Volume 8 Issue 10                          INTERNET EDITION                                      October 2003.

We trust that this issue of the Internet Edition will continue to provide interesting reading. The name of this Internet based newsletter is in keeping with the content so, bearing in mind our disclaimers, the Internet links selected are usually complimentary to the featured article in regard to: (1) illustrations and, (2) additional important information. Please also bear in mind that some Internet links are of a temporary nature.



Anyone who wishes to apply for membership to the non-profit making organization, and who is prepared to abide by the rules of the Society and its aim of promoting the study and enjoyment of the hobby of numismatics, should contact the following address for an application form and details of subscriptions: 


Tasmanian Numismatic Society.

G. P. O. Box 884J

Hobart. 7001.








After some discussion with the T.N.S. Committee, it has been decided that, as the 40th Anniversary of the Tasmanian Numismatist Society is drawing near, a celebratory BYO-BBQ would be in order.

Due to the success of last year's BBQ event, at Tolosa Park in Glenorchy, there has been a concensus of opinion that we should do the same again this year - but on a slightly larger scale. To that effect we had made a start on arrangements.

As has been the pratice over the last two years, due to the many and varied dietary requirements - and stowage capacities - of some of our members, it is considered that it would be most economic if the event remained as a BYO function.

It will still be a casual fun affair with the minimum of fuss - and we know it will be enjoyed by everyone who attends.

If you have something relative to our hobby and are prepared to show it off, please feel welcome to bring it along for viewing and discussion. As always, we must advise that all Society members, and their partners, who decide to attend this casual BBQ do so at their own risk.

An advice notice will be forwarded from the Secretary, in due course, but it is planned that we should have an 11.00 a.m. start on Sunday 16th. November at Hut 12, Tolosa Park.




TIME:    11.00 a.m.

PLACE:  HUT 12, Tolosa Park, Glenorchy.






After requests for information about newsletter articles published some years ago, it was decided to update the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter Index so that it would cover both versions of the publication. The Index was originally going to be designed as an 'internal-use' aid to locate relative information for the queries received by the 'Tasmanian Numismatist', however, we have commenced publishing it as a series in the Internet Edition, or we can make it available in complete form to members and readers with Internet access and a printer.

If any reader has a comment about the updated Index we would welcome it at: pwood@vision.net.au

The Index will compliment the 'Internet Edition' Archives section back until mid 1998 for those who wish to make individual searches through this version, and, by quoting volume and issue number, we could assist with an email response to queries about any other subjects that may be listed prior to that date.

The third instalment of the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter Indices, covering years 2001 - 2002, is shown at the conclusion of this issue.



T.N.S. member, Jerry Adams of Texas, had some good news to offset the bereavement of his father-in-law, Bill Akers, in mid-August.

As an avid U.S. token collector, and a long-time member of the National Token Collectors Association of America, Jerry decided to attend the NTCA token fair  in Omaha, Nebraska, which was held on 30th - 31st. August, 2003, with fellow collector, Bob Smith.  It must be noted he is now sporting a new - and very rakish - beard!



Jerry and Bob Smith                              Setting up shop - Omaha 2003

As we know, Jerry is also a dab hand at putting a good story together about his chosen field of numismatics. His efforts were rewarded when he was presented with the NTCA 'Bronze' literary award for an article he had written for 'Talkin' Tokens' about the life and tokens of C. N. Cotton, an early American entrepreneur.

The trip to Omaha gave Jerry the chance to meet up with many old friends, including Duane Feisel, Bill Bone, 'Talkin' Tokens' editor Don Bailey, Ron Lerch, Mike Greenspan, NTCA vice-president Mike Miller and NTCA president Paul Cunningham.



                 Talkin' Tokens Editor - Dr. Don Bailey             Token/Dog license tag collector/Author - Dr. Bill Bone D.V.M


Just to add 'icing to the cake' Jerry was also nominated and accepted as the newest member on the NTCA Board of Directors.

Fellow members of the T.N.S. offer their heartiest congratulations, and wish him well with his new position - and also his well-earned literary award.



A few extra pictures taken at Omaha. http://www.gbronline.com/tokenguy/omaha03/index.html



Mike Miller and Jerry                           Jerry and Mike Greenspan



                     Duane Feisel and Ron Lerch                                N.T.C.A. Sec. Clark Rohmer - making notes


And - as to be expected, Jerry bought far more than he sold or traded - and I'm sure that his wife, Sandy, will remind him from time to time when she wants a special little 'something' for herself!




