Volume 8 Issue 9                           INTERNET EDITION                                  September 2003.

We trust that this issue of the Internet Edition will continue to provide interesting reading. The name of this Internet based newsletter is in keeping with the content so, bearing in mind our disclaimers, the Internet links selected are usually complimentary to the featured article in regard to: (1) illustrations and, (2) additional important information. Please also bear in mind that some Internet links are of a temporary nature.



Anyone who wishes to apply for membership to the non-profit making organization, and who is prepared to abide by the rules of the Society and its aim of promoting the study and enjoyment of the hobby of numismatics, should contact the following address for an application form and details of subscriptions: 


Tasmanian Numismatic Society.

G. P. O. Box 884J

Hobart. 7001.





We have been advised by our international member, Jerry Adams of Texas, that his very respected father-in-law, Bill Akers, passed away on Tuesday 19th August.

The Society Committee asked that the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' pass on members' condolences to Jerry's wife, Sandra 'Sandy', and her extended family at this sad time. Jerry advised us that Sandy's father was accorded a ceremonial service funeral, and that full honors were bestowed at the graveside by the naval honor guard.





After requests for information about newsletter articles published some years ago, it was decided to update the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter Index so that it would cover both versions of the publication. The Index was originally going to be designed as an 'internal-use' aid to locate relative information for the queries received by the 'Tasmanian Numismatist', however, we have commenced publishing it as a series in the Internet Edition, or we can make it available in complete form to members and readers with Internet access and a printer.

If any reader has a comment about the updated Index we would welcome it at: pwood@vision.net.au

The Index will compliment the 'Internet Edition' Archives section back until mid 1998 for those who wish to make individual searches through this version, and, by quoting volume and issue number, we could assist with an email response to queries about any other subjects that may be listed prior to that date.

The second instalment of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter Indices, covering years 1998 - 2000, is shown at the conclusion of this issue.





I suppose that anyone, who decides to start collecting coins, will eventually be confronted with all sorts of confusing information that falls under the heading of - 'need to know' -  if they wish to pursue the hobby in a determined way. Sometimes, the information overload is almost enough to deter the novice collector, who, up until then, is only aware of the availability and cost of putting his/her first few coins away.

Modern pieces that catch the eye, are often the catalyst that start the budding 'young' numismatists - of any age - down the never-ending path - but they soon realises that every general information text book on numismatics that they come across, has an initial section detailing the earliest history of the coin-making concept before it starts on the coinage that is currently available. In most cases, it is our pocket change we first start to collect and we really aren't that interested in anything else - until we are confronted with the fact that numismatics is a BIG hobby.

Without dwelling to long on the barter items of pre-history and in primitive cultures - which includes a completely diverse mixture of things like animals, knotted ropes, shells, lumps of metal or stone etc., most of the general texts go on to illustrate the evolution of the different sorts of ancient coins that are liable to be encountered; they tend to start with the beautiful Ancient Greek silver coinage before moving to the utilitarian Roman bronze coins as well as touching on the mysterious early shapes of cast silver and brass Ancient Chinese coinage.

The next types usually discussed, are the very early crude Celtic and European efforts made from hammered metals - mainly silver - and then the learning path gradually works through to the steam machine press and milling of coins of the late 1700's - the fore-runners of all modern issues.

By the time the novices have read all this they will, perhaps, already have formed an opinion that the older and more exotic coinages are way outside their expertise - and certainly outside the financial boundaries that need to be maintained and they will make what they consider is their only logical choice - that of collecting the modern issues of their own country - but what a wonderful world lies within their reach if they look beyond those first confused impressions.


Every collection, sooner than later, should have some representation of all the major facets of the hobby - be it medals, medallions, tokens - or ancient coinage.

The selection need not be great - just enough to be able to see the wonderful complexity within our hobby.

All confirmed coin hounds will find ways of learning about our hobby, be it through specialised and authorative books, by joining a reputable coin club and seeking out others with a common interest, or -  if you have dared to venture into the realms of the better known coin dealers - you will find that the wealth of actual knowledge about the commercial market - not just written information - is worth the effort. The market prices of so-called Ancient coins, in many instances, are a fraction of  what it costs to obtain many modern pieces.  Each one of these old coins is a part of actual history - it has passed through the hands of countless generations and, now, it may even be in yours - so take the time to look at it carefully, and ask a few questions, before you decide to put it back in the dealer's tray - it may well be within your price range - and it may have a real story to tell.


One of the first things that crosses the mind of a collector, who is starting to accumulate older coins, is where does 'old' finish and 'ancient' begin.

The earliest coinages were manufactured in the 7th Century B.C.and most numismatists - broadly speaking - consider coinages produced from then until the 7th Century A.D. as 'Ancient' - from then on they are 'Medieval' until about the 1600's - and finally they just becomes 'Old' until the 1800's, and that is when most of the texts start to refer to them as 'Modern' issues.

All this is by rule of thumb, of course, because the time-line edges are too blurred to make a definitive cut-off point between the eras.

Our common sense tells us that all coins will eventually become old then ancient, but, for the purposes of drawing a line that most numismatists recognise, it is that Ancient coinage must be, at least, a thousand years old. Most specialist collectors consider that the coinages of Greece and its settlements, Rome and its provinces, as well as the coins of Byzantine era are the pinnacle of the world of Ancients.

As with any purchase, a discerning numismatist must pay for quality and rarity when considering Ancients - and even those not quite that old - but we all quickly learn that, with every coinage, there are the 'cheapies'. Those are the ones that novice collectors should start with - if need be.

Select the best quality that can be had for the money available if you are serious - or, if you only want to satisfy your curiosity, get as many cheaper identifiable pieces as you can for the same money and then - when the bug bites (and it will) - you will have gone through the learning curve and had a bit of experience in identifying your accumulation.


As a 'magpie' collector who collects anything numismatic, I have had years - yes, years! -  of fun identifying, and then writing about, the few Old, Medieval and Ancient coins in my own collection or similar items from other numismatic collections. If you wish to read about some of the wonderful things that I found out about, as I  discovered the world of older coins, I have listed some of the previous articles for your perusal.

