Volume 14 Issue 4Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996) April 2009
Remember - be astute when you are handed change - not all the wonders of numismatics have been discovered yet - and they don't have to be shiny and new! This edition again features an assortment of 'trivia' that I think is of interest and I trust it will prove educational and entertaining to you as well.
All or any prices quoted in articles in this newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations.
Wherever possible - illustrations are from the authors' own collection or the extensive picture library of the former 'Tasmanian Numismatist' local and Internet editions and the 'Numisnet World' - Internet Editions. © 1996 - 2009. (Fair 'acknowledged' use of any scan is allowed for educational purposes.)
Please note that the photoscans of numismatic items are usually not to size or scale.
Any comments published in this privately produced newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views of the 'Numisnet World' (Internet Edition) nor its Editor.
Bearing in mind our public disclaimers, the Internet links selected by the authors of this newsletter are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations and, (2) to provide additional important information. These items may be subject to copyright.
We trust that this issue of the 'Numisnet World' (Internet Edition) newsletter will continue0to provide interesting reading.
PLEASE NOTE - RE-STATED DISCLAIMER: Where on-line web-site addressess are supplied, they are done so in good faith after we have checked them ourselves - however, our readers are advised that if a personal decision to access them is made - it is at your own risk.
'NUMISNET WORLD'INTERNET EDITION
Edited by Graeme Petterwood. © 2009.
Please accept my invitation to make a contribution if you feel you have something numismatically themed that may appeal to a general level of interest and fulfills our stated editorial guidelines. As Editor, I am always prepared to look at it - and if need be - assist in presentation.
However, not every submission will be automatically accepted for publication if common courtesy and acceptable moral standards are not upheld or the subject matter is not considered 'generic' enough for this type of newsletter, nor if the subject has already been covered in depth in earlier editions. This is, obviously, not a scientific-style journal - our object is to educate, certainly - but, in an entertaining way for the average hobbiest collector. - G.E.P.
AUSTRALIAN SMALL CHANGE
PRE-DECIMAL BRONZE TREASURES
1911 - 1964
The few examples of Australian small change pre-decimal bronze coinage shown in this brief reminder article are the sorts of coins that our 'average' numismatist may just happen upon by chance - or be able to afford with 'meagre resources' - in other words, the possibilities of ownership are still present - with any luck. However, being realistic must also be the bane of all coin collectors - unfortunately!
The sheer rarity of such coins as the Australian 1916 mule Halfpenny - with an Indian Quarter Anna obverse - puts it out of normal reach for most 'small 'c' collectors' (as most of our readers are) and, for this reason - as well as not having a sample - I have not featured it and a few other coins of this ilk. By all means read about, and view examples of, the most rarest of these bronze treasures elsewhere - but don't hold your breath - well ... not for quite as long as I have ...!
As a matter of interest - judging coin grades from newsletter, Internet or magazine articles is a highly problematical affair. The quality of the available photoscans in this article for instance - which were taken some time ago - tends to detracts from the actual visual quality of some of the coins - and this is highlighted by comparing the digtal image of a 1923 Halfpenny shown below.
Sadly, we all do not have state-of-the-art equipment at our finger-tips, nor may we have had time to convert all our photoscans to digital images - but be aware that some basic enhancing of photoscans does occur to these educational illustrations - and sometimes it needs to!
Prices quoted are in Australian Dollars (AUD$) unless stipulated, and mintage figures are taken from the "2009 Pocket Guide to Australian Coins and Banknotes -16th. Edition" - by Greg McDonald, and additional retail market prices were gleaned from several well-known Australian dealer's lists published in various issues of the 'Australasian Coin and Banknote Magazine' during 2008-9.
ANDA publication - 'Collecting Australian Commonweath Coins'
Example of the excellent grading guide produced by the 'Australian Numismatic Dealers Assoc.' in their free pamphlet.
Please note the chart above is only showing the Sterling Silver Florin coins of King George V - so allowances will need to be made for the different reverse designs of the Bronze coins.The final grade PROOF is not shown on the chart, but it is reserved for coins which have never been, nor intended to be, circulated and which have been especially prepared by the minting body as ideals of coin production. They are often frosted or highly polished to give them special features. The original practice was to produce KGV Proof coins in Bronze or Silver content using normal current standard 'circulating' styles.
However, a few selected designs were chosen to be commemorative circulating coins.. These were only struck in either .925 or .500 Fine Silver
In 1927, 1934-5, 1937 and 1938 ,1950-1, and 1954 a number of silver content Florins and Crown pieces were struck in circulation quantities - with very a limited number of Proof and Pattern pieces also being produced. (Refer to your Australian coin catalogues for details of pre-decimal Silver content coins.)
There were no special commemorative circulating Bronze coins made during the pre-decimal period from 1911 - 1964.
ANDA states that it is acceptable to grade a circulated coin with the stipulation that it is 'about' par with a particular grade if it doesn't quite meet the strict classification but is certainly not a full grade lower. This condition is shown with the small letter 'a' prior to the normal grading - e.g. 'aUNC.'
A coin that is better than its normally accepted grade, but definitely not a full grade higher, can be attributed with the description 'good' prior to the grading - e.g. 'good Very Fine' .
The ideal of grading is to establish a mutual negotiating point in regard to true value between potential buyers and sellers.
Some of the more prestigious coins - which may have a better side - should be carefully graded both sides with the Obverse having precedence - and, in an instance such as that, a balance would need to be struck regarding value (Refer 1923 Halfpenny shown below)
Several other gradings such as Choice-Uncirculated usually shown as CHU and Gem are reserved for exceptional examples of coins and are rarely seen, or are affordable, by small 'c' collectors.
The numeric system used by collectors in the United States of America, and some other nations, is gradually being accepted as an additional asset amongst some Australian numismatists and dealers. However, that will be a subject of discussion at a later date.
1915 H and 1918 I Australian Bronze Halfpennies in circulated Very Good/Good and Fine condition
(Scanned reverses images only shown.)
The dark bronze 1915H Halfpenny, originally produced by Heaton Mint, Birmingham in England, is currently listed as having a mintage of only 720,000 and the retail price ranges from approx. $50 for a Very Good example and up to about $6000 for an Uncirculated coin.
Currently, a Very Fine coin retails at the $400 - $500 mark.. I would suggest the split-grade coin shown would probably fetch about $10 on a good day. There are lots of better ones sitting on dealers shelves - so a private sale is the way to go with some of these Bronze coins.
