Index For This Month:
TASMANIAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY INC.
The Secretary,Our members meet at 8.00 p.m. on the 2nd.Thursday of each month (except January), in our social rooms at the Masonic Club, 181 Macquarie St., Hobart. Tasmania. Visitors are always welcome!
Tasmanian Numismatic Society, Inc.
G.P.O. Box 884J.
Hobart. Tasmania. 7001.
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All opinions expressed in material published in this newsletter are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society Inc.’ or the Editor.
It was a very pleasant surprise for me to receive a small parcel during the last month that included a few coins and tokens from Jerry Adams of Keller, Texas (T.N.S. Member) - who can be contacted at: email@example.com
unusual token needed an explanation - it was made of 31mm diameter stiff
white cardboard with black printing. The obverse inscription read - Mt.
Carmel Center, Waco, 1938 Texas - the words forming the surround, with
a front-facing standing full-maned lion printed in the centre. The reverse
showed a small clock - with hands pointing to eleven o'clock - placed directly
under the centralised denomination of 50 cents and apparently replacing
the 13th (and lower-most) five-pointed star used in the surround
Jerry's email response is as follows:
MT.CARMEL CENTER TOKEN.
"As you may remember, Mount Carmel in Waco, Texas, was the place where a charismatic sect leader, David Koresh, and his followers had the large wooden structure "compound", or church, depending on your view - the one that the federal agents raided and gunfire broke out.
A number of federal agents were shot and killed and many of the people inside the wooden building were burned alive.
My understanding, of what "really" happened, is as in most other federal raids of this kind, the government agents shot the guard-dogs outside the building either before or as they were going to the door and, hearing the gunshots outside, the people inside starting shooting back. Thus the fire-fight erupted. Also, it is my understanding, that at least two of the people inside, had "class three" gun permits, which did allow the possession of fully automatic weapons. Federal gun laws here, are quite numerous and specific, but the average person on the street does not understand even the basic laws. So most US people, when asked, would say that the people in the building had no right to own any fully automatic weapons, or 50 calibre weapons, etc. In fact, anyone who gets a class three permit may own fully automatic weapons...but the permits are not easy to get! As I understand the law, even I could own a 50 calibre single shot rifle, except they are extremely expensive - about US$1800 (A$3000), and there are few places to shoot one, as the round will travel well over a mile.
The connection between the token, and the actual group, that got burned up in Waco, is distant I suspect. The token being dated 1938 and the fire was in 1993. Anyway, the time distance between the token and the 1993 date make the connection a bit of a stretch, but it is a connection never-the-less"
As to the symbols on the token, notice the date is 1938, I assume the group of the Branch Davidians have been around about that long at least. The clock-face on the other side, as well as the lion, all have religious meaning, the clock at a few minutes 'til midnight, means the end is near I think. The lion I am told means the Lion of Judea. There are complete sets of these tokens around, and I have one such set, the 50 cent token I sent you is an extra in that denomination.
So you have a exonumia tie-in token to the Branch Davidian shoot out in Waco Texas."
DAVIDIANS AND BRANCH DAVIDIANS.
Quote - ' Victor T. Houteff established the Davidians,
a small Adventist reform movement, in 1929, and in 1955 Ben Roden organized
the Branch Davidians. Both groups were formed to prepare for the
second advent of Christ, and both movements survive in small but active
communities in the 1990s. Houteff, a Bulgarian immigrant, left the
Bulgarian Orthodox Church and accepted Seventh-day Adventist teaching in
1918. He led Sabbath classes in his Los Angeles church and began publishing
a series of tracts called collectively The Shepherd's Rod. He embraced
the Adventist teachings of Christ's imminent return, Saturday worship,
dietary regulations and pacifism. But he criticized the General Conference
of Seventh-day Adventists for compromise with worldly standards of behavior.
The Shepherd's Rod movement called for reform of life. Houteff, like all
Adventists, focused above all on the near return of Christ; this is the
central idea of the movement. He taught that an elect group of 144,000
followers would form a truly reformed church and that the forming of his
pure church was a prerequisite for Christ's
return to earth.
