Volume 11 Issue 4                                 INTERNET EDITION - Established 1996                               April 2006


The name 'Tasmanian Numismatist' is used with the permission  of the Executive Committee of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' however, any comments published in this privately produced newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society', its Executive Committee or its members. Bearing in mind our public disclaimers,  the Internet links selected by the authors of this  newsletter are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to: (1) Illustrations and, (2) to provide additional important information. 

Any notices of concern to 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' members will be included in the 'Society Snippets' section.

We trust that this issue of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) newsletter will continue to provide interesting reading.

 

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TASMANIAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY

Anyone who wishes to apply for membership to the non-profit making organization, and who is prepared to abide by the rules of the Society and its aim of promoting the study and enjoyment of the hobby of numismatics, should contact the following address for an application form and details of subscriptions: 

 

THE SECRETARY.

Tasmanian Numismatic Society.

G. P. O. Box 884J

Hobart. 7001.

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HAPPY BIRTHDAY!

 'TASMANIAN NUMISMATIST- Internet Edition'

 Editor's Report - by Graeme Petterwood. (Editor) 1996 - 2006

Looking Back - and Re-affirmation.

 

In March 1996, a numismatic enthusiast suggested that the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter should be published on the Internet as a trial to promote the hobby. The idea held a considerable amount of merit and, after some discussions with the Executive Committee of the non-profit 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' regarding the future impact of the publication - and the costs involved - the current Editor, and the numismatically interested Internet site provider, volunteered to privately establish and produce a purely autonomous newsletter - with the blessing of the Society.

The publication was to be known as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - (Internet Edition) and would act as a prefered link to the T.N.S. but it would be 'free to air' for all with an interest in numismatics. The use of the name was authorized by the Society in return for a guarantee that the ethical standards set by the Executive Committee of the T.N.S. - and followed by the official Society newsletter, the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - would be adhered to.

This was done without hesitation by the Editor and the site provider (who is now a member of the T.N.S.and has continued to financially support the Internet newsletter since inception).

The 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - (Internet Edition) still remains an editorially independent and privately maintained publication with a special section,'Society Snippets', reserved for T.N.S. members' news and views.

As both T.N.S. members and other long-time readers are aware, it was a very successful transition from the initial test ,which took place in April 1996, to that of a permanent publication. The new newsletter format well and truly complimented the hard-copy Tasmanian local edition.

The original 1996 schedules for both newsletters were based on a bi-monthly program but, in January 1997, the two systems were placed on a monthly basis. The move was welcomed by T.N.S. members who appreciated the more frequent local newsletter with its more comprehensive articles.

Unfortunately, due to production fees, copier maintenance charges and, particularly, increased postal distribution costs, which occured in January 2001, the T.N.S. Committee decided that the local hard-copy edition, no matter how popular, should revert to a basic bi-monthly local issue in an effort to conserve the Society's limited funds which are raised by membership subscription only. Our membership subscription rate has remained constant now for many years.

The independently funded 'Tasmanian Numismatist'- (Internet Edition) remained unchanged as a monthly publication and will continue to do so for as long as possible.

The selection of contributed articles, and any editorial efforts, are intended to entertain and educate - so, in keeping with the ethical principles originally laid down, the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - (Internet Edition) will not publish spam-type commercial lists, political beliefs, rumours or condone ill-will within the framework of this newsletter.

Over the last 10 years, as Editor of both the Internet and Local editions, I have seen the international concept attain phenomenal growth and, in its own way, it has assisted the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' in maintaining its deserved reputation as one of Australia's prestigious numismatic organizations.

As an additional bonus, it has also attracted a considerable number of national and international collectors to the Society as Internet associate members.

The whole concept of club membership has been altering dramatically in the last decade with the development of Internet access and the breaking down of territorial barriers and the problem of distance that plagued people who share common interests. The Internet version of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist'  newsletter now has readers on every continent.

The 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' Committee, prophetically, realised that it was only a matter of time before attendances at periodical meetings would fall away in preference to the huge technological advantages that the Internet provided - albeit a lack of personal interaction has disavantages in a hobby such as ours. In 1996, the pathway to keeping the Society functional was seen to be by accepting that the world was changing and  the agreement was reached that initiated one of the first numismatic Internet newsletters in Australia.

The 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - (Internet Edition) is still proving to be an innovative and topically relative non-commerciaal publication and it continues to educate and entertain as originally conceived.