A recent price (October 2008) fetched at a Roxbury's auction for an outstanding Choice-Unc. example was $12,400 plus commission.
The 1918I with the Indian die, issued by the Calcutta Mint, had a larger mintage of 1,440,000 and currently retails at approx. $15 for Very Good up to $4100 for Uncirculated - the greater availability of this coin obviously reflects in its pricing structure. A Very Fine Halfpenny retails for about $200 plus.
Most of the common King George V halfpenny coins start retailing at about 50 Cents - but when we start looking for items up in Uncirculated condition we may be asked to pay prices varying between $200 - $2000. My price estimate on the Indian Die 1918 sample shown would hover at about $25 if you had a dealer buyer who was interested in taking it off your hands - it is currently catalogued at retail $40 - however. he needs a profit margin to work with.
Always consult a good catalogue before buying or selling any pre-decimal Australian coin - particularly King George V - that is in reasonably good condition. Even lower grades have the odd spike caused by small mintages.
Not all are worth fortunes but they could be a handy asset when you have a few lumped together in a basic collection.
Others to watch for are: 1914 (1,440,000), 1914H (1,200,000), 1924 (681,000), 1930 (638,000) and 1931(369,000).
King George V Halfpennies - circulated aGood, Good, Very Good and Fine assortment
1914, 1914H (not shown), 1924 (Verdigris - since removed), 1930 and 1931
(Scanned reverses images.)
A couple of the coins shown above have real problems and are only worth a 'few' dollars each in the scheme of things - at present - but, as time passes and the availabilty of better grade coins dwindles, collectors will find that they will be asked to dig fairly deep to own one - even for poorer examples such as these. Currently, these coins - at their lowest grade of Very Good - would be normally price catalogued at:- 1914 - $4.00, 1914H - $5.00, 1924 - $10.00, 1930 - $4.00 and 1931 - $4.00 - obviously very affordable even for beginners. This is where a little expertise in grading is worth having because, no doubt, there are the other couple that might be dealer estimated at Very Good plus/Fine - so be prepared to negoiate a little if you are an educated buyer.
The price for better grades rises dramatically and most of these would be nudging between $300 - $700 in Uncirculated condition.
1923 Australian Bronze Halfpenny with Obverse die cracks - Split grade - Very Fine/Fine .
(Digital Photo images.)
The other real gem in the King George V halfpenny range is the key date 1923 (shown above).
For many years the mintage figure for these coins was cloaked in mystery but it appears that numbers are far less than estimated due to evidence that the 1922 coinage figures may have been lumped into the equation. It is more likely that the recently revised estimate of 15,000 is closer to the actual mintage than the figure of 1,113,600 which has been usually shown in catalogues until now.
The prices of the 1923 halfpenny, and a few other scare bronze items, are currently flucuating as investments in the numismatic market place are being influenced due to the world financial crisis, however, it is still a coin for true collectors to desire Presently, some good coins are coming back onto the market for financial reasons - so if a bargain becomes available this will be the time to be aware of it and act - before the price restabilizes and becomes too exhorbitant once more!
The McDonald 2009 catalogue indicates a retail price for the 1923 Halfpenny ranging from $1500 for Very Good and up to $62,000 for Uncirculated.
The recent market prices, as seen in the 'Australasian Coin and Banknote Magazine', vary from $1750 - $2500 (CV $2500) for Fine examples, between $3000 - $4500 (CV $4500) for Very Fine - and an Extra Fine would set us back a conservative $16,500 (CV$18500).
(As you can see, there are dealers out there who are already providing revised estimates on good grade coins due to a more abundant supply.)
Australian 1939 Halfpennies - circulated Fine and Very Good - old and new reverses
(* note- verdigris on rim has reduced the grade)
(Scanned reverse images)
The King George VI Halfpenny range is fairly devoid of notable items except tor the 1939 Kangaroo reverse.
During the transition period from 1938 and 1939 fairly large mintages were done with the old text only reverse as authorised for the late King George V .
In 1938, with WWII looming, a quantity of 5,174,000 Halfpennies were produced and in 1939 another 4,670,000 with the existing style (shown above) - however, in late 1939, a small mintage of 782,000 - showing the iconic Australian Kangaroo - was made in Melbourne Mint and these currently are catalogued at approx $18 for Very Good and up to $1550 for Uncirculated compared with 50 Cents and approx. $175 for the old text only reverse.
Market values for 1939 Halfpennies range from $300 - $400 for Choice-Uncirculated old text reverse coins and up to $1650 for the 1939 Kangaroo reverse.
Note the direction that the Kangaroo is jumping, compared to the Penny, and also the location of the designers initials and positioning of the date and Star.
Queen Elizabeth II halfpennies are also relatively uneventful and, whilst there are a few varieties of note, the normal prices only range from about 20 cents or so, up to a few Dollars for average coins. The Uncirculated QEII Halfpennies range from $4 - $40 each - so it would pay to refer to a good catalogue if you are in the market for these later pre-decimal bronze coins to make up a full collection..
We probably all know about the most desireable Australian bronze coin - the 1930 Penny - which, regretably I do not own, although I have fondled a few in my time and made a few unsuccessful offers that didn't have enough 000's on the end. The sample (shown left) is not mine - sad to say.
The Australian bronze Penny range of coins is indeed a mixed bag of wonderful stuff and there are still opportunities of finding such treasures in such mundane places are grannie's rubbish drawer - or with other 'shrapnel' in a glass jar in the old kitchen cabinet.. Tell people, friends - relatives in particular - that you collect coins and encourage them to drag out the old toffee-tins etc. and, if you do find something good - be fair about it. Treasure is where you find it - but don't be too much of a pirate!
The coins to be most aware of amongst the Oz Pennies are: King George V - 1914 (720,000), 1919* -dot above top reverse scroll and below bottom reverse scroll (5,810,000), 1920* - various dots above and below reverse scrolls (9,041,000), 1925 (117,000), 1933/32* (Overdate) (unknown mintage) and King George VI - 1940 K.G (1,113,000) 1946 (363,000), 1948Y. (1,533,000) - there are others with monetary value of interest but not enough to warrant desperate measures.
*Refer to that good catalogue, which I keep mentioning, for the finer details about the position of those odd 'dots' and 'secret' mintmarks etc.
Current average KGV Penny prices range from about 50 Cents out of a dealer's scratch box up to $10 for earlier dates - with Uncirculated coins topping $800 - $1500 plus - and I mean plus - some dates are pushing $2500 at present.