'The Aegis of Pontos.'  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/March2002.htm

'It's all Greek to Me!'  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/Jan2000.htm

'R - Stands for Romans!'  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/mar2000.htm

'The Man Who Loved Women (Women on Roman Coins).'  http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/Aug2001.htm

'The Harp and the Shamrock' - 5 Part series (English/Irish coinage). http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/april99.htm

'The Story Behind the Story (Chinese Cash)'. http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/March2002.htm


Do you want to know how much my really old coins cost me?

With the exception of the Chinese Cash, which were found with a metal detector in an old Tasmanian mining town, the other coins -some of which are listed below -  cost me a grand total of A$20.00 including postage (about US$15.00) as a space-filler job lot from well-known dealer, M.R. 'Bob' Roberts of Sydney.

Their condition ranged from mainly Very Poor (pretty lousy) to Good (not quite so lousy) - but there were a couple of Very Good (a bit easier to read) amongst them - and their value today would still probably be about the same as I paid for them - except I have had all that fun working out what they were.

The actual quantity, including a few duplicates or design variations amongst the Roman bronze Antoninianus and English sixpences, was 20 beat-up and barely identifiable coins.

One wafer-thin bronze actually crumbled into chunks after I had examined it and I was preparing it for storage  - but it is these little adventures that makes broad-based numismatics so intriguing - and, in the process I learnt for myself that  'Ancients' were not so frightening, nor expensive, after all!


(Illustrations are not to scale - those scans shown below are representative of similar coins in my own collection.)




               Aegis - Pontos                                         Follis - Constantine I                                    Testoon - Henry VIII                         Cash - Kang-hsi


Greece - Pontos

Aegis                   121-63 BC.


Antoninianus         270-275            Aurelian

                            276-282            Probus

                            286-305            Maximianus

Follis                    305-311            Galerius

                            308-324            Licinius

                            308-309            Constantine

AE3/4                   379-395            Constantius II

Centenionalis        348-354            Constantius II

A2                        379-395            Theodosius I


Silver Penny         1272-1307         Edward I

                            1327-1377         Edward III

Silver Testoon       1544-1547         Henry VIII        

Sixpence              1547                 Elizabeth I

Half Groat              1582-1600         Elizabeth I


Brass Cash           1644-1661         Shun-Chi Dynasty

                            1662-1722         Kang-Hsi Dynasty


It is rather interesting to note that the English Testoon featuring the effigy of King Henry VIII can rarely be found with a decent representation of the monarch's head.

As a young man, Henry was a tall, slim, handsome and very popular prince - with an eye for the ladies, of course - but hedonistic and prone to many excesses.

When he became king, his image became more tarnished as he aged very ungraciously - and because his coinage also became more debased to pay for his extravagences -  the public turned against him.

As a sign of their disrespect, some of his base silver coinage, including the Testoon which was produced between 1544 - 1547 - and even the posthumous issue from 1547 - 1571 - was used in a medieval gambling game called 'Shove-penny' which entailed sliding a coin along the ground to end up as close to a selected object as possible. The obvious choice of most common people who played the game, was to place the king's head side of the coin downwards on the pavement and thus scratch off the bloated face of the despised ruler. The shortage of quality Henry VIII Testoons means that the market value starts at approx A$250.00 for a Poor example and the top range condition of Very Fine is catalogued at A$3,500.00


References & Recommended reading:

Roman Coins and their Values by David R. Sear. 4th. Edition.

Seaby Standard Catalogue of British Coins - Coins of England and the United Kingdom. 25th. Edition.

Seaby Standard catalogue, Part 3 - Coins and Tokens of Ireland.

Greek Coinage by N.K. Rutter.

Collecting Greek Coins by David R. Sear.

Standard Catalog of World Coins by Chester L. Krause & Clifford Mishler, edited by Colin R. Bruce II.

Coincraft's Standard Catalogue of English & UK Coins 1066 to Date - Krause Publications.




Following the articles in our last issue about Aluminium coinage - "And ...at the other end of the Scale." - and the rather tongue-in-cheek - "Hows Your Euro-English?" -  a fellow member reminded me of the other rather despised metal that was used by Germany in coinage issued by the Military during both World Wars.

That metal was - Zinc.


This useful metal does not really deserve its 'poor cousin' rating because our Earth contains 92 naturally occuring elements - including the gases that make up our atmosphere - and out of those natural elements there are only 19 classified as being native elements - which in layman's terms  means they can be found in a pure form - and one of those is Zinc. (Read all about Zinc: http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Zn/key.html )

In fact, native Zinc is quite rare and most of the industrial metal we use is derived from other mineral mixes, such as Franklinite, Smithsonite and Sphalerite in the form of Zinc Oxide. All of these minerals are in the mid-hardness area of the Mohs scale and most are reasonably dense.

The oxides of Zinc and Manganese, which quite often co-exist in those minerals mentioned, are often alloyed with Iron to form various types of Steel.

The extracted Zinc, by itself, is rather brittle but, when it is alloyed with other metals in small quantities, it gains and gives a far greater tensile strength.


German Zinc Coins 1, 5, 10 Reichspfennig - Military issues 1940-45


Zinc was not only used in Germany, of course, but has been included in many other national coinages for the same reasons that Aluminiun was used - it is very hard-wearing and corrosion resistant so, as a matter of interest, I repeated the exercise of checking my own collection to see how many Zinc or Zinc alloy coins I currently had and, I must admit that I was surprised how many countries on my list had produced alloyed coinages that contained varying amounts of Zinc.

The biggest percentage of the silver-looking coins currently in circulation now contain between 2.5% - 5% Zinc alloyed with blends of Copper and/or Nickel but some coins contained just a minute percentage to act as a hardener. Others in my collection were Copper-plated Zinc or Zinc clad Steel - and there were those that were labeled as being just 'Zinc'.

Amongst the countries that produced just 'Zinc' coins were: Austria - Belgium - Denmark - Germany - Switzerland.

Those with substanial Zinc content included Iceland - Malaysia - Singapore - Sweden - U.S.A. and there are literally scores of other countries that regularly use small quantities of Zinc in their coins - so many, that I would suggest that, far from being the 'poor cousin', it seems that Zinc is an essential member of the family of metals that makes up our modern coinages.

Zinc tends to lose its original bright silvery shine as time goes by and, by chemical reaction, the surface oxidises and turns a dullish grey - but this does not mean that the essential features of the metal are affected. Most Zinc or Zinc alloy coins retain their original sharpness of design for long periods of time.