When the Seventh-day Adventist Conference rejected his message, Houteff decided to settle in Texas. In 1935 he and thirty-seven followers moved to a site two miles from Waco, which they called Mount Carmel. The Davidians established a semicommunal organization. Because they wanted to avoid the corruptions of the world they settled beyond the city limits.Everyone worked and received pay. Together they farmed and built buildings on their property. But since one farm could not support an entire community, some Davidians worked in Waco and were encouraged by leaders to pay a double tithe.
Despite the Great Depression the community flourished, and by 1940 it had grown to sixty-four residents, ten buildings, and 375 acres. The members constructed water and sewage systems and added electricity and telephone services. Houteff had full authority in the community. He was viewed as a unique prophet: followers believed that only he could unravel Biblical secrets about the end of time.
Davidians worshipped on Saturday. They practiced vegetarianism and observed strict rules of conduct (no tobacco, dancing, or movies). Women used no cosmetics and wore distinctive long dresses. The group established its own press to print and distribute large numbers of Houteff's tracts. His writings were widely distributed, and Davidians converted scattered pockets of Adventists throughout the United States. Houteff changed the movement's name to Davidian Seventh-day Adventists in a successful effort to achieve conscientious-objector status for his followers. His death in 1955 shook but did not destroy the group, which survived under the leadership of his wife, Florence. By then Waco had grown too close to old Mount Carmel, and the Davidians sold their property for residential development. In 1957 the group bought a 941-acre farm, which they called New Mount Carmel, nine miles east of Waco, near Elk. The Davidians predicted the imminent establishment of God's kingdom. They called on members to gather at New Mount Carmel before April 22, 1959 (Passover). People from California, Wyoming, Canada, and elsewhere sold businesses, farms, and houses to move to Mount Carmel and await a sign from God. About 900 people gathered for this meeting, which began on April 18 and peaked on April 22. Hope soon faded when the sign did not appear, and the Davidians began to disperse rapidly. They sold all but seventy-seven acres of New Mount Carmel, and various Davidian splinters disputed ownership in court.
The most significant of the splinter groups to emerge after Houteff's death was the Branch Davidians, organized by Ben Roden. When the great gathering occurred in 1959, Roden appeared and announced that he was the sign the Davidians sought. The 1959 debacle discredited Florence Houteff, and a small following looked to Roden as their new prophet. The Roden faction laid claim to the property at New Mount Carmel. Roden embraced the central teachings of the Seventh-day Adventist church and also Houteff's message regarding the purified church. Roden's own thought centered on the significance of the restored state of Israel. This political fact was for him a key sign of preparation for Christ to return to earth. Roden not only visited Israel; he also established a small community of followers there. When he died in 1978, his wife, Lois, assumed leadership. Her distinctive teaching centered on the female character of the Holy Spirit and ordination for women. She devoted her short-lived journal, Shekinah, to women's issues. George Roden, son of Ben and Lois, assumed leadership of the Branch Davidians in 1985 and made messianic claims. Vernon Howell, a persuasive Bible teacher, led a rival faction that George Roden expelled at gunpoint. Howell and his followers moved to Palestine, Texas, but returned to New Mount Carmel in 1987 and exchanged gunfire with Roden. The rivals were taken to court. Roden was jailed, and the Howell faction secured control of New Mount Carmel by paying the back taxes.
the distinctive emphases of Davidian tradition - the authoritarian leader,
communal life organized apart from society, and expectation of the imminent
end of the world. He changed his name to David, suggesting his messianic
task, and to Koresh, suggesting that his role was to destroy the
enemies of God as King Cyrus had destroyed the Babylonians, enemies of
Israel. However, whereas Adventists and Houteff had been pacifists, Koresh
stockpiled weapons and ammunition. Finally, he believed that members of
the New Kingdom should be children of the Messiah: DNA evidence gathered
after his death indicated that he sired thirteen of the Davidian children
by seven mothers.