Australian 1925 Bronze Penny - circulated Fine condition
King George VI Pennies are very common in low grades and the prices reflect that - most are available at 50 cents and Uncirculated prices rarely get up into the spectacular levels that KGV coins do - the exceptions mentioned are usually only desireable in grades above Extra Fine, but, as stocks diminish, the lower grades will attract growing attention in time to come.
Current catalogue, and market values where known, for Uncirculated coins at present are: 1940K.G CV$1350, 1946 CV$3500 (MV$1450), 1948Y. CV$1000 (MV$750) - the drop in retail prices has been brought on by the appearance of more stock being returned to the market place by speculators off-loading stocks, so that can be a blessing for true small 'c' collectors who are wanting to finish their collections in a reasonable manner - notwithstanding a 1930 Penny.
Australian 1946 and 1948Y. Bronze Pennies - circulated Fine condition
(Scanned reverse images.)
A few good bargains created by the gods of 'Supply' and 'Demand' - are providing a rare opportunity for true long-term collectors to pick up a few dropped investment 'goodies at present - so, if you have the necessary sum - go for it! Things WILL get better.
CLEANING BRONZE COINS
Sometimes we obtain a Bronze coin that is rather more than just dirty and may even have traces of the dreaded green verdigris or rust touching its edges.
To clean or not to clean? That is a question that I have faced many times over the years, and, whilst I prefer to leave a coin in its natural state after removing surface residue by soft brushing or sponging - I also realise that there are times when sterner measures are called for to save a needed coin from a slow lingering death.
Firstly, the cleaning ingredients and tools you need should be as natural as possible. Detergents and other cleansing materials with chemical or abrasive additives should be avoided if possible.
There are the new wonder-dip products that may appear to do a marvellous job - and they do - within their normal expectation - however, collector grade coins are not normal everyday items that everyone merrily cleans and shines. The initial effect of 'dipping' is usually quite pleasing - and this would appeal to novices and some market traders - however, most use chemical formulas that, over time, can react with the natural metals that coins are made from if all traces are not completely removed after use.
Discoloration, loss of patina and dullness are signs of a latent adverse reaction, and, whilst that may not be too important on lower grades - it can be devastating on top quality coins and totally off-putting to specialist collectors - so be extremely cautious about 'dipping' and other abrasive chemical cleaning substances!
Very hot water, a cake of natural soap, a few drops of baby oil, a couple of cheap cotton mesh dish-cloths, an old soft bristle tooth-brush or nail-brush, a few pieces of paper towel, wooden tooth-picks and a numismatist's x 10 magnifying glass are my simple weapons of choice if I decide to clean..
Soak the coin in very hot water to rid it of surface 'greases', rub soap onto both surfaces and edge with your fingers with a firm massaging circular motion, then gently use the soft-bristled brush to clean away dirt lodged within the denticles etc., use the wooden tooth-pick to dislodge stubborn areas of dirt in corners of numbers and letters and around features. Rinse coin in clean hot water and inspect with x 10 magnifier.
Repeat process if necessary - from the beginning.
A fairly straight-forward process that causes no real additional trauma to the coin surface.
If the coin is reasonably clean - pat dry of any excess water with the paper towel - examine it carefully once again and then gloat about your restoration effort.
If required, a little bit of 'lustre' can be returned to the older dull washed coin, after it has dried, by using the smallest smidgen of unscented baby oil, or even natural vegetable cooking oil, on the corner of the soft cloth and wiping it over the surfaces - and then buff it completely off - to impart a little shine once more.
Store in a dust-free environment.
* THE FEW CLEANING 'IF's THAT MIGHT MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN KEEPING A VERDIGRIS PROBLEM AT BAY!
If verdigris - in particular - is present on Bronze, I have found a drop of unscented baby oil, rubbed or vigourously brushed onto the infected spot , can sometimes loosen up a great deal of the transferable surface powder which should then be thoroughly rinsed off - prior to soaking the coin in clean hot water.
If the 'green disease' (or rust) is too established to be removed completely by the washing process - and you still want to retain the coin - it should be stored separately from all other Bronze coins, as any traces of unsecured verdigris (or rust) can reactivate and they are 'highly contageous'.
If verdigris - in particular - flares up again you may need to repeat the whole process to keep it in check!. Look at any of your suspect coins frequently.
If you are not using disposable rubber or washable cotton gloves, wash your own hands after cleaning/handling such coins and always use fresh hot water and a different brush to the one you use for preparing your non-infected coins .
If need be, use a fine pointed steel pin to carefully pick out remnants of potentially dangerous material from small areas - you can't do much more damage.
If you need steel-wool to clean a coin, use a dampened soap-pad which is slightly less abrasive - or you might as well consider throwing the coin away!
Recommended acquisitions for all Australian numismatic libraries.
ANDA 'Collecting Australian Commonweath Coins' free 16 page pamphlet - which includes an excellent coin grading guide.
Rennik's 'Australian Pre-Decimal Coin Varieties' book - researched and written by Ian McConnelly.
'Australasian Coin and Banknote Magazine' - published retail availability lists 2008 - 2009 (by Klaus Ford Numismatics Pty. Ltd. - et al.)
'2009 Pocket Guide to Australian Coins and Banknotes -16th. Edition' - by Greg McDonald.
THE NATIONS OF AFRICA
An illustrated 'Work in Progress' - Part III
Compiled by Graeme Petterwood.
In our February 2009 issue, we saw the first of a few illustrations of coins and banknotes that I had available from 8 of the 53 nations that are currently on the African 'acceptable' list. As mentioned, most of these nations have undergone various name changes during colonial times and because of the results of World Wars. Political upheaval, and even genocide has occured - and still is occuring - in some of these under-developed nations.
Africa Map. Refer: - http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/af.htm
The second article in this series was published in March 2009, and covered the next 8 nations of which I had coin or banknote samples at the commencement of writing - again I chose to link the WIKIPEDIA online encyclopedia
(Refer:- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page ) for those who wish to avail themselves of a little more up-dated knowledge of the nations depicted.
This third part covers the last of the samples I had available at the commencement of this article and includes another 11 nations - however, it is my intention to gather additional samples in coin or banknote so that we can - hopefully - complete our African odyssey sometime later in this current year.
The main purpose of these brief essays and scans is to awaken an interest in the neglected numismatist aspect of a forgotten continent.
As mentioned - it is definitely a 'Work in Progress' for the author as well!
A general map of Africa and surrounds from a few years ago - and the flags of the nations that were then in existence.