Austrian 1 Groschen Zinc Coins minted in 1947


It is a well-known fact that Zinc is also an essential mineral that our body needs to function properly. In the correct quantities it is the stuff that helps us grow and fight infection - and every cell in the body contains a few atoms of Zinc.

However, there is a newly discovered downside to using large quantities of Copper-plated Zinc in small coins - e.g. US cents.

A recent study, reported by the American Academy of Family Physicians, proved that Zinc reacts strongly with Hydrochloric Acid (Gastric acid) and they can be extremely dangerous, particularly if accidently swallowed by a small child, due to erosion effects to the stomach.

To be fair, some other coins or foreign objects can have a similar effect.  Moral - don't leave any coins - Zinc or otherwise - about for your child to eat!



U.S. Copper-plated Zinc Cent dated 2000.


The 'new' Zinc coins of the U.S.A. have, in fact, been around for a quite a few years.

Prior to the current One Cent coin, the U.S. Mint, like countless other coin producing nations including Australia, has previously played with Zinc - in small amounts.

Initially, the larger sized U.S. cents first released in 1793 were between 26 - 27mm. in size and made from Copper, and, with the exception of a few slight size changes on the way, they remained so until 1857.

However, in 1856, a small quantity of the smaller 19mm. cents were manufactured for Congress' approval which contained 88% Copper - 12% Nickel.

This sized coin was adopted by Congress and full mintings of the small Copper- Nickel cent began in 1857 and this metal composition remained unaltered until 1864.

In that year, the metal mixture altered again to 95% Copper - 5% Tin/Zinc alloy and it was not until 1943 that there was any other substantial change.

Due to severe Copper shortage during WWII, particularly the critical year of 1943, the U.S. Treasury Dept. issued a Zinc-coated Steel cent and, between 1944 - 1946, salvaged Brass cartridge cases were found to be an excellent medium for the coin.

"Brass, itself, is an alloy consisting mainly of Copper (over 50%) and Zinc, to which smaller amounts of other elements may be added. Elements such as tin, lead, silver and aluminum are added to copper in making brasses, depending upon the color, strength, machinability, corrosion resistance, and ductility desired. The mechanical properties, the tensile strength, and ductility of alloys in the copper-zinc system improve as the zinc content increases (up to 35%). The earliest brass, composed only of copper and zinc, was made by the Romans about 20 BC, and was later used to make some of their coins. By the 11th century, it was being widely produced in Western Europe. Brasses are important partly because they are cheaper than unalloyed copper. In addition, they are more susceptible (up to about 30% zinc) to the important machining process of cold forming."  Refer -  "Fred the Re-loader" - http://www.angelfire.com/ma/ZERMEL/caseheads.html

From 1947 until 1962, the Mint resumed manufacturing cents with the pre-war Copper with Tin/Zinc alloy until a  slight change in the composition saw the 5% Tin/Zinc alloy replaced with 5% Zinc.. This revised mixture remained at that level for the next 20 years.

In 1982, the metal composition of the U.S.Lincoln Memorial reverse Cent changed again - from 95% Copper - 5% Zinc, - to a  99.2% Zinc - 0.8% Copper alloyed core with a thin pure Copper-plating and has remained so until the present day. The total ratio of Zinc is currently 97.5% with 2.5% Copper.

The small cent One Coins can be differentiated also by weight - those minted between 1856 - 1909 were 4.67 grams, 1909 -1942 were 3.11 grams, the Zinc-coated Steel of 1943 was only 2.70 grams, 1944 - 1982 were back to 3.11grams - whilst the Zinc based coins from 1982 - to date are only 2.5 grams.



A Guide Book of United States Coins (The Official RED BOOK) - by R.S. Yeoman - Edited by Kenneth Bressett

Standard Catalog of World Coins - by Chester L. Krause & Clifford Mishler - Edited by Colin R. Bruce II.

Treasures of the Earth - The Minerals and Gemstones Collection. - published by Orbis - De Agostini Group.




Many of us tend to think of the United States of America when we hear the term 'Americans' but, in fact, the more correct term would be Northern Americans as there is another continent south of the U.S. called South America.

North America consists of three countries - Canada, The United States of America and Mexico - that are somewhat related in terms of their imported cultural heritages of English, French and Spanish. Of course, both Canada and more particularly the U.S. have also the polygot of other cultures - Irish, Jewish, Russian,German, the Nordic cultures plus hundreds of other minority groups who have sought refuge within the boundaries of these great nations. Mexico still has its strong ties with Spain.

The 12 countries of South America are also somewhat similar except their imported heritage was mainly based on Spanish and Portuguese origin -  plus a smattering of other cultures that have been absorbed over the centuries.Their political history however, in comparison to the North Americas is far more volatile and bloody - however, that is something for our readers to discover for themselves.

The 12 major independent countries on the South American continent are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela. There are also 3 territories: Fauklands Islands (U.K.), French Guiana (France), Galapogos Islands (Ecuador), and 2 dependencies - in the Pacific Ocean, is Easter Island (Chile) and in the South Atlantic Ocean, is South Georgia Is. (U.K.)

All of the 12 major countries as well as the Fauklands Islands - including the British dependency of South Georgia Island - and French Guiana issue their own distinctive coinage and currency notes whilst the Galapogos and Easter Islands rely on the currency of their motherlands.

Refer: http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/sa.htm


In this issue, we will present a brief numismatic history of the major independent countries of the region, namely Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile and Colombia.

In our next issue, we will continue on with Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela.

Please note illustrations are not to scale and some scans shown are representative of similar dated coins and notes in my own collection.




Area: 1,068,301 sq. miles (2,766,889 sq. kms)

Capital: Buenos Aires

The early provinces of Argentina, which was a Spanish colony until 1810, relied on their old coinage system of Decimos, Soles, Reales and Escudos until decimal coinage in the form of Pesos, Centavos and Argentinos was introduced in 1881 when the finacial affairs of the Republic of Argentina were consolidated.

However, with monetary reforms taking place in 1970, 1984, 1985 - which heralded the introduction of Australes - and again, in 1992 - which virtually saw the demise of Australes and a reversion to Centavos and Pesos - the road has been far from smooth and it has been decidely downhill most of the time.