The United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms raided the Davidians on February 28, 1993, for possession of illegal arms. In a shootout both Davidians and ATF forces were killed. A fifty-one-day siege followed. On April 19, 1993, government forces used tanks to precipitate an end to the stand-off. Fire broke out, engulfing the building and killing eighty-one Branch Davidians. The event triggered heated debate over several issues relating to the nature of alternative religious groups, including their understanding of religious authority, arms accumulation, and the interpretation of apocalyptic Biblical images. Debate, including congressional hearings in 1995, also raged over government use of deadly force.
Davidians and Branch Davidians flourish in scattered communities in the United States and beyond. In 1991 Davidians purchased part of Old Mount Carmel, where they re-established a press for reproducing Houteff's message. The Branch Davidians own New Mount Carmel. Though it has not been rebuilt, a small group meets there regularly for Sabbath study. The best known Davidian artefact is a clock, set in the floor of the central building of Old Mount Carmel, with the hands set near the eleventh hour, indicating that the end of time is near. This physical reminder of the end of time captures perfectly the essence of the Davidians and Branch Davidians. ' - Unquote.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: James R. Lewis, ed., From the Ashes: Making Sense of Waco (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 1994). Bill Pitts, "The Davidian Tradition." Council of Societies for the Study of Religion Bulletin 22 (November 1993). Bill Pitts, "The Mount Carmel Davidians: Adventist Reformers, 1935-1959," Syzygy 2 (1993). Stuart Wright, ed., Armageddon in Waco (University of Chicago Press, 1995). William L. Pitts
"DAVIDIANS AND BRANCH DAVIDIANS." The Handbook of Texas Online. http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/view/DD/ird1.html
FROM THE COLUMNS.
M.R. Robert’s Wynyard Coin Centre.For those members who have a computer that is Windows based, this third edition CD of Australasian currency is a must. It is an ideal reference tool for collectors at all levels - with 000's of full-colour images and a staggering amount of up-dated information. Expanded coverage now means that the official banknotes, circulating and non-circulating coinage from Australia and New Zealand as well as tradesmen's tokens, colonial issues etc. etc. are all given a comprehensive airing.
7 Hunter Arcade,
Sydney, 2000. N.S.W.
Phone :- (02) 9299 2047. Fax :- (02) 9290 371
In fact the number of features incorporated in the current COINWeb
are astounding and it has my full recommendation - as has Numi$News, which
is available from the Wynyard Coin Centre on request, and is always
a great source for quality international and Australasian numismatic bargains
from ancients up to the newest releases. This month's Numi$News
also features a list of very affordable pre-decimal coins - get back to
basics with these genuine circulation pieces - as well as the sought-after
of the Australian Victoria Cross $1.00 coin folders.
P.S. - The current ranges of our Australian military oriented coins are attracting collectors of militaria - here and overseas - as well as the usual numismatist. Stocks are limited and disappearing fast at higher than issue prices - so we recommend that you ORDER NOW OR MISS OUT!!
P.P.S. - Don't forget that Numi$News customers receive Bonus Rebates for orders over $100.00
ITEM. Journal of the Numismatic Association of Australia @ $6.00 post-paid (Australia)
Issue 1 = 1ITEM. ICOMON Proceedings. (October 10 - 16, 1998) @ $9.00 post-paid (Australia).
Issue 3 = 3
Issue 5 = 2
Issue 6 = 9
Issue 7 = 14
Issue 8 = 5
Issue 9 = 7
Issue 10 = 12
No.2 = 4Index
All inquiries should be directed through the T.N.S. Secretary in the first instance.
OF DUCALS AND AVRAMS….
