeting was held in April, 1865 at Charlotte, North Carolina, Davis was captured at Irwinville, Georgia and was confined in Fortress Monroe for two years and eventually released on bail in May, 1867.

The federal government proceeded no further in its prosecution of Davis and, after his release, he wrote an apologia, ‘The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government’ which was published in 1881.

He died of bronchitis and malaria in New Orleans, Louisiana, December 6th., 1889.

He was original interred at Metairie Cemetery in New Orleans, Louisiana, but his remains were moved - and the reburial took place in 1893 at Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.

Counties in Georgia, Mississippi and Texas are named after him, as well as a Parish in Louisiana.

Jefferson Davis featured on C.S.A. $0.50 notes in 1863 and 1864, and also on $50.00 notes in 1861, 1862 and 1863.

He also featured on several Confederate individual state notes and Treasury Warrants issued by Arkansas and Missouri.


 Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter (1809-1887)


Born at ‘Mount Pleasant’ near Loretto, Essex County, Virginia, April 21, 1809.

Member of Virginia state house of delegates, 1834-1835; member of Virginia state senate, 1835-1837; U.S. Representative from Virginia, 1837-1843, 1845-1847 (8th District 1837-1839, 12th District 1839-1841, 9th District 1841-1843, 8th District 1845-1847); Speaker of the U.S. House, 1839-1841; U.S. Senator from Virginia, 1847-1861.

Delegate from Virginia to the Confederate Provisional Congress, 1861-1862.

Confederate Secretary of State, 1861-1862.

Senator from Virginia in the Confederate Congress, 1862-1865.

R. M. T. Hunter was expelled from the U.S. Senate in 1861 for supporting the rebellious Southern states and was appointed Confederate Secretary of State during 1861-62. He represented Virginia from 1862 - 65 on the Confederate Congress and even held the position of Acting President of the Confederacy on several occasions. In February 1865 he was a member of the delegation who met U.S. President Abraham Lincoln at Hampton Roads to try and negotiate a peace settlement.

After the cessation of hostilities Hunter was briefly imprisoned but, on his release, he went on to become the Virginia state treasurer between 1877-1880. He died at his home ‘Fonthill’ near Lloyds in Essex County, Virginia., July 18, 1887.

Interment took place at ‘Elmwood’ a private family graveyard near his birthplace, Loretto in Essex County, Virginia.

R. M. T. Hunter featured on C.S.A. $10.00 in 1861 on four emissions, 1862 on four emissions, 1863 and 1864.


 Andrew 'Old Hickory' Jackson, (1767-1845)


Born in Lancaster County, South Carolina, March 15, 1767.

U.S. Representative from Tennessee at-large, 1796-1797; U.S. Senator from Tennessee, 1797-1798, 1823-1825; justice of Tennessee state supreme court, 1798; general in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812; Governor of Florida Territory, 1821; Twice elected as President of the United States, 1829-1837.

Died in Nashville, Tennessee, June 8, 1845.

Interment at The Hermitage, Nashville, Tennessee.

Jackson counties in 21 American states as well as Hickory County, Missouri, are named after him.

As a true national hero - and because of his birthplace - Andrew Jackson was also posthumously featured, with the late J. C. Calhoun, on the only C.S.A. $1,000 note issued in 1861.


 Thomas Jonathan ‘Stonewall’ Jackson, (1824- 1863)


Born in Clarksburg, Virginia, January 21st., 1824.

Orphaned at age 7, Jackson went on to graduate at West Point (17th. out of 59 in his class) in 1846.

He took up a position as Professor of Natural History and instructed artillery at the Virginia Military Institute and married Miss Elenor Junkin in 1853, who, unfortunately, died early in their marriage.

He remarried again in 1857 to Mary Anna Morrison and built his only home at 8 East Washington St; Lexington where he joined the Lexington Presbyterian Church and became very religious and was nicknamed ‘Deacon Jackson’.

When war was declared Jackson was immediately available and, in 1861, he rode away and never returned home alive again.