Many of us tend to think of the United States of America when we hear the term 'Americans' but, in fact, the more correct term would be Northern Americans as there is another continent south of the U.S. called South America.

The 12 major independent countries on the South American continent are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela. There are also 3 territories: Fauklands Islands (U.K.), French Guiana (France), Galapogos Islands (Ecuador), and 2 dependencies - in the Pacific Ocean there is Easter Island (Chile) and in the South Atlantic Ocean there is South Georgia Is. (U.K.)

All of the 12 major independent countries as well as the Fauklands Islands - including the British dependency of South Georgia Island - and French Guiana issue their own distinctive coinage and currency notes whilst the Galapogos and Easter Islands rely on the currency of their motherlands.

Refer: http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/sa.htm

In this issue, we will present the conclusion of our brief numismatic history of the continental countries of the region and we  will continue on with that of Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela.

Please note illustrations are not to scale and that some scans shown are representative of similar dated coins and notes in my own collection.




Area: 109,483 sq. miles (283,561 sq. kms)

Capital: Quito

Ecuador, first sighted by Francisco Pizarro in 1526, eventually  started life as a Spanish Vice-royal province of Peru from 1534 until 1739 when it was then included as a part of Spanish Nueva Granada.

When Nueva Granada declared, and finally won its independence on May 24th 1822 with the aid of  Simon Bolívar and Antonio José de Sucre, the new country of Gran Colombia was formed by the union of Nueva Granada, Venezuela, Panama and Ecuador. In 1829, Venezuela was the first of the countries to break away from the confederacy, closely followed by Ecuador in 1830 and finally Panama in 1903. By 1835, Ecuador had gained its full independence as a nation in its own right and re-established its capital at Quito which had been originally founded in 1534 by Sebastian de Benalcazar.

Like every other emerging nation in South America at that time, Ecuador relied on many private banking organisations to maintain a monetary system until it eventually consolidated itself to the oint where it could establish a central bank. In February 1926, the Caja Central de Emision y Amortizacion was established as the first step in forming Banco Central del Ecuador and several note issues were released by overprinting existing private bank notes during 1926 and 1927.

Initially the Centavos, Pesos and Reales system was retained by issuing banks but, by 1885, many had changed over to issuing notes with a denomination in Sucres in honour of one of their country's liberators. Peso notes still co-existed alongside Sucre notes for some time, however.

With the establishment of El Banco Central del Ecuador in 1928 all currency notes were issued in Sucres and continue in that denomination until this day.



Ecudor 1982 5 Sucres note featuring Maarshall Antonio José de Sucre y Alcala (obverse)


Ecuador's coinage had been the typical mix of Spanish style Reales and Escudos on various planchets issued by provincial authorities of Nueva Granada and Gran Colombia until 1833 when a series of various low grade .667 silver Reale denominations with legend of 'El Ecuador en Colombia' were issued.

In 1836, the first Real and Escudos coins bearing the legend Republica del Ecuador were released with various obverses and reverses featuring Libertad (Liberty) and the Sun - these also included some .900 Silver 8 Reales and 5 Francos and various .875 Gold Escudos.

By 1845, several of the silver 4 Reales and gold 8 Escudos coins were struck featuring Simon Bolívar as an effigy.

Decimal coinage was introduced in 1884 and copper, copper-nickel, bronze, nickel, nickel-clad steel composition mixes were used from the denomination ranges from Medio ( ½ ) Centavo up to 50 Sucres.

Ecuador 1982 50 Centavos Nickel-clad Steel coin


The Sucres were introduced in keeping with the changes in other denominations that were occurring in 1884 - 5.

The coins named after Antonio José de Sucre were initially .900 silver but, by 1928, had slipped to .720 silver and eventually to a nickel coin by 1937.  It was in 1928 that a .900 gold coin called a Condor,  to the value of 25 Sucres, was introduced but there apparently have been no further issues.

One issue of the 5 Sucres coin was issued in 1943 - 4 in .720 silver, but, in later years, the releases were in Copper-nickel and Nickel-clad steel. In 1995. bi-metallic coins in 100 and 500 Sucres made their appearance and the only silver coins were reserved for commemorative issues.  

The Sucre has virtually no value as an international trading currency.

Exchange rates at the time of writing showed that 1000 Ecuadoran Sucres = A$0.06 (US$0.04)


Additional notes.