 

THE FUTURE

As Editor - I will attempt to ensure that any information - outside of copyrighted articles submitted from outside contributors - is genuine and of the highest quality, but, if there is any doubt, the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - (Internet Edition) will not publish it.

Our disclaimers are always published at the conclusion of every newsletter.

As Editor - I look forward to this coming year - our 11th. - with enthusiasm, and I pledge that I will try to maintain the high standards of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - (Internet Edition), and produce what I hope is an interesting publication for all my fellow numismatists.

As Editor - I extend the invitation for readers to contribute suitable numismatic literary material or ideas - (subject to normal editorial scrutiny) - and to forward any numismatic queries, positive comments, or criticsms, to me for due consideration.

The voluntary position as Editor of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - (Internet Edition) for the last 10 years has always been 'labor of love' - but I have found the rewards are high - especially when positive feed-back arrives on my desk.

Thank you for the encouragement you have given me over the last 10 years.

(Graeme E. Petterwood - Hon. Editor).

 

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INTERNET EDITION

by Graeme Petterwood © 2005

 

Remember - be astute when you are handed change - not all the wonders of numismatics have been discovered yet - and they don't have to be shiny and new! This edition again features an assortment of  'trivia' that I think is of interest and I trust it will prove educational and entertaining to you as well. 

All or any prices quoted in articles in this newsletter, unless stipulated, are estimates only and they should not be considered to be an offer to sell or purchase the items mentioned or used as illustrations. Please note that the photoscans of numismatic items are usually not to size or scale, but - wherever possible - they are from the authors' own collection or the extensive picture library of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition.

PART 2 - RUSSIA

THE KOPEKS of the KREMLIN

Like our previous article about the Kreuzers of Austria, I intend to start at the 'modern era' of about 1800 - after giving a brief history of both Kopeks and Rubles. Like our Dollars and Cents, Rubles (or Roubles) and Kopeks go hand in hand at the same numeric rate. 100 Kopeks make a Russian Ruble.

We have long since learnt the history of Cents and Dollars, but where did the terms 'Kopek'  and 'Ruble' come from? (I have used the common spellings).

In 1478, the Russians captured Novgorod and Moscow issued a series of coins which celebrated the event and one of them featured a horseman with spear. The dramatic depiction was of St. George slaying the Dragon with his lance - and the Middle Russian term for spear is 'kopeka' which in turn had been developed from an earlier word 'kopie' also meaning spear. The Kopek coin held its own over the centuries and today, even though it is now virtually worthless.

 

 

(1) - Imperial reverses .750 Silver  10 (1860), 15 (1868) and 20 (1869) Kopek reverses and (1914) .500 Silver obverse -  Pre-Revolution coinage.

(2) - Kopek coins 1949 Soviet Al.Bronze; 1913 Copper Imperial 3 Kopeks;

Soviet 1989 C.N. Zinc 10 Kopeks ; 1957 Al.Bronze 2 Kopeks; 1987 Brass 1Kopek - all with Hammer & Sickle within Wreath Reverses

 

The word Ruble is derived from the Russian word 'Wholesome or Uncut' which alluded to the habit of chopping pieces of Silver to use as bullion 'coinage'. The metallic Ruble was able to retain its integrity at 28 grams of Silver from 1704, when Tsar Peter I  standardized the coin, until just after WWI in 1922 when the massive inflation wave started to cross Europe and spread into Russia.

These are stories that have also been told before in this newsletter so I will not repeat them.

Even prior to the Revolution of 1917, the Silver Ruble coinage had started to disappear as precious metal became hoarded and the plethora of paper equivalents flooded the nation. Issues of paper Imperial Kopeks in various forms and sizes were distributed to counteract the small denomination coinage shortage. Some were adapted from 1913 postage stamps with the Imperial Double-headed eagle stamped on the reverse.

Denominations of 1, 2, 3. 10, 15, 20 Kopeks were issued bearing likenesses of members of the extended Imperial Romanov family.

 

Russian Imperial issue 'Postage Stamp' Kopeks - issued 1915 - 17

 

Russian Imperial Treasury Kopek notes - issued 1915 - 17 (Actual size 45 x 80mm)

 

For a short period, after the overthrow of the Tsar, the new revolutionary  Provisional Goverment continued the issue of the  'stamp' Kopeks but without the eagle which was replaced with a suitable inscription stamped on the reverse. Denominations 1, 2, 3 Kopeks only.