SEYCHELLES - Republic- An island group located off the East Cast of the African continent. First annexed by France in 1743 from Mauritius, then ceded to Britain in 1814 under the terms of the Treaty of Paris after the Napoleonic Wars. The British colony of Seychelles became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations when independence was granted June 28 1976.
Monetary system: 100 Cents = One Rupee.
Coins are currently manufactured by the Royal Mint, in Bronze, Aluminium, Nickel-Brass, Copper-Nickel, .500 and .925 Silver in similar shapes as British coins. In 1990 -2 a small amount of coins were produced for Seychelles by Pobjoy Mint (and bear their PM mintmark)
Small quantities of .900, .917 and .925 Gold commemorative coins have been struck in denominations as low as 25 Rupees (1983) but Gold is mainly used in high value coins of 100, 250, 500, 100 and 150 Rupees.
Area 158 sq. miles (455 sq. kms.) Population approx. 70,000
Central Bank of Seychelles
N.D. (1983) 10 Rupees featuring nesting seabird
Reverse printed vertically - Native woman picking tropical flowers. (Scans not to scale - actually note size 6.5 x 13 cms.)
SIERRA LEONE -Republic. Located on the West Coast of Africa. Sierra Leone became independent within the Commonwealth of Nations on April 27, 1961 however, it took until 1971 to establish its republican constitution. It was formerly a sanctuary for freed British-owned slaves, ex-Negro soldiers in the British Army and a helping of runaway American slaves - and it was under the auspices and protection of the Sierra Leone Company from 1787 until 1807 . It was eventually declared a British protectorate in 1896.
Monetary System: (Former) 12 Pence = 1 Shilling, (Current) 100 Cents = 1 Leone. The low denomination coinage is Bronze and a variety of base metals including Copper-Nickel and Nickel-Bronze. A quantity of commemorative coins have been produced in .925 and .999 Silver and some bullion coins in .900, .916 and .999 Gold as well as Palladium. There have been recent issues in Nickel-clad Steel including an octagonal-shaped 50 Leones coin issued in 1996.
Area: 27,699 Sq. miles (71,740 Sq.Kms) - Population approx. 4 .1 million
1964 Sierra Leone Bronze One Cent
Sir Milton Margi (obverse) - Palm branches (reverse)
Diameter - 2.6 cms.
SOMALI REPUBLIC -Democratic Republic - in name only. This former British Protectorate, is located strategically on the Horn of Africa, and has had a turbulent, far from democratic, history. It has been occupied, throughout recorded time by the ancient and major nations of the area who realised its importance as a gateway to the continent. It has also had a plethora of European-based rulers, including Portugal, Italy and England, as well as strong Arabic influences and, even today, after civil war and several attempts to consolidate the republic - which was first declared in 1960 - the area is embroiled in bitter factionalism and breakaway elements, it is never far from violence.
Monetary System: (Former include) 100 Besa = 1 Rupia, 100 Centesimi = 1 Somalo = 1 Shilling, (Current) 100 Senti = 1 Shilling.
Low value coinages are produced in base metals such as Brass, Aluminium and Copper-Nickel, but a 150 Shilling denomination was made in .925 Sterling Silver and a short series of commemorative 1500 Shillings (dated 1979) were issued in .917 Gold.
Area: 178,201 sq. miles (461,467 sq. kms). Population approx: 8.5 million
1967 Somali Republic 5 & 10 Brass Centesimi (Cents)
Coat-of-Arms (obverse) - value (reverse).
Diameters - 2.0 and 2.3 cms.
SOUTH AFRICA - Republic(formerly a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations until it withdrew in 1961)
A very complex history due to its geographical location. It is recommended that the reader consults a dedicated history of this area.
Monetary system: - There have been two major systems. Coins are of various circular sizes similar to Australian predecimal coins and were made from traditonal metals of Bronze, .800 and .500 Silver - and .917 Gold.
Prior to 1910, when the Boer Republics of Transvaal (the states of Zuid-Afriaasche Republiek (est. 1852) and the Orange Free State (est. 1854) - were forced to join the Union after the Boer Wars, a system of Ponds, Shilling and Pence (based on the Imperial coinage)was being used.
Denominations consisted of Bronze Penny, .925 Silver Threepence, Sixpence, Shilling, 2 Shillings, 2 1/2 Shillings, 5 Shillings and .916 Gold 1/2 Pond and Een (1) Pond
The British Sterling system of Pounds, Shillings and Pence was in force during the life of the Union of South Africa - from 1934 until the Republic emerged in 1961 - and the current decimal system is based on 100 Cents = One Rand. Circulation coinage is produced in Bronze, Copper-plated Steel, Nickel, .500 Silver, Brass-plated Steel, .800 Silver, Nickel-plated Copper, .925 Silver and .917 Gold.
A special .917 Gold Bullion issue known as Krugerrand - in several weights 1/10, 1/4. 1/2 ounce AGW (actual Gold weight) - and bearing the likeness of Paul Kruger - was introduced in 1967 and also a short commemorative .917 gold series in 1/10 and One Ounce (AGW) known as Proteas were produced in 1988.
** A special commemorative 10th Anniversary of Independence issue of Gold and Platinum coins were produced in 1986 - mainly for the collector market by the independent enclaves (located within the borders of South Africa) of approx..1.4 million Botswana tribal people.
Located in northern-west South Africa - and with its own elected President. - the area, which is known as Bophuthatswana, is well-endowed with its main export, precious Platinum. This small coinage issue has been listed - for convenience - amongst South Africa's in the Krause Publication 'Standard Catalog of World Coins'. However, bear in mind that these are separate entities - and - they are not coins from the Republic of Botswana either.
Area: 472,359 sq. miles ( 1,221,040 sq. kms.) - Population approx. 38.5 million.
Zuid Afrikaansche Republic (Transvaal)
1896 .925 Fine Silver Threepence; 1892 .925 Fine Silver Shilling; 1897 .925 Fine Silver Two Shillings - Paul Kruger Obv.
South African Coinage
left:- British issue - various monarchs obv: 1958 Bronze Halfpenny; 1929 & 1952 Bonze Pennies; .
.800 Fine Silver 1947 Threepence, 1927 Sixpence and 1952 Shilling;
.500 Silver 1952 & 1958 Five Shillings.
Right:- 1977 Mint Set - Uncirculated Bronze 1/2, One & Two Cents; C.N. 5, 10, 20, 50 Cents & One Rand coins
South African Coat of Arms Obverse.