Like other emerging nations, the independant Argentina of July 9th 1816, initially relied on a mulitude of sources to provide monetary organisation within the many provences until such time as a central system could be organised.

Banknotes, Treasury and Customs notes were issued by the central Government authorities in Buenos Aires as well as private banks and provincial authorities for many years until 1884, when the first issue of Republica Argentina notes from the Banco Nacional made their appearance. Some provinces were still continuing to issue their own Letters of Credit and similar type currency notes into the mid 1980's - some with expiry dates as late as 1991.

Unfortunately, rampant inflation has been the keynote of Argentinian currency and there is no end in sight.

The most historically notable military figures to still periodically feature on Argentinian banknotes are Gen. José de San Martin (1788 - 1850) and General Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano who became life-long friends as well as heroes of the Republic.

Argentinian born, José de San Martin is known in South America as the Liberator of Argentina, Chile and Peru. After his young wife died he briefly returned to Argentina to erect her tombstone. He died in France after becoming self-exiled - by choice - and having become disillusioned with the continuing turmoil in his home country.

Refer: http://pachami.com/English/ressanmE.htm



Generals J. de San Martin and Manuel Belgrano



    General José de San Martin on 1983 issue - Flag Monument at Rosario reverse.    Manuel Belgrano on 1974 issue - Iguazu waterfalls reverse.


Argentine Copper 2 Centavo with Liberty head

The early coinage usually featured a radiant Sun face obverse with the Argentinian coat-of-arms as a reverse. The female Liberty head or cap was also strongly featured on earlier Argentinian coinage. Both types of designs are still continuing to appear amongst the more politically oriented modern Republican coinages - as is the effigy of Gen.San Martin. 


Exchange rates at the time of writing showed that 1 Argentinian Peso = A$0.52 (US$0.34)



Area: 424,163 sq. miles (1,098,581 sq. kms)

Capital: La Paz

Bolivia was once known as Upper Peru but it was was renamed Bolivia in honour of its dictator, Simon Bolívar.

From 1809, Peru had fought actively to free itself from the domination of Spain and, under the leadership of Simon Bolívar (1783 - 1830), it eventually succeeded. Like Jose de San Martin, Bolívar earned the title of liberator of Bolivia, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. He is called El Liberator (The Liberator) and the "George Washington" of South America - and at one time he was dictator of two countries and President of another - a truly remarkable man.

Simon Bolívar

Refer: http://www.bolivarmo.com/history.htm

The coinage system was originally based on the silver Spanish Reales and gold Escudos of Spain but several series of silver Soles, gold Scudos were issued in 1827 soon after the Republic was formed. In 1864, decimal coinage was introduced in the form of copper Centecimos, which were later renamed Centavos, and copper and silver Bolivanos. The first major monetary reform occured in 1965 and this was followed by another massive one in 1987.

The metal composition of the Bolivian coinage at that time was reduced from copper and silver to Copper-clad Steel, Nickel-clad Steel and Stainless Steel with only the very high denominations in Bolivanos remaining as sterling silver or .933 silver coins.

The early coinage featured the bust effigy of Simon Bolívar, as a reverse, usually surrounded with the legend: Libre Por La Constitucion, and the obverse was depicted as Llamas resting under a palm-like fronded tree. This obverse was refined in the 1830's to show a single Llama, a radiant sun, the mountain of Potosi,  and a tree surrounded by a cartouche with an eagle atop, and an arrangement of flags fanned out behind the design.

This obverse - with occasional variations - is still in general use.


Bolivian One Bolivano Coin featuring the arrangement of flags




                  Simon Bolívar on 1928 issue - Bolivian Arms reverse               Colonel Alberto Natusch Busch on 1962 issue - Mt. Potosi reverse


Bolivia had been under the control of Spain until August 6th.1825 and, like Argentina, it relied on private or provincial banks for its monetary organisation in the early days. Unfortunately, the paper currency also followed the same inflationary trend as Argentina and again, this is a nation that has suffered much from the political instability of the region.

Since 1825, the country has had more than 60 revolutions, 78 presidents or dictators and, at least, 11 constitutions and its currency has suffered immensely.

On 24th January 1867, Bolivian dictator, General Mariano Melgarejo, established the Banco Boliviano - which eventually became the Banco Nacion Boliviana in 1872.

During this time, the private banks continued to issue notes drawn on their assets but eventually the nation rationalised its monetary system and, in 1929,  the Banco Nacion notes were over-printed with the words Banco Central de Bolivia when the new central bank was opened.

The early banknotes were typical of the time in that they featured many allegorical figures - such as Mercury - but in 1928 a whole series of notes depicted Simon Bolivar. The historical liberator remained a popular depiction on the currency of Bolivia until the early 1960's.

Born in 1933, Colonel Alberto Natusch Busch - a Bolivian military hero - was featured on only one banknote issue in 1962 and he was, even for a very short time in 1979, the president of the republic until he was deposed. From 1981, with the rampant inflation of the time, the effigies portrayed on Bolivian notes started to change as regularly as various monetary decrees were enacted.

In 1986 the reforms started to bite and the currency stabilised somewhat - but Bolivar has yet to be seen on the country's notes once more.


Exchange rates at the time of writing showed that 1 Bolivian Boliviano = A$0.20 (US$0.13)



Area: 3,286,487 sq. miles (8,511,965 sq. kms)

Capital: Brasilia

The largest country in size and population on the South American continent is Brazil.  Originally a royal colony of Portugal, and with a land mass of 3,286,487 sq. miles, Brazil is over 4 times as big as Argentina and 7 - 8 times as big as Peru, Columbia or Bolivia, which are the other largest countries on the continent.

It has nearly 100,000,000 people compared to Argentina with nearly 25,000,000, Bolivia with only about 5,000,000, Chile with approx. 9,000,000 and Columbia with its 29,000,000.

During the Napoleonic Wars, Dom Joao VI had established a seat of Portuguese government at Rio de Janeiro but, when he returned to Portugal, his son Dom Pedro the First, declared Brazil's independence - with himself as Emperor - on Sept. 7th. 1822.