He used to ride into battle with one arm raised to offset what he declared was an ‘off-balance of his body’ and ate standing to ‘aid digestion and straighten his digestive tract’ and it is reported that he nearly always carried a Bible with him.

Highly regarded as a gentleman and a competent officer, Jackson’s stand against superior Union strength was regarded as the reason why the Confederate Army won the 1st. Battle of Manassas - also known as the 1st. Battle of Bull Run - on July 21st. 1861.

Affectionately known as ‘Stonewall’ Jackson by his troops and other officers, including famous Confederate Army commander, General Robert E. Lee, he died in the presence of his wife in the bedroom of a Chancellorsville farmhouse on Sunday, May 10th. 1863 from pneumonia that had unexpectedly set in while he was recuperating after suffering severe arm wounds.

On the evening of 4th. May. he and several other officers were fired upon accidentally by their own infantry piquet, just after the successful conclusion of the Battle of Chancellorsville, as they were returning to their own lines in darkness.

His body (minus his left arm which was amputated after the shooting) is buried at Stonewall Jackson Memorial Cemetery in Lexington, Virginia - the arm is buried at Ellwood Family Cemetery, Spotsylvania, Virginia.

Thomas J. ‘Stonewall’ Jackson was posthumously honoured on only one C.S.A. note and that was the $500.00 issued in 1864.


 Christopher Gustavus Memminger, (1803-1888)


Born at Wurttemberg in Germany, January 9, 1803. Adopted son of Thomas Bennett, a former Governor of South Carolina.

Delegate to South Carolina secession convention, 1861.

Delegate from South Carolina to the Confederate Provisional Congress, 1861-1862.

Confederate Secretary of the Treasury, 1861-1864.

Little information is available on Christopher Gustavus Memminger’s early days except from edited extracts from diaries and papers published late in his life - his memoirs were basically directed to his involvement with the Confederate States of America.

A career politician, Memminger had been elected as the Member of South Carolina state legislature during 1836-1852 and again during 1854-1860 and was an obvious choice for President Jefferson Davis to appoint as Secretary of the Confederate Treasury in 1861. It is known he had, at least, one son who became a doctor with the Confederate forces during the war.

Memminger had little in the way of tangible finances to work with except taxation and bond sales during the early days of the war - and things only got worse as time went on. With an obvious lack of support from the C.S.A. Congress he was always short of funds essential for the cost of running the breakaway states and the war effort, and he was eventually forced into authorising the printing of more paper currency backed by the promise of redemption at the cessation of hostilities and against future cotton exports to European markets.

Rampant inflation was the result as the war dragged on, and all sources of international credit dried up when the powerful Union shipping blockade eventually isolated the South - and the cotton exports to Europe rotted on the wharves.

Memminger was made the scape-goat and forced to resign in 1864 when it became evident that the paper currency had become virtually worthless as the fortunes of war went against the Confederacy.

He died in Flat Rock, North Carolina on March 7th. 1888, and was buried at St. John’s of the Wilderness Cemetery, Flat Rock, South Carolina.

Memminger was featured on C.S.A. $5.00 notes in 1861on three emissions and also in 1862, 1863 and 1864; as well as on $10.00 notes with R. M. T. Hunter in 1861on two emissions.


 Lucy Petway Holcombe Pickens, (1832 - 1899)


The 3rd. wife of South Carolina’s governor, Francis Wilkinson Pickens, and the only woman shown on C. S. A. currency (aside from the mythological types).

Gov. Francis Pickens, who had descended from a long line of influential pioneers and had been a U.S. Congressman from 1834 - 1843, was appointed Minister to Russia from 1858 - 60 just after his marriage to Lucy Petway Holcombe on 26 April 1858 at her family's plantation, 'Wyalusing', at Marshall, Harrison Co., Texas.

Lucy was apparently born at 'Ingleside', LaGrange, Fayette Co.Tennesee on June 11th 1832 after her farmer father and mother, Beverly Lafayette Holcombe and Egina Dorothea Vaughn Hunt had emigrated from Virginia. She had two other sisters, Anna and Martha - although Martha died at age 3 in 1839 -  and two brothers, John and Philemon, all born in Tennessee and she also had an adopted sister, Helen. The Holcombe family had eventually moved again when Lucy was about 17 y.o. and they were enumerated in the 1850 Marshall, Harrison Co.,Texas federal census - and it was in this state that she and her future husband had met and married.