South Africa Reserve Bank notes - issued 1973
South African Reserve Bank notes, values - and some text - are printed in both English and Afrikaans.
Later issues are very picturesque with iconic African native animals strongly featured.
SUDAN -Democratic Republic formed on Jan 1st. 1956 from an Anglo-Egyptian joint condominium that had evolved from the time of the Madhist revolt that resulted when the indigenous people temporarily drove the Anglo-Egyptian forces out of the area in a series of bloody religious massacres - of particular historical interest was the one at Khartoum in 1885 when General Charles George Gordon was brutally murdered.
The city was retaken by General Horatio Herbert Kitchener in 1898. The revolt was quelled and the status quo was resumed..
Kitchener was knighted and given the title, Earl Kitchener of Khartoum - he was drowned when the warship he was on was torpedoed during WWI.
Monetary System: 10 Millim = 1 Ghirsh (Piastre), 100 Ghirsh (Piastres) = 1 Pound. The lower value coins ranging from 1, 5 and 10 Millim were originally made from Bronze and Brass - the higher range of Ghirsh started at 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 with metals such as Brass, Aluminium-Bronze and Copper-Nickel widely used. The early One Pound coins were C.N. - and a 2 1/2, and several 5 and 10 Pound commemorative coin series were issued in .925 Sterling Silver. Gold of .917 Fineness was used for high value coinage of 25, 50, 100 Pounds.
It should be noted that the precious metal coinages vary in size and shape in these different commemorative issues - so a catalogue would be needed to ascertain details.
Area: 967,500 sq. miles. (2505,810 sq. kms.) Population approx 24.5 million.
Sudan F.A.O. issue 5 and 10 Copper-Nickel Ghirsh - dated AH 1401 (AD 1981)
SWAZILAND -Kingdom. Formerly a protectorate under the administration of Britain and South Africa during the late 1800's, Swaziland regained total independence after WWII on September 6, 1968 and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations with the King as the chief-of-state, and with a Prime Minister as Head of an elected government.) It is a tiny enclave located in the south-east of the continent
Monetary system: 100 Cents = 1 Luhlanga, 25 Luhlanga = 1 Lilangeni (plural = Emalangeni)
Metals normally used in current coinage are basic, Bronze, Copper-Nickel, Nickel-Brass and Brass. Coin shapes are round, scalloped and duodectaconal (12 sided like the Australian 50 cent coin)
Various commerorative issues were struck in .800 Silver in 1968 to celebrate Independence - these included 5, 10, 20, 50 Cents and One Luhlanga.
An Ounce (Actual Gold Weight) Lilangeni coin was also struck at this time in .917 Gold.
To commemorate the 75th Birthday of the late King Sobhuza II (1968 - 1982) several coins were issued in .925 Sterling Silver and in .900 Gold.
Denominations of 5, 7 1/2, 10 and 15 Emalangeni were struck in Silver as well as denominations of 5, 10, 20, 25, 50 and 100 Emalangeni in .900 Gold.
To celebrate the Kings 80th Birthday in 1979 a short series was issued in .999 Gold - 1 Lilangeni and 2 Emalangeni.
The Kings' Diamond Jubilee in 1981 was commemorated with a .925 Silver 2 Emalangeni and a .917 Gold 250 Emalageni.
Swaziland issued a .999 Gold One Ounce (Actual Gold Weight) coin in 1978 to celebrate Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee.
The ascension of King Makhosetive (1982 - 1986) in 1982 saw a continuance of the basic coinage styles and a short series of 25 Emalageni in .925 Silver and 250 Emalageni in .917 Gold.
King Msawati III ascended the Swaziland throne in 1986.
Area: 6,704 sq. miles (17,360 sq.kms.) Population approx. 756,000
Swaziland F.A.O. Issue 1975 Bronze 2 Cents
King Sobhuza II obverse
TANZANIA - Republic.This republic was made up of sections of British colonial protectorates, including parts of Tanganyika, Kenya, Uganda, Zanzibar and Mozambique, and even sections that formed part of the old area known as German East Africa - which were relinquished in part by WWI reparations - and a consolidation of ethnic communties - in an effort to form a successful cohesive unit within the Commonwealth of Nations on Dec 9, 1961.
Monetary System: In the area known as German East Africa - prior to 1904, when the Portuguese were still invoved in the area: 64 Pesa = 1 Rupie - but after that date, and under German influence 100 Heller = 1 Rupie.
Zanzibar had a system of 64 Pysa or Pice = 1 Rupee and 136 Pysa = 1 Ryal - however, after 1908 it was 100 Cents = 1 Rupee.
The original area known as Tanzania used 100 Senti = 1 Shilingi and this is the system that has continued within the amalgamated area that now functions as the Republic of Tanzania.
Early coinages were mainly Bronze, Nickel, Copper-Nickel with a small amount of low grade Silver .500. The more modern coinage is basically base metals such as Nickel-clad or Bonded Steel as well as Copper-Nickel, Brass and Nickel-Brass. Some special high value coinage issues have been produced in .925 Silver and .917 Gold
Area: 364,900 sq.miles (945,090 sq. kms.) Population: approx 25.5 million
I regret I have no modern coins of Tanzania - but some of the earlier ones from the area that would become the Republic are quite interesting.
German East Africa - Tanganyika 1844 - 1918
German East Africa 1913 C.N. 5 Heller was also used in areas of Kenya and Mozambique - formerly the German East Africa colony.
British East Africa - sections of Kenya, Tanganyika and Uganda Protectorate 1920 -1952
Bronze 1930 Cent; 1934 Ten Cents; .250 Silver 1922 Fifty Cents (Half Shilling); C.N. 1948 One Shilling
Featuring Ivory tusks on the bronze, and Mt. Kilamanjaro with a striding Lion featured on the low silver content coins.
TUNISIA - Republic.This part of Northern Africa is a very historical area first colonised by the Phoenicians and then Romans in the early 12th. Century B.C. It eventually became an Arab controlled area - and then Turkish, as the Ottoman Empire expanded. During the European period, it was France that established a protectorate there in 1881. As has happened elsewhere, national unrest and consequent violent confrontations saw the country gain independence in 1956. A short-lived monarchal system of about 12 months duration was abolished and the republic came into existence on July 25th. 1957.
Monetary System: In modern times it has been based on the Decimal system, firstly, that introduced by the French in 1881, 100 Centimes = 1 Franc. After the republic coinage was established in 1960, the system changed to that of 1000 Millim = 1 Dinar.