His son, Dom Pedro II, continued on as Emperor at the death of his father but, in 1889, the Empire of Brazil became a republic  A change in the constitution in 1946 saw the formation of a new Federated Republic. However a coup occurring in 1964, with a military dictatorship, lasted until March 15th. 1985 when civilian government was restored and another constitution was adopted in 1988.

The early coinage of Brazil consisted of Portuguese Reis from low denominations in Copper working through Silver to Gold for the higher amounts and featuring the effigies and coats-of-arms of the rulers of Portugal. The Reis monetary system had been continued by Pedro I, and his heir Pedro II, and remained in force until the first monetary reform in 1942 when a system of Centavos and Cruzeiros was implemented. The subsequent reforms in 1967, 1986, 1989,1990 had little effect on the crippling inflation rates and except for changing the coinage names occasionally e.g Novos Cruzados, Cruzeiros Reals and finally back to Real or Reais, things appeared to remain much as usual.The composition of lesser denominations from Bronze and Copper-Nickel in 1901 through the gamut of Aluminium, Aluminium-Bronze, Copper-Nickel and Stainless-Steel continues to this day. Silver was reserved for  the high denominations of each monetary reform period.

Refer: http://www.ecobrazil.com/currency.asp



                    Brazilian Stainless Steel One Centavo 1989             Brazilian 100 Cruzeiros note with invertible effigy D. de Caxias and battle.



 Dom Pedro II effigy on 1961 issue - allegorical 'Culture' figure reverse.     Baroa do Rio Branco effigy on 1950 isue - 'Conquest of the Amazons' reverse.


The early empirical banknotes of Brazil followed the familiar pattern of being issued, initially, by provincial and private banks and featuring allegorical figures and scenes. The major effigy featured between the early 1870's and the start of the Republic in 1889 was that of Dom Pedro II, but it wasn't until 1943 and 1949, that 'royal' portraits - that of Dom Pedro I and Princess Isabel - re-appeared on the Brazilian currency.

Between 1960 - 1981, effigies of Dom Pedro II, Princess Isabel and even Dom Joao VI were again featured, but current issues are predominately featuring notable public figures and the Monetary reform of 1994 saw the allegorical effigy of a stone sculpture of the Republic as the main theme.

Additional notes re: Dom Pedro II and the Duke of Caxias -  http://www.geocities.com/ulysses_costa/leaders.html

Additional notes re: The Baron of Rio Branco - http://www.brazil.org.uk/page.php?cid=395&offset=1


Exchange rates at the time of writing showed that 1 Brazilian Real = A$0.51 (US$0.33)



Area:292,257 sq. miles (756,945 sq. kms)

Capital: Santiago

At this time in its history, Chile is again suffering disastrous monetary problems with no solution in sight.

Like the other countries in South America, Chile was left to its own devices when the Napoleonic Wars in Europe drew the major colonial powers into the conflict.

The country declared its independence from Spain on Sept. 18th. 1810, but it took another 7 - 8 years for that independence to be secured.

The two main leaders of the struggling nation-to-be were Bernardo O'Higgins and Gen. José de San Martin.

O'Higgins was elected President of Chile and was responsible for many social and judicial reforms but he was eventually forced from office and sought exile in Peru, where he spent the rest of his life.

The early coinage was that inherited from Spain - Reales and Escudos and this continued  into the Republican era but, in 1835,Chile adopted the popular decimal system and started to produce copper, copper-nickel and silver Centavos, Decimos and Pesos.

In 1962, the first monetary reform occured and this saw the metal composition of all of the Chilean range of coins change to Aluminium, Aluminium-Bronze, Copper-Nickel and Nickel-Brass. The second reform came in 1975 and, with the exception of a commemorative 3rd Anniversary of the 'new' government series of a 10 and 100 Peso silver plus a 50 and  500 Peso gold issue, the coinage composition remained amongst the not-so-noble metals.

Chile did produce the 1000 Pesos commemorative Ibero-American silver coin in 1991 and the 2000 silver Pesos to celebrate the 250th Anniversary of the Mint and there have been several silver and gold bullion issues during the late 1970's and early 1980's.


Chilean 50 Centimos Copper-Nickel 1975 (Second Reform)



            Captain Arturo Prat effigy on 1960 10 Cent.O/P 100 Pesos note         Pedro de Valdivia effigy on 1992 issue - Founding of Santiago reverse.


The early paper currency was provided by the private and provincial banks and in 1881 the first of the Republica de Chile emissions started to appear.

During 1898, many of the previous note issues of the private or provincial banks were overstamped with the words - Emision Fiscal and an authorisation date - to make them legal for use. In all, 12 authorised provisional issues were made during that year - validated with various handstamps.

Between 1918 - 1924 regular Republica de Chile notes were again issued until, in 1925, the new Banco Central de Chile was opened for business and this organisation has remained the currency issuing authority until this day.Several provisional issues were made during this time, the first in 1927 - 1929 and another in 1932, yet another in 1942 -1943 as well as 1960. There have been notable devaluations of the banknotes in keeping with the monetary reforms and the resurrection  of the term 'escudos' occured in 1960 and stayed until the 1975 reform brought back the Peso as the prime unit.

Additional note re: Captain Arturo Prat - http://www.ifrance.com/botiba/chile.htm


Exchange rates at the time of writing showed that 1000 Chilean Pesos = A$2.16 (US$1.40)




Area: 439,734 sq.miles (1,138,914 sq. kms)

Capital: Bogata

The nation of Colombia was not always known by that name. Until 1861 it was known as Nueva (New) Granada. The northern area was one of the first visited by Spanish navigators in about 1510 when the first European settlement was established at Darien in nearby Panama. Nueva Granada was made an official Spanish colony in 1549, but an initial settlement had been made at Santa Marta as early as 1525.

Like every other South American country, Nueva Granada was effected by the withdrawal of the Spanish heirarchy during the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. Independence was declared in 1813 but like every other country on the continent it took time to secure.  It was a bloody and turbulent time and many fierce battles were fought between the Royalists and the Patriots. By 1819, the famous Simon Bolívar united Nueva Granada, Venezuela, Panama and Ecuador into a republic known as Gran Colombia.  A short-lived coinage issue by the province of Cundinamarca, between 1820 - 1823 under the title Republica de Colombia was the first to bear that name and a confusing period saw provisional issues from the United Provinces of Nueva Granada as well. By 1821, the consolidation under the one banner was starting to take place and this continued until 1837 when the Republic of Nueva Granada was formed and issued silver Reales and gold Pesos.