The story of ill-fated Tsar Nicholas II can be perused at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicholas_II_of_Russia

 

Russian Provisional Government 1000 Ruble Credit note - issued 1917 (Actual size 133 x 215mm)

 

During this era the amalgamation of neighbouring countries into the new greater Soviet state was occuring and Ukraine, for instance became one of the founding states. The bloody turmoil between the rival factions that had resulted in civil war during the early years of the Revolution also saw printing presses on both sides churning out bogus banknotes to undermine the currency of the other - or to pay their troops - even if the money was made from seized printing-plates. The illegally issued notes soon became worthless in the disputed areas - such as the Ukraine. - as the Red Army became victorious.

The main Ukranian Republican currency was known as Karbowanez and was equal to the Ruble.

 

 

Ukraine 50 Karbowanez (Not dated - issued 1918). Serial No. AO 217

This serial number (over AO 210) indicates that it was unofficially issued by General Denikin of the White Russian Army.

 The printing-plates were seized in Odessa (O)

 

 

Russian Currency Notes 1 - 5 Rubles issued 1919 (Poorly cut - Average size 37 x 47mm)

 

The quality of notes issued by the new Government varied considerably as internal political fortunes ebbed and flowed during the next few years. Some notes, particularly during the inflationary period of  1921 and 1922 were poorly cut uniface examples and were produced on various grades of paper with poor printing quite evident.

 

CURRENCY NOTES - Various sized. Scans not to scale

1919 Currency Notes - 15, 60, 250, 500 and 1000 Ruble denominations examples shown.

1921 Currency Notes - 50, 250, 1000, 10,000 and 50,00 Ruble denominations examples shown (Poorly cut - some uniface)

1922 Currency Note - One (new) Ruble example shown; and 1923 Currency Note - 5 (new) Rubles example shown.

 

Another new paper currency unit named Chervonets  was introduced in late 1922 which had a value of 10 standard Rubles.This 1922 Series denomination range was 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 25 and  50 Chervonets and its stated purpose was that it was to be used in an effort to reduce the number and variety of older Ruble notes in circulation.

For instances, the 1919 Currency note issues (samples shown above) had been issued in denominations of 15, 30, 60, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 Rubles. In 1921 another Currency note range of 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 5000, 10,000, 25,000, 50,000, 100,000 (samples shown above) was issued plus War Loan Currency notes of 50,000 and 100,000 Ruble denominations. Just to confuse the matter even further, the Russian Treasury issued Short-term Certificates in 1921 with denominations of 1,000,000, 5,000,000 and 10,000,000 - and, in late 1922, another short series of 5,000, 10,000 (and a 25,000  known only as Specimen) Certificate Rubles which had been revalued at the rate of 1 new Ruble = 10,000 old Rubles.

The basic Currency notes of late 1922 contained denominations of 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 (new) Rubles whilst the 1923 first issue consisted of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 250 (new) Rubles - a second revised issue, put into circulation later the same year with slight reverse variations, came in 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 (new) Rubles.(samples shown above).

 

In 1923, with the introduction of the revalued new Ruble currency, the quality improved in all aspects of note production, however, the practice of issuing a huge variety of paper currency stayed on until 1924 with various authorities responsible and some overlapping did occur.

At that time, the paper Gold Rubles started to appear at the 1923 equivalent value of 50,000 old paper Rubles.

A single issue of  a  3 Chervonets note was made in 1924; and, in 1926, another short series of 1, 2, and 5 Chervontes was issued. to take some control over inflation Another 3 Chervonets single issue note was in 1932 and, in 1937, the 'Lenin' Chernovets from 1, 3, 5, 10 (shown below) went into circulation.

However, these were, basically, a disguise to hide the rising inflation of the early 1930's just ahead of the newest European conflict.

The new note issue was a similar ploy - as had been adopted by other nations of the region such as Germany -  to 'take the zeros off the note values'.

The Chervonets stayed in use until after WWII when Russia started the consfication of currency after several revaluations (in 1947 - and again in 1961) had left a plethora of older series of notes in the public hands. The Lenin notes were the last Chervonets actually issued by the Communist regime.

 

Russian 1, 3, 5, 10 Chervonets issued 1937 featuring Lenin (1Chervonets = 10 Rubles)

 

In 1934, the last issue of Gold Rubles ranging from 1, 3, 5 was also made and, in 1938, a short series of revalued StateTreasury Rubles in 1, 3, 5 denominations was put into circulation at a time when Europe was on the brink of conflict once more (samples below).