The ambitious Lucy was very influential in Picken’s acceptance of the two year St. Petersburg mission, and she had the honour of meeting and entertaining the Czar during that time. On Pickens’ return to the U.S. he foresaw the coming crisis and resigned from his U.S. post and was nominated for the position of Governor of South Carolina by a group of conservative secessionists.

Pickens was elected and, as Governor, he was responsible for demanding the surrender of Fort Sumter from Major Robert Anderson of the Union Army - a demand which was refused - and this action lead to the shots that were fired at 4.30 a.m. on April 12th. 1861 that started the War between the States.

Mrs. Lucy Petway Holcombe Pickens designed, made and presented a battle flag to South Carolina’s Holcombe’s Legion (or Raiders) - which was originally intended as a South Carolina home guard unit - and which had been named in her family's honour by her husband.

At the start of hostilities, Holcombe’s Legion was expanded to have 5 Cavalry companies and 10 Infantry companies and most of these companies saw action.

The Legion fought in 16 of the most violent major battles of the war as it tried to ‘hold the line’ and it had a total of only 175 men left when it surrendered, with General Robert E. Lee, at Appomatox Courthouse, on April 9th. 1865.

Mrs. Pickens had became the ‘socialite toast of the Southern ladies’ during the early days of the Confederacy, and she became highly acclaimed throughout the South for her "classic features, titian hair, pansy eyes, and graceful figure." She was often called 'Lady Lucy' or the 'Queen of the Confederacy'.

It is recorded that she did have one child. She had given  birth to her daughter at the Imperial Palace in St.Petersburg on March 14, 1859, and named her Eugenia Frances Dorothea Olga Neva (the last two names being added by the Czarina); the daughter came to be known as 'Douschka' (Russian for "little darling"), a nickname that she kept all her life.

Francis W. Pickens died on January 25th. 1869 and is buried at Edgefield Cemetery in South Carolina but Lucy Pickens' fate after the war is not well documented.

It is known that she was vice-regent for South Carolina in the Mount Vernon Ladies Association and was also the originator and president of an association that sought to erect a monument to the Confederate dead of Edgefield County, South Carolina

She died at her home, 'Edgewood', on August 8, 1899, of a cerebral embolism, and was buried near her husband and daughter in Edgefield Cemetery.
Mrs. Lucy Petway Holcombe Pickens featured on C.S.A. $1.00 notes in 1862 on two emissions, and also on $100.00 notes in 1862, 1863 and 1864 with George Wythe Randolph.


George Wythe Randolph, (1818-1867)


Born near Charlottesville, Virginia., March 10, 1818. Grandson of Thomas Jefferson

Delegate to Virginia secession convention, 1861.

General in the Confederate Army during the Civil War.

Confederate Secretary of War, 1862.

George Randolph came from a long line of illustrious Randolphs, commencing with William Randolph who had landed in the American colonies from Warwickshire, England in 1673.

William was twice Speaker of the House of Burgesses in the late 1690’s.

By amassing large land-holdings in Virginia and alliances formed with marriages to other notable families, the Randolphs became quite powerful and William’s son, Sir John Randolph followed on with an interest in politics and was the King’s Attorney and held other eminent positions during the mid 1700’s - but it was his son, Peyton Randolph who became first president of the Continental Congress. His nephew was appointed as George Washington’s aide-de-camp in 1775.

After the American Revolution, Peyton Randolph became involved in the formation of the first United States Constitution, while he was the Governor of Virginia from 1786 - 88 and, consequently, created a long list of political achievements which included being appointed as the 1st. Attorney-General of the new republic from 1789 - 94 and then Secretary of State from 1794 -1795.