Venezuela had withdrawn from the republic in 1829, Ecuador decided to leave in 1830 and, finally, Panama in 1903 - to leave the country as it now stands.

After vainly trying to hold the federation of Gran Colombia together, Simon Bolívar accepted political defeat and headed into self-imposed exile. He had refused to accept any of the financial rewards that had been offered to him and he was alone and penniless when he died of tuberculosis at Santa Marta on the coast of northern Colombia.

As with any of the Spanish colonies, Nueva Granada had existed with the early copper and silver Reales and Gold Escudos of the mother country and continued with the system but had introduced the term Pesos in the first few years as a republic.

The silver content of some coins at that time varied from as low as .583 through a whole range of percentages up to .900

When the Estados Unidos de Colombia (United States of Colombia) was formed in 1861 it only took another year for the name on the coinage to alter again, however, the quality of the coinage remained reasonably high although there was a slight reduction in the silver content of some coins back down to .500 - with some minting inconsistencies.

In 1874, in keeping with other nations in South America, Colombia changed over to a decimal currency system of copper, copper-nickel and silver Centavos.

The current title of Republica de Colombia was officially launched on the modern coinage after 1886 and by the early 1900's the quality of the coinage started to reflect the use of modern alloyed metal compositions. Copper-nickel, Copper-Zinc-Nickel, Copper-Aluminium-Nickel, Stainless-Steel, Copper-clad Steel, Brass, Nickel-clad Steel, and Aluminium- Bronze have all made appearances in the lower denominations.Silver and Gold are reserved for commemorative or high value issues.


Colombian 5 Pesos Copper-Aluminium-Nickel coin


    General Jose Maria Cordoba (Hero of Quito) on 1953 5 Peso note                      Banco de la Republica at Bogata - reverse.


The use of banknotes that had been issued by private banks or provincial authorities followed the same general trend as the rest of South America, indeed of most other countries of the world, at that time. The monetary turmoil in Colombia started in 1875 and after the civil war period of 1899 - 1902 the chaos grew even worse. The situation, which was caused by the number of issuing authorities (about 100 are listed) continued until 1909 when the El Banco Nacional de la Republic de Colombia was renamed Republica de Colombia and things stabilised. In 1915 a short series of Pesos Oro (equivalent to Gold Certificates) was issued and in 1922 an overstamped Treasury Bond Provisional issue heralded the opening of the newest bank.

In 1923, a provisional issue of Pesos Oro under the new name of El Banco de la Republica was released followed by regular issues until 1928.

The first Pesos Plata (Silver Certificates) made their appearance in 1931- 1932 and from then until 1941 they were issued alongside the Pesos Oro; in that year, the Pesos Oro again became the predominate monetary denominational name and remained so until the mid 1990's

There have not been any monetary reforms, as such, in Colombia - and that is reflected in the value of the Peso on today's market.

Additional notes re: General Jose Maria Cordoba - http://www.magweb.com/sample/seld/s72quit.htm


Exchange rates at the time of writing showed that 1000 Colombian Pesos = A$0.54 (US$0.34)



Internet references - as detailed.

Standard Catalog of World Coins 1901 - Present - by Chester L. Krause & Clifford Mishler - Edited by Colin R. Bruce II.

Standard Catalog of World Coins 1801 - 1994 by Chester L. Krause & Clifford Mishler - Edited by Colin R. Bruce II.

Standard Catalog of World Coins 1701 - 1800 by Chester L. Krause & Clifford Mishler - Edited by Colin R. Bruce II.

Standard Catalog of World Paper Money - Specialised Issues (Vol.1) by Albert Pick. - Editors Neil Shafer and Colin R. Bruce II

Standard Catalog of World Paper Money - General Issues (Vol.2) by Albert Pick. - Editors Neil Shafer and Colin R. Bruce II

Standard Catolog of World Paper Money - Modern Issues (Vol.3) Edited by Colin R. Bruce II and George S. Cuhaj

Life World Library - Time-Life Books


Additional coin scans.

Refer:  Falmouth Stamp & Coin - http://www.coinsandstamps.com/


Additional banknote scans.

British Guiana: Ponterio & Associates Inc. - http://www.ponterio.com/index.html

From time to time, we find a great commercial site that not only has a full range of quality numismatic 'goodies' on offer for our readers but who are also generous with their permission for us to use the information and photos that they have worked hard to accumulate when we need to furnish these things for our articles.

Ponterio & Associates are such a firm. We have no hesitation in continuing to have them placed on our recommended dealer site. They can be contacted at:

Ponterio & Associates, Inc.
1818 Robinson Avenue
San Diego, California 92103

Ph: (619) 299-0400  or (800) 854-2888  - Fax (619) 299-6952

Auction bidding: bids@ponterio.com  All other inquiries: coins@ponterio.com


Guyana and Suriname: Audrius Tomonis' Banknotes.com - http://www.banknotes.com/

We have mentioned Audrius Tomonis in our newsletter on previous occasions and suggest our readers peruse his great site for all sorts of interesting information and also items that are currently on offer. Highly recommended North Carolina dealer.

A. Tomonis

P.O.Box 16692

Asheville, NC 28816

Ph: (828) 255 4666  Email: auto@banknotes.com




DISCLAIMER: All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned. 

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ (Internet Edition) takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers. 



Each month, as regular as clockwork, we receive an update of available good quality coins from a commercial dealer in Spain who is a member of the SOCIO DE NUMERO ASOCIACION NUMISMATICA ESPAÑOLA. The site is now available online and we have been asked if we could add Higinio Escaso's name to our list.

As we do not maintain a suppliers 'list', as such, we have supplied the URL for readers perusal if they feel inclined to visit this bi-lingual site - Coleccionismo Web. http://es.geocities.com/hjescaso/



We have received another message from a regular dealer, Mike Vosper in U.K., that may be of interest to some readers

"Just writing to let you know that we have been updating the Ancient Coin Web Site on a fairly regular basis and will be continuing to do so.
May we also remind you that we have recently launched a new scheme which has been both beneficial to our clients as well as ourselves. If you have coins
to sell, would like to obtain retail prices on a commission basis and you would like to know more:-

Again if you have any specific wants that aren't mentioned please email us! Also if you have any duplicates or anything that you think that may be of
interest to us please email, phone or fax because we are always on the lookout for new material! "
Regards, Mike & Viv
email: mike.vosper@vosper4coins.co.uk


Tel/Fax +44 (0) 1842 828292


Dear Sir, Please change my email address to bruchis2@yahoo.co.uk.