At the end of WWII, the Treasury printed notes dated 1947 in 1, 3, 5 Ruble denomiation - as did the State, under the State Bank Note U.S.S.R authority with higher denominations ranging up from 10, 25, 50 and 100 Rubles. All these notes had variances  in the number of ribbons (either 15 or 16) in the scroll wreath around the Hammer and Sickle. The notes were not released until 1957 (sample below).

 

Russian 3 and 5 standard Ruble notes issued 1938 featuring Soviet Armed Forces obverses. The One Ruble featured a Coal-miner.

(Various sized. Scans not to scale.)

 

Russian 1947 (1957) 25 Ruble note (Type I = 16 ribbons) Soviet emblem obverse - Lenin reverse (97 x 171 mm)

 

With the issue of the 1961 Series, the decision to reduce, and standardize, the size of state notes was implemented. (see below).

It was a major 'clean-up' time for Russian currency and one that would be repeated again in 1991 when the earlier issues were recalled or revalued.

The obverse designs of the 1961 and 1991 State Treasury issues of 1, 3,  5 Rubles featured value and date whilst the reverses featured a Russian iconic scene.The larger denominations, issued under the State Bank note U.S.S.R. authority, ranged from 10 - 1000 Rubles  and featured a depiction of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin in a cartouche as the obverse, and a combination of value or iconic design reverses.

The 1961 and 1991 Series are very similar - with only a few colour changes and design differences of a minor nature. The sizes remained the same.

 

Russia 1961 One Ruble - reduced size notes series (This denomination - actual size 53 x 150mm.)

 

Russia 1991 Series 1, 5, Rubles with iconic reverses. Similar to 1961 - slight colour and design differences.

(5 Ruble size 57 x 114mm)

 

Russia 1991 Series 10 Rubles (up to 1000 Rubles) features Lenin in Cartouche obverse - iconic or value reverses.

(10 Ruble size 60 x 125mm)

 

The 1, 2 and 3 Kopek denomination coins (shown above- illus.2) are rarely used these days and the 'rounding up' from 5 Kopeks upwards is now common-place in transactions but just like the Cent, it will always be enshrined in the Russian tradition.

Over the years there have been 7 - 8 various efforts to stabilize Russia's currency and, in recent times after the breakup of the Soviet republics, the economic and political crisis' at home and in other parts of the world have sent the value of the Ruble reeling and its exchange rate is about 3.5 US Cents to the Ruble (US$1.00 = RUB 28.022) or 4.75 AUD Cents (AUD$1.00 = RUB 20.901) at time of writing.

During the ensuing period from the end of WWII and until the official formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States - C.I.S. - in December 1992, many large 30mm. commemorative Rubles were issued in Copper-Nickel Zinc. The Bank of Russia was founded in 1992 and is responsible for the issuance of all Russian coins and banknotes. A complete list/scans of 2004 modified Bank of Russia coins and banknotes can be viewed and downloaded at: http://www.cbr.ru/eng/bank-notes_coins/coins/

 

 

Russian 30mm. Commemorative (C.N. Zinc) Rubles - all with Hammer & Sickle within Wreath Reverses

 20th Anniversary 'Victory over Fascists' (1965) Ruble - Edge dated - showing smashed Swastika.

50th Anniversary Soviet uprising (1967); 100th Anniversary Lenin's Birth (1970);

150th Anniversary Peter Tchaikovsky's birth (1989); Celebrating 22nd Olympiad - Moscow (1980)

 

 1993 Bank of Russia 10 Ruble C.N. Zinc (20mm.) coin - double-headed Eagle (without Imperial crown) Reverse.

 

(6) - 1995 10000 Rubles paper note

 

 1997 (Revaluation) 10 Rubles paper note. (Actual size 65 x 150mm)

 

Main Reference:

Standard Catalog of World Paper Money (General & Modern Issues) Volume 2 & 3.

 

TO FOLLOW -  Part 3 - The Kroner of Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway and Sweden)

 

 

COFFEYVILLE, KANSAS - October 5th.1892

Based on an article published by T.N.S. member, Jerry Adams, in the March Edition of NTCA journal 'Talkin' Tokens'.©

 

As T.N.S. members are aware, one of our most regular literary contributors, Jerry Adams, is also a member  of the National Token Collectors Association of America. His hobby speciality is trade tokens and similar items connected to the American Old West - the Wild West of truth and legend.