John Randolph, who served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1799 up until 1829 - and also had some time in the Senate during that period - was a great advocate of individual and states rights, and this trait rubbed off on all the family members including George, who initially chose a military career at the start of hostilities between the states after serving as a delegate for Virginia during the secession convention of 1861.

By 1862, General George W. Randolph had succeeded Judah P. Benjamin as Secretary of War.

He died of pulmonary pneumonia, near Charlottesville, Virginia., April 3rd. 1867 but his actual burial location is unknown.

George Wythe Randolph featured on C.S.A. $100.00 notes with Mrs. Lucy Holcombe Pickens in 1862, 1863 and 1864.


Alexander Hamilton Stephens, (1812-1883)


Born at Wilkes (now renamed Taliaferro) near Crawfordville, Georgia., February 11, 1812.

Member of Georgia state house of representatives, 1836; member of Georgia state senate, 1842; U.S. Representative from Georgia, 1843-1859, Presidential Elector from Georgia, 1860.

Delegate to Georgia secession convention, 1861.

Delegate from Georgia to the Confederate Provisional Congress, 1861-1862.

Vice President of the Confederacy, 1861-1865.

Like many other members of the Confederate Government, Stephens started his state legislature and later U.S. Congress political career with a Law background.

He entered Congress as a Whig and supported John C. Calhoun in attempting to reach a compromise regarding slavery in 1850 and like Calhoun, who died disappointed in the same year, he later became a Democrat in 1852.

He opposed secession but, when Georgia left the Union in January 1861, he resigned his seat in the U.S. Congress and lent his considerable expertise into drafting a C.S.A. Constitution modelled on that of the United States.

As a dedicated fighter for individual rights as well as states rights, he was critical of President Davis’ decision to bring in conscription, impose martial law and other erosions of personal liberty.

Stephens, though a respected as a fine statesman, was criticised for his vocal and public attacks, which tended to lower morale in the Confederate government, and he was seen as a leader in the anti -Davis faction.

After spending 5 months in prison after the cessation of hostilities Stephens went on to become the candidate for U.S. Senator from Georgia, 1872, and then Representative from Georgia 1873-1882 (at-large 1843-1845, 7th District 1845-1853, 8th District 1853-1859, 1873-1882); and finally he was elected as Governor of Georgia, 1882-1883. Stephens was a fearless champion and continued to publicly defended the viewpoint of the Southern states to maintain their sovereign rights, until he died in Atlanta, Georgia on March 4th. 1883.

His original burial was at the Oakland Cemetery, Atlanta, Georgia until he was reburied nearer his home at Liberty Hall Cemetery, Crawfordville, Georgia.

Alexander Hamilton Stephens was featured on C.S.A. $20.00 notes in 1861 on two emissions, in 1862, 1863 and 1864.


John Elliott Ward (1814-1902)


U.S. Minister to China, 1858.

We have little information about the early life of this politician who has been portrayed only once on the C. S. A. currency.

In 1835, Ward had attended Amherst College but had never graduated. From documentary evidence we assume he was born and lived in the Liberty and Chatham counties of Georgia and had obviously contributed to the political development of the Savannah area and of the U.S. at several different levels over a period of time.

During the period 1853 -54, John E. Ward was the Speaker of the 73rd. Session of the Georgia House of Representatives and from December 12th. 1853 to December 11th. 1854 he also held the position as Mayor of Savannah.

As a career politician, Ward was elected to the position of President of the Georgia Senate during the 75th. Session of 1857 - 1858, but he resigned on November 27th. 1858 to take up the duties of U.S. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary commissioned to China.

Ward’s duties officially started on December 15th. 1858 and continued on until December 15th. 1860 when he left Hong Kong.

He presented his credentials on August 10th. 1859. This established an official relationship with the Chinese Manchu authorities, but at that time diplomacy with that nation was being backed up by troops and gunboats from Great Britain, the United States and other nations who had a commercial interest in the Orient.

From 1860 onwards, little pertinent information appears to be available regarding his association with either the Confederate Congress, the United States government or even if he returned to the Georgia state legislature.

Whilst it is on record that Ward died in 1902, his place of burial is not readily known.