Thank you very much. Best regards,

Andris Brutans, Latvia




The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, or hand delivered, directly to members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions.

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ (Internet Edition) has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented on a monthly basis by the member-provider with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics.  All matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the  ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society and the Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) abides by the same basic guidelines suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter.

Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society or the Editor. 

Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.


The Editor,

Tasmanian Numismatist (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.


Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

Email: pwood@vision.net.au


DISCLAIMER: All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned. 

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ (Internet Edition) takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers.  Deadline for any literary contributions or amendment to copy is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication. The contents of this Internet newsletter, and all prior issues, are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. 

This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article. Explicit permission from the author or the Editor of the  ‘Tasmanian Numismatist ’(Internet Edition) is required prior to use of that material.




Tasmanian Numismatist

INDEX UPDATE 1998 - 2000.

In a memorandum issued by the Executive Committee in May 1995, was a notification that the format for the Society’s newsletter was to be changed and that the approved name for the publication was to be the ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’.
The following is an update of information first compiled in August 1998, and details the most topical items and articles published, in addition to the usual Society general notices, from September 1995 until the current issue. Several regularly published items are:

Society Snippets –  a gossipy news column, Society information, short articles by members, for members or about members.

Society Notes – items that concern the everyday business and functions of our membership.

Around the Traps – local or national numismatic commercial intelligence.

From the Columns – news items of interest from magazines, numismatic newsletters etc.

Wanted Known – requests from members or readers for contact with others with similar numismatic interests.

Internet News – specific items sourced from local, national and international Internet numismatic bodies or individual contacts.

Blast from the Past – items that made the headlines years ago – mainly sourced from our Society’s Journals.

The Story Behind the Story – articles that expand on details of a previously published short item.


All items and articles designated with the author’s name highlighted are copyright – all others were written or compiled by the current Editor and permission should be sought prior to any form of republishing.


Volume 3 -1998.

Issue 1.

Starting Out - Jerry Remick review of a Beginner’s Book

Society Notes – various notifications of importance to Society members.


Issue 2.

Silver Crowns of the World – an in-depth study by T.W. ‘Bill’ Holmes.

Internet News.

Society Notes.

Issue 3.


Bimetallic World Coinages – the advent of modern bi-metallic coinages.

Eritrean Banknotes – new releases reviewed by Jerry Remick.

Society Notes.

Issue 4.

Early Colonial Coinages (Australian-America-Canada).

Commemorative Medalets & Medallions, Part 1 – by T.W. ‘Bill’ Holmes.

Internet News.

Wanted Known - request from George Shea for Pub Spinners.

Issue 5.

Early Colonial Coinages, Part 2.

Commemorative Medalets & Medallions, Part 2 - by T.W. ‘Bill’ Holmes.

The Titanic Medal.

Sudbury’s 2 Billion Year old Coin – by Serge Pelletier

Obituary – James L. Betton III

Issue 6.

New Meeting Place.

Reminiscences of Sydney 1998 – from Ian McConnelly.

Society Notes.

Internet News.

Issue 7.

Around the Traps – local news.

From the Columns – numismatic magazine tit-bits.

Blast from the past – ‘Indian Rupees’ - article by the late Dorothy Lockwood.

Internet News.

The controversial photo and report of the Australian Lighthorse Charge at Beersheba.

Issue 8.

T.N.S. 35th. Anniversary.

Around the traps – local news.

From the Columns – numismatic magazine tit-bits.

The Silver Kangaroo Series to date.

Internet News.

Jerry Remick’s Book Review.

Issue 9.

Tasmanian Numismatist Policy Statement.

Around the Traps – local news.

From the Columns – numismatic magazine tit-bits.

‘Un Vrai Dur A Cuire’(A Truth is Hard to Cook) – a drastic ‘cure’ for counterfeiters.

 Internet News.

Sacajawea with Lewis and Clark – why a Native American woman was honoured on a coin.  

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.

Society Notes.


Issue 10.  

Society Snippets – new column covering Society news.

Around the Traps – local news.

From the Columns – numismatic magazine tit-bits.

Internet News.

Blasts from the Past.

How are we going?– editorial including Index to date.

The Wreck of the Gilt Dragon.

T.N.S. Mini Survey.

Issue 11.

Society Snippets – Society news.

From the Columns - numismatic magazine tit-bits.

Blast from the past – Hobart Coin fair of 1991.

Initial Editor’s contributor’s award (Jerry Remick).

Around the Traps.

Internet News.

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.

The Story Behind the Story – Tasmanian Treasure Trove (Chinese Cash).

Issue 12.

Society Snippets - Northern Meeting Report.

Around the Traps.

From the Columns.

The Unusual, Odd and Weird.

Internet News.

The Story Behind the Story – ‘Operation Bernhard’.


Volume 4 - 1999.

Issue 1.

Society Snippets.

Lockwood Medal 1998. (Phil Nichols & Graeme Petterwood).

Editor’s note re publication costs.

Internet News.

From the Columns.

The Story Behind the Story – ‘The Cowra Breakout’.

New U.S.$20.00  Currency design.

Issue 2.

Society Snippets.

Holiday Happenings.

Evandale Medallions.

Internet News.

Euro Coinage.

From the Columns.

Editor’s Book Review – Millet Convict Love Tokens.

Duchy of Avram revisited.

Wanted Known column – Olympic Pins.

The Story Behind the Story - Harry Murray, V.C.  

How Did We Ever Do Without … ?(The Computer).

Pointers from an Old Newcomer. – by Ben Guild (Anchorage Coin Club).

Issue 3.

Society Snippets - A.G.M. 1999.

Around the Traps.

From the Columns.

Internet News.

The Story Behind the Story - Gen. George Meade and the reason for his US$1000 note.


Issue 4.

Society Snippets.

The Sicca Rupee in V.D.L.-  by Roger McNeice.  

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.

Internet News.