This story is, from neccessity, compiled from several sources, however, the original idea and some illustrations were provided by Jerry after some very interesting discussions about an article he had submitted for publication in the NTCA journal 'Talkin' Tokens' last year. That article has now been published.

On the 5th. October of 1892, a traumatic incident occured in Coffeyville, Kansas, that spelt the end of a notorious band of outlaw brothers, the Daltons,  and showed how 'people power' can react under dire circumstances.

Unfortunately, in violent situations people get hurt and this incident was about as violent as you could get in the Western world of 1892.

In less than fifteen minutes, eight men were dead, three were seriously wounded and several others received superficial wounds.

It was truly an event that legends are made of!

 

To give readers an idea of the Dalton Brothers pedigree, the following edited detail was noted in 'The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Old West' collated by Peter Newark (Andre Deutsch Publishing 1980) and the Younger - Dalton Family Trees and deserves a mention.

On their mother's side, they were cousins of the outlaw Younger Brothers who had ridden with Jesse James after the War between the States.

It is widely believed that all three families - the James, Youngers and Daltons were probably related through the female lines - albeit distantly.

They were part of the family sired by James "Lewis" Dalton Jnr. (b. 1826 - d. 1890) and Adeline Lee Younger (b.1836 - d. 1925)  on a farm in Belton, Cass County, Missouri and later in Coffeyville, Kansas.

The Dalton brothers were: Charles Benjamin (Ben) (b.1852 - d. 1936), Henry Coleman (b. 1854 - d. 1901), Lewis Kossuth (b.1855 - d. 1862), Littleton Lee(b. 1857 - d. 1942), Franklin (Frank) (b. 1859 - d. 1887), Mason Frakes (Bill) (b. 1863 - d. 1894), Grattan Hanley (Grat) (b. 1864 - d. 1892),  Robert Rennick (Bob) (b.1868 - d, 1892), Emmett (b.1871 - d. 1937) and Simon Noel (b. 1879 - d. 1927)

The surviving Dalton sisters consisted of Bea Elizabeth (b. 1856 - d. 1894), Eva Mae (b. 1867 - d. 1939), Leona Randolph(b. 1875 - d. 1964), and Nancy (Nannie) Mae (b. 1876 - d. 1911). One daughter died in infancy, Hannah Adeline (b. June 1878 - d. 1878), and the rest had a fairly hard upbringing.

The children who survived to maturity were raised mainly by their mother as Lewis Dalton had little time for the task. He was a horse-trader, salloon owner amongst other things and always found it hard to manage financially.

Most of the older boys went on to be hard-working citizens but some of the youngest brothers were destined to take another path.

Frank Dalton was employed as a Deputy-Marshall in Fort Smith but had been shot on Nov. 27, 1887 in a gun-battle with members of the Smith-Dixon gang on an Indian reservation.

Will Towerly, a member of the gang, then cold-bloodedly murdered the wounded lawman by shooting him twice in the head as he lay on the ground.

In the late 1880's, some of the other Dalton brothers had actually followed Frank's example and served as lawmen in various places but they had evidently worked both sides of the law and were discharched for their activities which included selling whisky to the Osage Indians, horse stealing and even conduct unbecoming of a law officer - when the fiery Bob shot a rival after an affair.

 Bill eventually joined the infamous Bill Doolin Gang and was shot dead by rifle-fire by a deputy-marshall, named Loss Hart, who was a member of a drunken posse, at a ranch near the town of Elk (now Pooleville OK) Oklahoma Territory on 8th. June 1894.

 

However, it is the trio of Grat, Bob and Emmett - and several cohorts -  that this brief article relates.

In fact, the Dalton Gang was a lot larger but it flucuated from time to time as needs arose. Refer: http://www.gunslinger.com/dalton.html

The usual gang members consisted of: - Charlie Pierce, George Newcomb. Charlie Bryant, and Richard (Dick) Broadwell who also used a couple of aliases. The infamous Bill Doolin and some members of his own gang, including William St. Power (Bill Power(s) also known as Tim Evans, were other outlaws who occasionally rode with the Daltons.

The Dalton Gang had been in and out of serious trouble with the law for some years after stepping across the line from misdemeanours, but a string of bad decisions, and the loss of some of their most trusted members, saw their fortunes go into sharp decline in the early 1890's. It was decided that discretion was going to be the better part than valour - after one last big job to set them up for their 'retirement' - so they decided to rob two banks in the same town at the same time. It was to be in a place that they knew well and, unfortunately, whose population also knew them - their home town of Coffeyville, Kansas.