The early decimal coinage was issued in Bronze, Nickel-Bronze, Zinc, Copper-Nickel and Aluminium-Bronze for some nearly all the small denominations.. Silver was low grade .680 and the few gold coins were produced in .900 Fine.
Republican coinage is now Aluminium, Brass, Nickel, and Copper-Nickel in the small values under One Dinar. The Silver used in the commemorative coinage improved to .925 Sterling in the late 1960's but reduced back to the previous fineness of .680 from 1970 - Gold coins remained at .900 Fine.
the F.A.O. coinages of 1976. 1983, 1988, 1989 and 1990 were produced in Copper-Nickel.
Area: 63,170 sq. miles (163,610 sq. kms.) Population approx 8 million.
Tunisia - Various Coinages
Top Row:- French Protectorate (AH1326) 1908 - 5 Centimes Bronze and (AH21) 1921 - 50 Centimes Aluminium-Bronze
Second Row:- Republic 1960 - 1, 2 and 5 Millim (Aluminium)
Third Row:- Republic 1960 - 20, 50 and 100 Millim (Brass)
UGANDA - Republic.Formerly part of the East African area that was divided and reshaped to form the nation of Tanzania.
The British were the first Europeans to explore the region during their search for the source of the Nile in the 1860's - however, it is known that, previously, Arab traders had made contact with the many thriving native kingdoms that had been in existence since the early Egyptians had ventured that far south.
Monetary System: 100 Cents = 1 Shilling. Current low value coinage consists of Bronze and various base metals such as Copper-Nickel, Copper-Nickel-plated Steel, Copper-plated Steel and Stainless Steel. The higher circulation denominations still feature similar base metals but also .925 and .999 Silver. Commemorative coins from 20 Shillings up to 10,000 shillings are available in better quality silver as well as .500, .900 and .917Gold
Area: 91,134 sq.miles (236,040 sq. kms) Population apprx 17 million.
Republic of Uganda - Bank of Uganda
1966 Bronze Five and Ten Cents coins depicting Elephant tusks
ZAMBIA - Republic.Formerly Northern Rhodesia - this area became part of a protectorate in 1953 with Nyasaland (now Malwi) and Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) when Great Britain granted a petition from white settlers and companies - who were exploiting the country mainly for its mineral riches and agricultural wealth - and who didn't wish to almalgamate with South Africa. It eventually gained self-government by seceding from the federation on October 24, 1964; it adopted the name Zambia, and was invited to become a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
Monetary System: Until 1964 the Imperial system of 12 Pence = Shilling and 20 Shillings = 1 Pound was used. The smaller value coins,consisting of Penny, Sixpence, Shilling, 2 Shillings and 5 Shillings were issued in Bronze, Copper-Nickel-Zinc and Copper-Nickel.
In 1968 - 9, decimal currency was introduced to the republic 100 Ngwee = 1 Kwacha and the coins are Bronze, Copper-Clad-Steel, Copper-Nickel and Nickel-plated-Steel and Brass for the low denominations with .925 and .999 Silver reserved for high values and commemorative issues. There have been a few issues of good quality Gold .
Area: 290,586 sq. miles (752,610 sq.kms.) Population approx. 8 million.
Zambia low value coins
1968 Bronze 2 Ngwee featuring flying 'Martial eagle' - 1981 C.N. 20 Ngwee featuring World Food Day -Corn stalk.
ZIMBABWE - Republic- Formerly Northern Rhodesia & Nyasaland. The political upheaval and unilateral declaration of Rhodesian independence from Great Britain is well documented - but, for the latecomers, I will recap a complicated historical era as briefly as I can
The area was first explorered by the intrepid Portuguese during the 16th Century; but it wasn't until the English entrepreneur Cecil Rhodes named areas after himself after receiving concessions from local chiefs in 1888 - and commercial enterprises such as the British South Africa Co. recognised the overall potential of the area - that things started to develop with mining and agriculture.
During the period from 1895 - the generally accepted names of this large area became Southern and Northern Rhodesia.
The British Government became involved, in 1923, when they were petitioned against an amalgamation with South Africa by the white settlers who were flocking to the area. A protectorate was formed in 1953 which joined Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland into a federation with Southern Rhodesia - these smaller areas eventually became the independent nations of Zambia and Malawi in 1963 when the federation was dissolved.
(1947 Southern Rhodesian C.N. Threepence and 1962 Rhodesia & Nyasaland C.N. Five Cents)
Due to political differences regarding representation, Southern Rhodesia was denied independence by Great Britain - but, in 1965, the country cast aside English rule and declared itself a seperate entity and then declared itself to be a republic in 1970. The new nation was shunned by the United Nations and Great Britain as being illegal - but it declared itself independent with a new name - that of Zimbabwe Rhodesia. A series of political ploys were undertaken to try and return the fledgling nation to British control but these failed and eventually in 1980, Britain relinquished all claims - and Zimbabwe Rhodesia became independant once more and became a member of the Commonwealth of nations as the Republic of Zimbabwe. This relationship fell into utter disrepair when the government expelled white farmers, who were a minority in the nation, and forcible seized land and assets belonging to white citizens.
A wholesale exodus occured and the financial system became wracked with corruption under the dictatorial regime of former Prime Minister - now Head of State - Robert Mugabe.
A modern history: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/zi.html
Monetary System: 100 Cents = 1 Zimbabwean Dollar. At present the monetary system is completely chaotic and the Zimbabwean economy is suffering from the most severe inflation that many people will have ever witnessed. Revaluations are occuring on a regular basis - not quite to the hourly stage as the infamous 1920's German Inflation but at an alarmingly high rate - and the value of the currency has gone through the floor .
Basic (base metal) coinage has virtually disappeared as it became worthless - except for its metal content which was worth far more than the denomination value.
A selection of low value C.N. and Brass coinage - various dates 1982 - 1991
The commodities system is being propped up by the use of foreign currencies from wherever it can be obtained - and, it is believed, that even the inflation notes were being used as gimmicks in the numismatic market as a form of raising hard currency while the demand for such 'novelty' numismatic things is still high. The exchange rate has been continually re-adjusted - and, at time of starting this article in mid March, it was AUD$1.00 = ZWD$94.59 (old rate prior to the last devaluation was ZWD$94,588,000,000,000).
By March 25st., it had already reached AUD$1.00 = ZWD$129.50 and its value was still going down daily.
Area: 150,084 sq. mls (390,580 sq.kms) Population approx. 7 million.
Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe
2007 Zimbabwean One Dollar note featuring the Chirmba Balancing Rocks at Matapos National Park (obv.)
and a Buffalo and Victoria Falls (rev).