No doubt they could be a conversation starter and unusual memento of this Olympic year for international tourists. Sizes and face values are as the original issue of 1982 but the new edition Ducals are far better produced - again they are heraldic and finished in the attractive enamel-faced goldine obverse and have the words 'Duchy of Avram 2000' embossed on the central reverse. For details of the new designs of the 2000 Ducals you can contact:
The Mint Release ManagerIndex
The Royal bank of Avram
C/- P.O. Box 628
Sorell, Tasmania, 7172 Australia
JERRY'S BOOK REVIEWS. by Jérôme Remick (T.N.S. Member # 112)
THE CHARLTON STANDARD CATALOGUE OF CANADIAN COINS. (54th Edition
'The Charlton Standard Catalogue of Canadian Coins' by W.K. Cross, editor and publisher, is currently available from:
The Charlton Press,The cost of this 344 page soft bound book is under US$15.00 to U.S. and Canadian collectors but, for other international readers, enquiries should be directed to the publisher who can be contacted by Phone (plus applicable International dial code) on (800) 442-6042 or (416) 488-1418 or Fax (800) 442-1542 or (416) 488-4656.
Suite 208, 2040 Yonge St.,
Toronto, Ontario M4S 1Z9
catalogue covers legal tender coinage used in Canada and its provinces
from the 17th Century French colonial regime through to the year 2000.
Specimen coins, collector sets, platinum and gold coins, gold and silver bullion coins, patterns, trial pieces, official fabrications, test tokens and even foreign coins used in Canada from the 17th to the 19th Century are catalogued.
There are more than 1250 photos and 8000 price listings in up to eight different grades from G4 to MS 65 with mintage figures also included. Both sides of coins are depicted as well as specifications, metal, weight, size and edge types etc. even major die varieties are priced and all are briefly but adequately described.
Historical and descriptive texts are included for each denomination in the Canadian and various provincial series as well as a short text for type coins. All prices have been reviewed to reflect current market trends and, with the other features such as the 32 page introductory, the glossary of terms and the metal content tables, this catalogue is worthy of a top spot in your international coin library.
THE CHARLTON CATALOGUE OF CANADIAN GOVERNMENT PAPER MONEY.
From the same publisher comes another very informative 320 page softbound catalogue that contains 450 photos and catalogues all issues of Canadian Government paper money, starting with French Colonial Playing Card Money issued from 1685 - 1757. It continues on through the various issues of government banknotes - including those currently in circulation including paper money errors and special serial numbers.
The range of the catalogue also includes French colonial issues, Army Bills, provincial and municipal issues, Province of Canada, Dominion of Canada and Bank of Canada issues. Photos of both sides of each type of note are featured with all essential descriptive data and a background text is supplied about each type. Gradings are up to six conditions with enlarged photos used to show more important features on some notes.
The cost of this catalogue to U.S. and Canadian readers is under US$22.00 but international orders should be directed to the publisher at the contact numbers already supplied.
THE 2000 CHARLTON COIN GUIDE.
The final catalogue from the Charlton Press is the 39th Edition of their dealers' buying prices for Canadian coins by W.K. Cross. It sells for under US$10.00 for U.S. and Canadian readers but consult the publishers for international order details.
The 120 page soft bound book catalogues dealer's prices for average condition Canadian War medals as well as Canadian, Newfoundland and Atlantic provinces coins and tokens. It even touches on to paper money values, collector issues, and precious metal. There are also about 17 pages devoted mainly to US coins and world gold coins.
Photos of types are included and enlarged sections are used where necessary to show pertinent features e.g. die cracks etc.
There are 7 sets of tables that cover various precious metals available in the Canadian coin range.
A GUIDE BOOK OF UNITED STATES COINS.
This is the 54th Edition of the famous 'Red Book' by R.S. Yeoman, which is currently edited by Ken Bressett. It reflects the growing interest in collecting that was sparked by the new issues of U.S. coins including the statehood quarters, demand for older commemorative pieces and the publicity surrounding the Sacagawea dollar. Premium prices have been shown in the market place for some state quarters such as Delaware and Pennsylvania but also shows the substantial and overall increases that have occurred in Colonial and Territorial coins and rare date gold - which can only be described as dramatic.
However, it appears that most modern commemorative issues are not attracting the same sort of demand and this is reflected in the softer market prices that have been catalogued - some are selling under issue price.