The decision to go out with a bang was to be their final bad choice and, unfortunately for them, an all too true description.

 

Coffeyville 1892

Early on the morning of October 5 1892, Gratton, Bob and Emmett Dalton accompanied by Dick Broadwell, Bill Doolan and Bill Powers (Tim Evans) began the ride into Coffeyville with an audacious plan to rob both banks in the town before the morning trading began in earnest.

Things started to unravel even before they got to town.

Bill Doolan's horse went lame and he was forced to retire from the raid - leaving their plan under-manned and behind schedule.

Next, a few simple things further complicated things - and these were the major reason that things went horribly wrong. The horse-hitching rail outside the banks had been removed while street paving was being carried out and the outlaws had to hide their horses further away in a nearby alley-way between Walnut St. and Maple St. (Shown on map - later known as Death Alley) and the streets were also far busier than expected at that time of morning.

A horse-driven Oil Tanker was also standing in the laneway.

It was then about 9.30 a.m.

The banks that had been targetted were the C.M. Condon & Co. Bank (at site 1) and the First National Bank (at site 4) both near each other at the junction of Union Street and Walnut St. (Branches of Charles M. Condon's banks were located in various areas of Kansas and Missouri).

Grattan Dalton, Bill Powers and Bick Broadwell were to rob the Condon Bank while Emmett and Bob Dalton held up the First National Bank..

(The First National bank was destroyed by fire some years later and the Condon Bank has suffered alterations - but it is now operating as the Coffeyville Chamber of Commerce building.)

 

Various aspects of the Condon Bank, Coffeyville - now known again as the Perkins Building, currently housing the Chamber of Commerce.

Located at the junction of Walnut and Union Sts.

 

Eye-witness and newspaper reports related that the Daltons had made an effort to disguise themselves with false beards but they had been recognised by  store-keeper Aleck McKenna (from site 21) who quickly gave the alarm. The many men in the streets immediately armed themselves with firearms from Isham's Hardware (at site 5), next to the National Bank, and opened fire as the outlaws attemped to get to their horses which were located near a barn in the laneway (at site 16).  The site had been selected by Grat Dalton - who wasn't the brightest of the brothers - and would prove to be a fatal choice.

Grat, Dick Broadwell and Bill Power had been delayed for several minutes by a ruse concerning the time lock on the Condon bank safe - and this gave the townspeople time to get as organised as an event like this would allow. The time lock had been off since 8.00 a.m. but Cashier Charles Ball convinced Gratt that it was not due to open until 9.30 a.m. - at that time it was already 9.40 a.m.

The battle that took place was all done with rifles and shotguns - the Dalton gang members did not have time to draw their revolvers from under their coats..

The details of the deadly fiasco can be read at The Daltons Gang's Last Raid 1892 - Refer: http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/daltons.htm

Four local men who had rushed to offer assistance, Lucius M. Baldwin* (b. 1869  - d. 1892) - the  26 y.o. head clerk from Read Brothers Store, shoemaker George Q. Cubine* (from site 2), school-teacher and town Marshall Charles T. Connelly* of the Coffeyville Police Department, and another shoemaker Charles Brown*, also died in the fusilade, and three others were wounded,.cashier Tom Ayres was shot under the eye but survived, Charles Gump was hit in the hand, and Isham's clerk, T. Arthur Reynolds, was hit by a ricochet supposedly fired by one of the gang.

George Cubine and Charles Brown were located in ambush near Rammel's Drug Store (at site 5) and, as Cubine prepared to fire, he was seen and shot dead and as Charles Brown grabbed for Cubine's rifle he was also shot dead.

However, it was the death of the well-liked and respected Coffeyville citizen, Lucius Baldwin, that was the most tragic.

The son of the local Methodist minister, he had left Read Brother's Store (at site 12) and had armed himself with a revolver from Isham's and then proceeded out the back door with a plan to sneak down the rear access alleyway behind the two buildings to try and stop the robbers.

Unfortunately for him, it was just as the desperate outlaws were making their dash for freedom with a hostage, bank teller William H. Shepard, who was forced out the bank's back door to draw any fire.

Seeing Shepard in front, and mistaking the outlaws for townspeople on a similar mission as himself, Baldwin advanced towards them and called out - and was immediately targetted and shot by a Winchester rifle blast from Bob Dalton which hit him just under the heart. He died 3 hours later from his wound.