Around the Traps – Welcome Miss Lily McDonald.

From the Columns.

Bob’s bits – a list of available specials from M.R. ‘Bob’ Roberts.

The Harp and the Shamrock, Part 1. – an in depth study of early Irish coinage.

Issue 5.

Society Snippets.

Internet News.

Jerry Remick’s Book Review.

From the Columns.

Around the traps.

Profile – Serge Pelletier.

‘They Always Get their Man’ - R.C.M.P.by Dominic Labbé

The Harp and the Shamrock, Part 2. – an in depth study of early Irish coinage.


Issue 6.

Society Snippets.

Around the Traps.

Internet News - The New Euro Coin Designs and Bi-Metallics from Birmingham.

From the Columns.

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.

Bob’s Bits.


Issue 7.

Society Snippets.

Around the Traps.

From the Columns.

Internet News.

The Hudson Bay Company Tokens.

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.

The Harp and the Shamrock, Part 3. – an in depth study of early Irish coinage.

Congratulations – Kevin Duffy AO and Max Stern AM.

Issue 8.

Society Snippets.

Around the Traps.

Jerry Remick’s Book Review.

Internet News.

The Shamrock and the Harp, Part 4. – an in depth study of early Irish coinage.


Issue 9.

The Faces of the Other America. (Confederate Currency.) – by Graeme & Paul Petterwood.

Society Snippets.

Lockwood Medal 1999 (Dr. John Chapman).

Internet News.

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.

Graffiti on Bank-notes.


Issue 10.

Index Update 1999.

Editor’s Awards requirements.

Internet News.

Society Snippets.

‘Do Svidanyia, Nikolai’ Czarist currency.


Issue 11.

Society Snippets.

Olympic Badge and Pin Swap Fest.

Editor’s Awards 2000 – Joint recipients, Dominic Labbé and Jerry Remick.

‘Canadian Blacksmith Tokens’ – by Dominic Labbé.

Internet News – Medal of Honor Citation story.


Issue 12.

Society Snippets.

Around the Traps. ‘The King of Iceland and Other Observations’ – by Jørgen Sømod.

Internet News.

Military Medals – Crimean Veteran story supplied by Claude Shegog.                      


Volume 5 – 2000.

Issue 1.

Society Snippets.

‘It’s all Greek to Me’ – early Greek coinage.

Around the Traps.

From the Columns.

Internet News.

Blast from the Past – report of the 1969 Dinner and other local news of the time.

Society Notes.


Issue 2.

A.G.M 2000 reminder.

December 1999 BBQ reminiscences.

Internet News.

The Story behind the Story – ‘The King of Iceland’ – compiled by Graeme D. Nossiter.

Society Notes.


Issue 3.

A.G.M. Minutes and election of officers.

Lockwood Medal (Dr. John Chapman)

Condolences – Mrs. Patricia Roberts.

Internet News.

From the Columns.

Can You Help? – Tasmanian Museum request for pre-decimal coinage for their Money Room.

‘R –Stands for Romans!’ -  early Roman coinage.

Newsletter advertising discussion.


Issue 4.

Obituaries – John Szigetvary and John Fulton.

Society Snippets. 

Tasmanian Tokens ‘Copies, Counterfeits & Tourist Gimmicks’ – by Roger McNeice.

T.N.S. President’s Trip to ICOMON meeting – brief report.

Around the Traps.

Internet News.

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.

Editor’s review of Greg McDonald’s 7th Edition catalogue.

Index Update.


Issue 5.

‘The Importance of Money Museum Conferences’ by Roger McNeice.

Internet News.

‘Lots of Sand – Not Much Gold’ – a comparison of early U.S. and Australian gold discoveries.

From the Columns.


Issue 6.

‘To Be or Not to Be’ – 1999 variety 10 cent coin discovered by Dr. P.J. Briddon.

Internet News.

The North-West Passage.

Modern Plastic Banknote Grading as seen by the Editor.

Canadian Municipal Trade Tokens.

The Millennium  coin with the Sun in an impossible position.

Money Matters at a personal level.


Issue 7.

June Postscripts -  a few catch-up items from local newspapers.

Internet News.

U.S. Banknote features.

From the Columns – dud currency warning.

‘Perspective’ – an overview of the eBay phenomena in the numismatic community. – by Jerry Adams. Internet News.

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.

Blast from the Past – remembering Arthur and Dorothy Lockwood.


Issue 8.

In the pipeline – plans for 2001.

Internet News.

‘Wet Paint’ – the danger of allowing coins to be randomly touched.

TNS Bookroom  - available TNS medallion stocks.

From the Columns.

‘Of Ducals and Avrams’ – the currency of the ‘Duchy of Avram’

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.

Varieties, Part 1 – by T.W. ‘Bill’ Holmes.


Issue 9.

Internet News.

Davidians and Branch Davidians – by Jerry Adams.

From the Columns.

TNS Bookroom – available remaining stocks of TNS Journals.

‘Of Ducals and Avrams’ – – the currency of the ‘Duchy of Avram’ (New release 2000 ducals).

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.

Varieties, Part 2 – by T.W. ‘Bill’ Holmes.


Issue 10.

Bereavement – Tom Hanley.

Society Snippets.

Internet News.

The Changing Face of Currency in Europe – by Larry Nakata  (Anchorage Coin Club).

Around the Traps.

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.

Editor’s Note – membership drive.


Issue 11.

Society Snippets.

Around the Traps.

Internet News – including a ‘Thank You’ from the General Meade Society of Philadelphia.

Varieties – members contribution to the discussions.

Varieties, Part 3 – by T.W. ‘Bill’ Holmes.

‘When Money Looked Like Money!’ reflections on how important it looked.


Issue 12.

Society Snippets – including advice that newsletter frequency would be altered.

Editor’s Award 2001 (T.W. ‘Bill’ Holmes and Jerry Remick).

Internet News.

From the Columns.

Editor’s Review – Article ‘An Odyssey of Discovery – by Ian McConnelly.

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.


Due to cost factors beyond the reasonable financial scope of the Society – including the imposition of the G.S.T. – it was decided at a special Committee meeting in December 2000 to revert back to a bi-monthly publication. The monthly Internet Edition version would not be affected.

Details of the  contents of both editions will be shown separately although many items are duplicated .                       To be continued.