John Elliot Ward is only featured on one issue of C.S.A. $10.00 notes in 1861.



George Washington, (1732-1799)


Born in Westmoreland County, Virginia., February 22, 1732.

Delegate to Continental Congress from Virginia, 1774;

General in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War; Member of the U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787;

First President of the United States, 1789-1797.

Died at Mount Vernon, Virginia., December 14, 1799. Interment at Mount Vernon, Virginia.

Washington counties in 31 American states are named after him.

As a national hero to all Americans - and because of his birthplace - Washington was featured on the C.S.A. $50.00 notes in 1861 on three emissions.



Two Sons of Kentucky.

U.S.A. President Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 - April 15, 1865) and C.S.A. President Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808 - December 5, 1889)

Lincoln was born near Hodgenville, Hardin County and Davis was born in Fairview, Christian County (later part of Todd County).


Main References.

Epic Land Battles. by Richard Holmes. Published by Peerage Books. (Originally published by Octopus Books 1976)

The Civil War. 10 Part T.V. Documentary Series. Produced by Time-Life.

My Brother’s Face. by Charles Phillips & Alan Axelrod. Published by Chronicle Books. 1993.

World Paper Money. by Albert Pick and Neil Shafer. Published by Krause Publications. 1996.

The New Grolier Multimedia Encyclopaedia 1993. distributed under license by The Softworks Toolworks, Inc. 1991 - 1993

The Political Graveyard. - an Internet site created by Lawrence Kestenbaum of Ann Arbor, Michigan. U.S.A.

It can be located at :- http://www.politicalgraveyard.com/ofc-confed.html

Various U.S. Archival Sites - additional research by Paul Petterwood (T.N.S. Member #350.)


Holcombe Family histories.




More on the CSA currency next issue.





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'NUMISNET WORLD' - January 2011 to date.


Issue 1. January 2011:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan11.htm

HAPPY NEW YEAR - 2011 - Note Montage - Every one of our previous New Year newsletter header montages had a story to tell - and this one, the first for 2011, was also selected to create a moment of interest about international currency, the old and the more recent. This is a small essay of homework to start off a new year and, perhaps, a lifetime of searching and understanding the fascinating and intricate world of banknotes et al..

HOLIDAY READING - We have re-presented three articles from 2003 that have snippets of information that may prove to be useful to our new collectors - or a reminder to our older friends about forgotten aspects of our hobby, Numismatics is always growing and exploring a whole spectrum of knowledge.

(a) - Hi Ho! Silver! -  A review of the impact that Silver has had on our Australian coinage.

(b) - and ... at the other end of the scale! - We must remember, that these days, the intrinsic value of coinage has virtually disappeared - and more common metals - such as Aluminium - are more likely to be used with a stated value to signify purchasing worth in our commercial world.

(c) - Unofficial Orders, Decorations & Medals - A preponderance of facsimiles and fantasy items, in the personal decorations area of our hobby, are lurking in cupboards all around the world just awaiting future generations to stumble upon them and to ask the questions-  What are these - and what are they worth?"  They are well-made - even crafted from noble metals in some instances - and obviously have value - they even look official - BUT - they are not! 

In years to come it may be hard to find out the 'raison d'etre' of these fantasies - so if any do come into your possession. make sure that any product information is passed along with the item to maintain its provenance and resale value

Editor's Personal Note - The ANS (Anniversary of National Service 1951 - 1972) Medal. - It took 50 years for the Australian Government to be forced to acknowledge the part that underage National Servicemen played in our more recent military history. Politicians are still in a state of denial about some aspects of the old National Service scheme but, at least, we have a medal  to commemorative the sacrifices made between 1951 - 1972 - including some of which are still ongoing for some 'Nashos'.