 

 

Artist's impression of the laneway (from Walnut St.) with the Oil Tanker and dead horses. Vertical paling building is also shown in the Death Alley Postcard (photo from Maple St. end) showing the broken fence used as a hitching rail for the Gang's horses.

c.1892 (courtesy Kansas State Historical Society)

 

Various routes taken by the Daltons to get to their horses in Death Alley and the fatal route taken by murdered Marshall Charles Connelly.

 

Also chasing towards the alley from Ninth Street were Marshall Charles Connelly, liveryman John J. Kloehr (from site 11) and barber Carey Seaman (from site 6)..

The narrow alley was directly opposite Isham's Hardware and the outlaws from the Condon Bank had been fleeing away from a hail of gunfire from that establishment and both Bob and Grat had been wounded - and Bill Power was dying in the street.

Witnesses stated they could see the dust spurts flying from the Daltons' coats as the rifle bullets struck home. Some reports say that at least 11 riflemen were firing from the area near Isham's. A deadly volley by any standards. Many of these men were Civil War veterans and knew all about firearms.

Both outlaw groups reached the horses at about the same time as Marshall Connelly and his two men came through Lewark & Kloehr's Livery (at site 11) via Ninth Street.

In a desperate effort to find cover from the gunfire coming from both directions, Bob Dalton then shot the distraught horses hauling the Oil Tanker.

During the short violent gunfight that took place, Marshall Charles Connelly was killed, but Kloehr and Seaman had fought back.

The newspaper reports of the day state that John Kloehr managed to wound Bob again, this time  mortally, and he killed the previously wounded Grat Dalton outright with a shot that broke the outlaw's neck.. He also put a shot into Dick Broadwell, unknowingly fatally wounding him, but Broadwell managed to spur his horse out of the alley and he was later found about half-a-mile out of town - dead in a pool of blood - laying besides his grazing animal.

Later, Henry Howell Isham (b. 1836 - d. 1906) claimed he was the one who had fired the shot that had laid Bob Dalton low.

Bob had slumped to a sitting position on the sidewalk and had fired several wild shots without aiming. He was bleeding to death from his wounds and, as he weakened, he toppled over and onto the road.

 

Emmett, who had reached the alley unscathed, with the money-bags, saw Bob lying in the street still alive, and rode back through the blazing gunfire in an effort to pick him up. As he reached down, he was hit in three places by rifle-fire from Kloehr and then blown from the saddle by a shotgun blast into his back and shoulder fired by Carey Seaman.

Remarkably, he survived the 23 wounds and surrendered as Bob succumbed next to him after uttering a few words.

He was taken to Doctor Wells' office (above site 14) and for some time it was unsure if he would live or die.

The estimated $31,000 haul from both the banks was scattered in the street, but, a later accounting found that the total unaccounted for was only $18.02 - the Condon Bank lost $20.00 and the National actually made $1.98................

 

Emmett Dalton - 1931

 

Emmett Dalton was sentenced to life imprisonmen in Kansas State Prison.

He escaped the death penalty as he had not fired a shot - he was too busy carrying the loot.

Ironically, he was pardoned after 14 years suffering from ill-health, but he recovered sufficiently to become a best-selling author, real estate agent, actor and Western film adviser in Hollywood. He died in Los Angeles on 13th July 1937 age 66, mainly from the eventual deterioration caused by the wounds he had received on October 5th 1892 - on the day of the raid he had just turned 21.

 

Bill Dalton, who had not been part of the raid, came to Coffeyville to identify and claim his brothers' remains and personal property only to find that a 'media circus' was there to meet him.

The bodies, that had been piled in a heap in the old gaol after the shooting, were now laid out on public display, and a sightseeing crowd estimated at 2,000 had arrived within 24 hours after the shoot-out. Many of his brothers' outer clothes and their personal effects had been souvenired by Coffeyville residents. 

It is believed that the experience of seeing what had happened in Coffeyville was sufficient reason for Bill Dalton to seek out Bill Doolin and adopt an active life of crime that would end with his mysterious shooting death in 1894 at the hands of a drunken posse - who were sworn to secrecy after the event..

The bodies of Bob, Grat and Bill Power were buried in Coffeyville at Elmwood Cemetry and years later, Emmett Dalton visited the site and had a permanent stone marker placed on the grave.