The One Dollar note shown above became a particularly unusual item from where banknote denominations were soon being shown in many Trillions of Dollars due to super-hyper inflation and a collapsed economy - so damaged that even standard coinage is longer used. Foreign currency - such as the U.S. Dollar, the South African Rand and others - is commonly being used to try and give a firm base to purchasing power against actual value of object..
In late January 2009, the exchange rate for AUD$1.00 was ZWD$25,100,000 - however, the system had been revalued once more and a new series of notes has been issued. The huge revaluations have occured simply by removing large numbers of zeros from banknotes - temporarily it seems.
Bearer Cheque Z$10,000,000 - current between 2nd. May 2008 - 31st. December 2008
(With the buying power of about AUD$5.00 at issue date - they were worthless by the expiry date in December.)
In January 2009, a new Trillion Dollar note series was introduced.
In March 2009, another new series of Dollar notes - without all the zeros - was issued, and it immediately went into decline.
The increasingly unstable political climate had also been creating additional instabilty in the financial issues that the nation has - and lots of proposed schemes to rein in the runaway inflation had come to nought.. The election, in February, of a new Prime Minister may present an opportunity for foreign relief agencies to assist those citizens who are in parlous states. Employment is only estimated at about 4 -5 %. - however the previous ruler, Robert Mugabe has appointed himself President and controls the Military and police forces - an ominous sign.
In recent development, the new opposition party Prime Minister was badly injured in a truck crash that killed his wife. It has been described as an accident. but there appears to be an element of doubt. No doubt, Zimbabwe will get worse before it gets better.
*We have come to the end of the selected sample range of coins and banknotes that I have in my collection from the African nations - there were a few more bits and pieces available, but, at this point I chose to only show those that have appeared in the last three issues of this newsletter. It leaves something for you to strive for if you wish to pursue these least known of numismatic entities.
This brief exercise has opened my eyes to the fact that I, at least, have a real hole in my international coin and banknotes section - I now plan to build my own collection further with those items I lack - and, sometime in the future, I hope to present another visit to Africa and fill in a few of the missing pieces. In the meantime - be astute!
This area has been neglected for a very long time - however, one day the 'penny will drop' for collectors - and better quality samples from some nations, particularly 19th - 20th Century coins in the older denominations, will be extremely hard to locate.
'Standard Catalog of World Coins' by Chester l. Krause and Clifford Mishler - Colin R. Bruce II (Editor) - Krause Publication 2001
WIKIPEDIA the online encyclopedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
All Illustrations are supplied from the author's private collections © 1996 - 2009.
Arabic Numerals and alphabets
OUT OF THE SHADOWS AND INTO THE THE PHOTO-VAULT
Occassionally, I find things in my collection that probably deserved a better fate than to be poked away for a 'rainy day' article.
This gigantic Texas funny money note dated 1952 - (courtesy of my good friend and fellow member of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' - Jerry Adams from Texas) has had a few short scans of both sides - which needed to be be rematched as best I could - just so I could get it to a size that will fit this page and still be readable. It's still a bit 'rough-cut' in appearance - so please forgive my less than professional effort in this instance.
There are scores of cleverly hidden items of interest built into the designs - so - take your time reading and sounding out some of the 'numbers' and letters.
The Magnificent Empire of Texas - 100 Texas Bucks 1952.
Reduced image - Actual Size 34.5 x 14.0 cms. (13.5 x 5.5 inches)
THE SAGA of 'PORKY PIG'!
(A Poke in a Pig!)
The treasures that are often 'right under our snouts'!
by Graeme Petterwood. © 2009.
It's remarkable what treasures little kids find, when least expected. One such treasure was re-discovered when I had visitors over the 2009 New Year holiday period and I allowed the active, very young boy-child access to a few toys left-over from nearly four decades ago when my own kids were little-uns!.
One useful toy was a 9 inch (about 22cm.) tall old 'Porky Pig' red plastic moneybox (c. late 1960's - and originally sold with 1.5 lbs of confectionery by A.W. Allen Ltd. of Melbourne, Australia.) At once stage, Porky had considered relocating to Kadina to help Mick Vort-Ronald guard his bank, but, after empassioned persuasion - he decided to stay here with his adopted family and the three kids who had named him after the cartoon character - even though he was more of a 'sailor' pig from his garb.
Porky always had a few old Oz bronze decimal coins to rattle
- and he was also gainfully employed as a handy doorstop for years.
After years of very active duty, Porky's sailor-cap lid had become somewhat brittle and had been snapped off in places around the edges - but that meant the kids' little fingers couldn't prise it off and eat, or suck, the little chocolate coloured bronzey-brown chunks of metal he guarded day and night.
Porky has had a remarkable life - many years ago, he was stolen during a spate of burglaries which were perpetrated by a pre-teen neighbourhood thief. The kid grew up and went on to a life of crime, drugs and violence of a heinous nature against women and spent years in the pokey - and he virtually broke his mother's heart. Back when he was a kid, he had stolen a real lot of hard-earned money and a lifetime of trust from those around him, and, to add insult to injury, Porky was kidnapped as well when the boy did our place over for the loose change.
Porky was recovered some years later from the neighbour's shrubbery that was being cleared off to make a lawn alongside my side fence. He had been mistreated cruelly - with all of his contents missing - except one 2 Cent coin jammed tightly into his little right trotter.
He was found with one of our steak-knives still stuck through his little tattered white sailor's cap - which lay nearby - in an obvious attempt to keep him from talking.
Porky was re-united with his even more brittle cap - and returned home to
become the receptical for oddments of loose change and take up guard duty at the
door once more.
Each Christmas he would duly disgorge his tummy contents - which would be counted by the kids and then changed into 'real money' - but he always stood by to ensure that a fair sharing of the proceeds occurred amongst the smallest kids in the family.
Because it was supposed
to be magic, some of the coins would be returned to Porky so that they would
multply for next Christmas - besides, having a heavy financial responsibilty it
added a certain stability to Porky's life as a door-stop guard..
Unfortunately, like the toys in the movie 'Toy Story', Porky was forgotten when the youngest grandchild (junior numismatist and future investment banker), grew to that age where loose change was acceptable - but a note or two with big numbers on it was even better.
Porky then languished for some years - not even used as a doorstop anymore - although he was still heavy enough and willing to serve.
Then, he was seen by the pair of new eyes of a young visitor who still believes in magic..