For those who are familiar with the Red Book features they will know that it covers all U.S. coins including pieces from all sources from 1616 to date - this includes Civil War and Hard times Tokens, bullion issues, errors, mint and proof sets plus coins and tokens from Alaska, Hawaii and the Philippines. There are many coloured photos in the catalogue and, where necessary, enlargements are used to highlight features. Gradings are up to 10 stages of preservation and an indication of market movement is given as well as all the tables and historical background that is so essential in today's numismatic volatile climate.
The 352 page book is available both in soft and hard cover versions from the publisher and enquiries can be directed to:
St. Martin's Press.Index
175 Fifth Avenue
New York, N.Y. 10018- 7848
U.S.A. Phone: (262) 631-5066 or Fax (262) 631-5086
Attention Karry Jasin.
DIE VARIETIES. A Short Observation. (Part 2.) by T. W. 'Bill' Holmes. OAM. AFNS., JP.
The 1921 mintage has two different variety coins - a common Indian die obverse with flat-based letters reverse which would probably originate from Melbourne and a very rare English die obverse also with flat-based letters reverse which is believed to be a Sydney issue.
In 1922 the penny again saw three definite varieties emerge. Two of the strikes are regarded as common - both Indian and English obverse dies with curved-base letters reverses. The third is rare - it has the Indian die obverse and flat-based letters reverse. Along with these varieties are an additional three that consist of the English die with flat-based letters reverse but with variations in the date. One has a wide date with the 9 slightly lower but upright, the second has the 9 sloping to the right and the third has the 9 sloping to the left and these range from fairly scarce to rare.
Two relatively common varieties are available in 1923 in about equal numbers - they feature the two different base letters reverses and the English die obverse. The 1924 varieties again consist of two - the common English die obverse with curved-base letters reverse and another similar more rare version with an Indian die obverse.
I have only seen one variety of the 1925 penny with an English die obverse but I have read of sightings of reverses with a thin leg of the second N of penny and a broken leg of the N on others. Whilst I have not personally seen them - they could be die faults. Also reports of an Indian die obverse have not been verified - at least to my knowledge.
Melbourne and Sydney both minted pennies in 1926 but it appears that no varieties have been reported.
I am fortunate to have both 1927 varieties - the common English die obverse with curved-base letters reverse and the very rarely seen issue of Indian die with the same reverse. The common English die with curved-base letters reverse is the only variety in 1928 but both Indian and English die obverses were used on the same reverse in 1929.
The 'king of the pennies', the 1930, is most commonly seen with the Indian die but it is believed that specimens exist with the English die as well. We have already discussed the 1931 pennies (in Part 1 of this article) and so we will go on to the 1932 with its two varieties - which are both on English die obverses and with curved-base reverses. The figure 2 is either higher or lower on some coins than the other sections of the date.
The English die and curved-base letters were also used on the normal 1933 but on some coins it is apparent, from small differences, that perhaps two different dies were altered from 1932 to 1933 thus creating an overdate effect with a portion of the loop of the 2 seen under the 3.
From 1934 - 1936 the Melbourne Mint struck the English die obverse with the curved-base letters reverse and then in 1937 history caught up with the old pennies with the death of King George V, the abdication of Edward VIII and the crowning of King George VI and the consequent changing of the penny design to incorporate the familiar bounding kangaroo - that was to last until the advent of decimal currency - but not without its own varieties.
Whilst he concentrated on Pennies in the preceding article, Bill added
a postscript that highlighted the amount of work still to be done in this
and other areas within the Australian pre-decimal range of denominations.
"A few months ago while recovering from surgery, I went through a large bag of half-pennies and, using Mos Byrne's new book as a guide, in less than an hour I discovered at least another 10 with mint faults and die cracks that had not been listed.
I have deliberately kept away from listing what I consider to be mint faults e.g. die cracks, double strikes etc. as my definition and views on die varieties remains the same as it always has. As you can see, Australia's pre-decimal coinage is an area that still needs a huge amount of time and research - that I know I will not be doing - and it re-opens up a field for the younger or newer collector who can afford these two valuable assets."