 

Pic.1  - Bob and Grattan Dalton's bodies held up for display

Pic. 2  - Laid out and labelled for the photographers (note incorrect spelling of Grattan Dalton's name - and child peering through palings)

l. to. r. -Emmett Dalton swathed in bandages, Tim Evans (Bill Power), Bob Dalton. Grot (Grat) Dalton and Dick Broadwell.

 

Coffeyville 1892

Coffeyville Street Map 1892 - showing reference points of interest.

 

Murdered - Lucius M. Baldwin - Head Clerk at Read Brothers Store, Coffeyville

C.N. 20mm Read Brothers trade token - (usual obverse).

 Copper-Nickel 34mm 'Good for 1.00 (Dollar) in Merchandise' - (typical reverse for all denominations).

(Scans and Token courtesy Jerry Adams)

 

As one of the major stores in Coffeyville, Read Brothers General Merchants, had followed the examples of many other traders of the era and issued a series of tokens. The token shown above is a typical Copper-Nickel 20mm piece with Read Brothers, Coffeyville, Kansas as its obverse - and a 'Good for 5 (Cents) in Merchandise' reverse. It may have even been handled by the unfortunate Lucius Baldwin or one his contemporaries of 1892.

According to T.N.S. member Jerry Adams, he has, or knows about, other similar Read Brothers tokens that consist of:

25mm - 'Good for 10 in Merchandise'

29mm - 'Good for 25 in Merchandise'

31mm - 'Good for 50 in Merchandise'

34mm - 'Good for 100 in Merchandise'

 

Coffeyville 2006

The town of Coffeyville opened a 'Dalton Defenders Museum' some years ago where physical exhibits and photos accumulated at the time of the raid are on display.The acess alleyway, between Maple and Walnut Sts. is now named Death Alley, and it has altered considerably since 1892, to cater for the tourists. A  large mural graces one side of the laneway and red painted outline markers have been placed at appropriate spots where the outlaws fell.

The Elmwood Cemetry, the last resting place of Grattan Dalton, Bob Dalton and Bill Power, is also a mecca for tourists..

A set of replica 'bodies' is even laid out, in a similar way as shown in the photos taken after the shootout, and are located in the reconstructed Coffeyville Jailhouse - which was original located in Death Alley (at site 15).

Built in 1890 by Luther Perkins, the Condon Bank building was owned by First National Bank and then occupied by the Condon Bank in 1892.

Over the years, the building has been home to many offices and today is occupied by the Community Relations Department of the Coffeyville Area Chamber of Commerce. In 1992, the exterior was restored to appear as it did at the time of the attempted robbery through a cooperative effort of the City of Coffeyville, Coffeyville PRIDE, Condon Bank and a grant from the Kansas Heritage Trust Fund. The 80 or so bullet holes from the gunfight were lost in the restoration

The Condon National Bank occupied this building until 1953, when a real estate office moved in.

In the 1970s, the city purchased the building and, in 1997, the interior was renovated to its original state.

The old saying 'Crime Doesn't Pay' was true for the Dalton Gang - but I would think that the citizens of Coffeyville from 1892 onwards would beg to differ.

 

Main References:

The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Old West' - collated by Peter Newark (Andre Deutsch Publishing 1980)

The Wild Wild West - Refer: http://www.gunslinger.com/d-raid.htm

Eyewitness to History.com - Refer: http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/daltons.htm

Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia - Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emmett_Dalton  (Picture)

Spartacus School Net - Refer: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/WWdaltonR.htm  (Picture)

Flintlocks and Bibles. - Refer: http://www.cstone.net/~bobdf/index.html

Obituary of Lucius M. Baldwin. - Refer: http://skyways.lib.ks.us/genweb/montgome/baldwin_l.html

Obituary of Charles T. Connelly - Refer: http://skyways.lib.ks.us/genweb/montgome/connelly_c.html

Obituary of Charles Brown - Refer: http://skyways.lib.ks.us/kansas/genweb/montgome/brown_c.html

Obituary of George Q. Cubine - Refer: http://skyways.lib.ks.us/genweb/montgome/cubine_g.html

Coffeyville, Kansas - Tourism. - Refer: http://www.coffeyville.com/Tourism.htm

Keesee Family Tree. - Refer: http://www.brightok.net/~lwmac/keesee.htm

GenWeb Archives (Henry H. Isham) - Refer: http://skyways.lib.ks.us/kansas/kansas/genweb/archives/1918ks/bioi/ishamhh.html

 

 

 

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