He came down from his
dusty perch, on top of a cupboard, and spent a happy half-hour
being rattled and bowled over on the hall passage carpet - a recognised sporting
arena - with an old soft beat-up rubber cricket ball, rolled with considerable force
and amazingly unerring accuracy, by an
enthusiastic boy-child. Did I mention this old house is
still a home - even for visitors?
After my friends had departed, and the usual small tidy-up had occured, I peered in through Porky's battered top slot and I could see a few 20 Cents pieces amongst the bronze shrapnel - so I had to have a rattle and a closer look.
Remember the tight lid - well it
was still tight!
Eventually, after a few frustrating minutes, I became determined - Porky's brittle cap is even a bit smaller now - and I don't know whether I will need pliers next time - or will I need to revert to a steak-knife as well?!
The majority of coins in the fat little red tummy were One and Two Cent Oz coins - with a smattering of Copper-Nickel 20 Cents and a couple of 50 Cents - nothing older that 1983. A few moments of finger flicking, and I had sorted out the truly beat-up, corroded stuff and then the numismatist within me looked at every coin with a X10 magnifier and found that I had a nice little pile of VF - EF bronze coins as spares.
amongst the Bronze -
but it is historically interesting these days - and, with Porky guarding over them,
they just might start another kid
on the lifelong path that we older readers tread as dedicated numismatists.
The few bits of worn Copper-nickel went into my (unused ash-tray) miscellaneous expense account - and paid for the Sunday's papers.
Finally, I decided to re-feed Porky just a little more - he is a family heirloom after all - so now he has his rather battered cap back on, he's been given a rub over with a nice soft damp cloth - he's smiling - and, again, he has resumed his guard duty and he has his coins back to rattle for the next little kid who visits.
Received in late March was the following email:
The message was direct, exactly as shown, but not signed - the email address indicated it was sent by a correspondent named Drazen and I believe it may have refered to an article written in the "Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition" - July 2005. http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/july05.htm
I thank him for the additional geographical information.
Time-line article of interest: http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/map/yugoslavia/
CHANGE OF OFFICIAL POSTAL ADDRESS
TASMANIAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY(Est. 1963).
A final reminder to our Australian readers, in particular members of the T.N.S., that a change of a long established postal contact address has occured. As from January 1st. 2009, the official postal address of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' was altered.
All written correspondence, current subscription fees and enquiries etc.., should now be forwarded directly to:-
Tasmanian Numismatic Society.
C/- Mr. C. A. Heath - (Hon. Sec.)
P.O. Box 12.
GENERAL INDEX UPDATE.
'TASMANIAN NUMISMATIST - INTERNET EDITION' 1996 - June 2007
Early issues of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition', from 1995 - 1999. were permanently archived in 2000 and articles are not linked directly.
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aug03.htm - 1995, 1996 - 1997 (Volumes 1 and 2) Archived. Content detail only. (Articles can be emailed).
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/ept2003.htm - 1998 - 1999 (Volumes 3 and 4) Archived. Content detail only. (Articles can be emailed).
By refering to the the 'Newsletter Archives' or 'Search' function located on the Home Page, you can directly access all Volumes.
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html - January 2000 (Volumes 5 - to date).
In January 2006 it was decided to grant each new issue its own URL link. which would henceforth appear in the current Index for fast find:
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar07.html - 2006 (Volume 11)
The final Index of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition'
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm - 2007 (Volume 12 - Issues 1 - 6)
'NUMISNET WORLD - INTERNET EDITION' July 2007 - December 2008
Full details of initial 'Numisnet World - Internet Edition' (2007)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec07.htm - (Volume 12 - Issues 7 - 12)
For full details of 'Numisnet World - Internet Edition' (2008)
http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/dec08.htm - (Volume 13 - Issues 1 - 12)
'NUMISNET WORLD - INTERNET EDITION' Volume 14, Jan. - to date 2009
Issue 1. January 2009:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/jan09.htm
The Numbers Game - Some tattered pieces of virtually worthles paper money that have numbers that we collectors tend to notice.
Bank Note Varieties - and other things! - At first glance, they look the same - but then those 'little differences' become noticeable and we take a second look..
The Story Behind the Story - Cowra Breakout revisited. - A war story that took place within Australia and had been archived for more than half a century..
Fake Pounds Circulating in Great Britain - "Large quantities of fake One Pound coins are making life miserable for English shoppers" - E-Sylum.
Issue 2. February 2009:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/feb09.htm
The Nations of Africa (Part I) - An illustrated series that features some of the 53 nations that make up Africa - the numismatically forgotten continent.
Reserve Bank of India Anomaly?. - A small sequence inconsistency amongst RBI Five Rupee notes from 1984 that needs an explanation - or did I miss it?.
The Philippine Islands 1941 - As the Pacific war descended upon it, the Philippines Emergency Currency Committees, in different provinces and cities, churned out million of Pesos to keep their economy alive. Much of it was 'rough and ready' currency printed under difficult circumstances - but it served its purpose and heralded the end of an era!
Blast from the Past.1999 - A gentle reminder, from an elderly Anchorage Coin Club member's article, about the common sense we need when we start becoming too blasé about our our collection and the way we go about maintaining it.
Internet News and Q & A's - It's a case of getting personal with people - if possible - about their numismatic problems and we learn of a new Platinum Ducal release from the Duchy of Avram.
Issue 3. March 2009:-
Medeival Madness - Tudor Tantrums, - a closer look at my 5 medeival coins and the mysteries and frustrations they evoked.
Another Sort of Royalty - Avram - continuing our chat with HRH Prince John, His Grace the Duke of Avram about some of his previous Ducal issues.
The Nations of Africa (Part II) - An illustrated series that features some of the nations that make up Africa - the numismatically forgotten continent.
In Memorium - Jerry Remick III - numismatist extraordinaire (1926 - 2005).
Correction - The Nations of Africa (Part I) - A reader reminds us that the 'Gregorian' solar calendar is the Christian era calendar many of us now use.
Issue 4. April 2009:-
Australian Small Change - Pre-decimal Bronze Treasures 1911-1964.- a brief overview of notable items amongst pre-decimal Australian Bronze coinage
The Nations of Africa (Part III) - An illustrated series that features some of the nations that make up Africa - the numismatically forgotten continent.
Out of the Shadows - a little glimpse of sunshine for a numismatic lost child fromTexas that didn't grow up to be a larger-than-life article even if it is big!
The Saga of 'Porky Pig' - the battered big old red plastic pig money-box that shares a prideful place amongst my numismatic memories.
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