The issuance, in 2008, of the ADM (Australian Defence Medal) also took up some of the slack in the area of neglect suffered by those Regular and Reserve force personnel who had nothing to show for years of service to our nation


Issue 2. February 2011:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/feb11.htm

'TIS MUNNY IN MY PURSE!' - The story of Charles Earl Bowles (aka Bolles/Boles/Bolton and T.Z. Spalding) - better known to those who like to study Old Western history as 'Black Bart''. This is another fascinating tale of retribution for a perceived abuse perpetrated by Wells Fargo against a man who had a long memory and a desire to get even. A retribution that caused him to rob, at least, 28 of Wells Fargo's Concord stage-coaches over a period of 8 years.

Some reports indicate that  the polite 'Gentleman Bandit' may never have even loaded his shotgun before a robbery. 

His mysterious disappearance a month after his release from San Quentin Prison still has us baffled - and a Wells Fargo reward that went unclaimed.

THE GREY FOX - an observation. - Bill Miner was another stage-coach robber who never killed or used profanity - another character who visited San Quentin Prison..

THE FRANKLINS! - A retrospective look at a Tasmanian Numismatic Society commemorative medallion which was issued to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the arrival of Sir John Franklin and his wife, Jane, Lady Franklin to Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) in 1837, to assume the Governorship of the island.

NORTHERN TASMANIAN NUMISMATIC & PHILATELIC EVENTS 2011 - A schedule of forthcoming events in Northern Tasmania has been kindly supplied by our good friends from Hobart, David & Kim Newell of "The Stamp Place". See you there!


Issue 3. March 2011:-  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar11.htm

WARNING! REPLICAS - The plethora of replicas, counterfeits etc. coming out of China at commercial rates of production are sounding alarm bells right across the numismatic community. A look back at some items that were early precursors of the high quality fakes  -  'made to deceive' - pieces is again timely.

BLAST FROM THE PAST! - "SHOULD YOU SAVE THOSE 'SAC' DOLLARS?”  - a reprise of an interesting article written a decade ago by Mike Nourse of the 'Anchorage Coin Club'.  Ten years on, we take another look at the revival of an economically sensible numismatic idea that had nearly died, due to the apathetic negativity of an unimaginative and money lazy U.S. public, at that time. How things have changed!

WHO WAS SACAGAWEA? - an updated reprise, that is still continuing on - with the story of the Native American woman who inspired the U.S. 'Golden Dollar' coin.

The story of Sacagawea is a tale with more questions than definite answers. It is woven mainly from rumour and legend - with a few pieces of written evidence thrown in to give it some credence.

NEW LITERARY OFFERING! - a further, highly informative, literary offering from leading numismatist and author, Roger V. McNeice OAM, covering issues of Cheques and Paper Money of the National Bank of Tasmania Limited during the period 1885 - 1918. Available both in book or CD format from the author's agents.


Issue 4. April 2011:-

ANZAC DAY -  25th. APRIL, 2011 -  For family reasons, this time of remembrance is an important time to me. The few minutes silence I observe each Anzac Day does have significant memories attached to it as I honour several relatives lost to combat - and many more now lost to time after serving their country.

THE BRAVEST OF THE BRAVE - Lt. Col. 'Mad' Harry Murray. A recent notification that 'Mad' Harry's medals are to be displayed for the first time in his home state re-created an interest in one of Australia's finest military heroes. This update and reprise from 2006 hopefully provides an insight into the man!

OFF - ON A TANGENT! - Investigations always have a tendency to send the searchers off - on a tangent - at times - and, when the writer has a family history that also hovers in areas where my numismatic hobby overlaps - the temptation to meld the two interests becomes irresistible.

WHO SIGNED THE CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA TREASURY NOTES? - In fact, this reprised article from our archives has still not answered the question precisely - but it does supply information about the system during a terrible time in U.S. history - when brother fought brother - and their widows had to survive.

THE FACES OF THE OTHER AMERICA - A handful of thin, pink paper CSA Treasury notes - demonetized and deemed worthless nearly 146 years ago - has held a fascination for many numismatists, including this collector. The faces on the notes - with the exception of two - were not well known outside of the U.S.

Some time ago, an effort was made to put names to the faces - plus a little bit of information - for local readers. It proved to be just a little more difficult than originally expected - but the learning process was well worth the effort.





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The Editor,

Numisnet World - (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.


Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

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