Simon Bolívar - during the course of doing research on this outstanding man  I noticed the detail of a somewhat prophetic note he had written just prior to his demise and it highlights the  bitterness that had overcome him at the end of his brilliant career. Bolívar's body was returned to Venezuela and interred in the Nacional Cemetery at Caracas at his own request.

"I have held power for twenty years and I have drawn but a few conclusions. (South) America is ungovernable. He who serves a revolution ploughs the sea. The only thing one can do in (South) America is to emigrate. This country will infallibly fall into the hands of an unbridled crowd of petty tyrants...... Devoured by all the crimes and extinguished by ferocity, we shall be distained by the Europeans, who will not deign to conquer us. If it were possible for part of of the world to fall back into primitive chaos, (South) America would."

Antonio José de Sucre y Alcala - usually just known as Sucre - was born at Cumana in Venezuela on 3rd February 1795  In 1813, as a very young army officer, he first met Simon Bolívar, the liberator, and knew he wanted to join the struggle for independence.

He proved to be a very able officer and soon rose to be on Bolívar's staff was involved in the major battles at Boyacá, Pichincha and Ayacucho and was soon accepted as the liberator's deputy during the struggle to gain independence for Ecuador.

However, his extremely distinguished military career was cut short as, shortly after 8 a.m. on 4th June in 1830, he was assassinated by mercenaries in the Berruecos jungle during a march back to Quito via Popayán and Pasto.

Refer: http://www.fuerzasarmadasecuador.org/english/historia/ecuadorgrancolombia1822.htm



Area: 83,000 sq. miles (214,969 sq. kms)

Capital: Georgetown

The coastline of Essequibo and Demerary (Guyana) was sighted by Columbus in 1498 and the original area also encompassed parts of present day Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil and Venezuela. By the 1500's, the Dutch had established the first settlement  but, due to the conflicts occuring in Europe at that time and the huge rivalry between those nations that had an interest in exploration - and exploitation - of the area, it is not surprising that possession changed between the Dutch and British on several occasions. (See Suriname Section.)

With an brief exception, when the French gained control, from 1769 onwards the British gradually established a strong grip on the area which they did not relinquish. Guyana was known as the British Crown Colony of British Guiana until self-government was gained in 1952 - and, when full independence was achieved on May 26th 1966, the tradional name of Guyana was re-adopted. The following extract gives readers an idea of what was occurring in the monetary circles of the day.


"Money was originally introduced by the Dutch colonists, but there was never much in circulation. Actually, for large business transactions, they rarely used money. It was normal for them to write promissory notes which eventually would be redeemed from their agents in Amsterdam where they sent their sugar and other produce to be sold. The Dutch colonists introduced the guilder and other coins such as pennings, stivers and bitts whose values fluctuated over time. Side by side with these coins from other European nations circulated. These included the English guinea, the Mexican dollar, and the Portuguese gold ducat, moidore, and joe. By the end of the eighteenth century a type of paper money issued by the Government or the banks in Europe began appearing in Guyana. Usually, when a person had accumulated a quantity of paper money, he would exchange the notes for gold at the Receiver's Office for Colonial Taxes. This Office would then re-issue the paper money to the general public again. When the British seized Guyana in 1803, English coins began to make a gradual appearance. But the Dutch coins continued to be the main means of commercial exchange throughout the rest of the century, by which time the Portuguese and Mexican coins could hardly be found in circulation.

Many slaves saved coins that they acquired by doing odd jobs during their free time, or through the sale of the produce from their provision grounds. Interestingly, the first bank to be established was a savings bank for the slaves in 1828. This occurred at a time when the British Government was implementing policies aimed at improving the social condition of the slave population in its colonies.

In 1836, two other banks, the Colonial Bank and the British Guiana Bank, were set up. The former, many years later, was taken over by Barclays Bank, while the latter, during the second decade of the twentieth century, was absorbed by the Royal Bank of Canada.

In 1900, the Dutch coins were withdrawn and were replaced by British coins such as the half penny, penny, sixpence, twelve pence, shilling, florin, half crown, crown, sovereign and guinea. Official British paper money was also introduced into Guyana at this time. This system of currency remained until 1951 when Guyana joined with the British Eastern Caribbean territories to use common Eastern Caribbean coins and currency notes, even though many of the British coins continued to circulate for a while. Guyana, on attaining independence in 1966, withdrew from the Eastern Caribbean currency board and began to issue its own coins (one cent, five cents, ten cents, twenty-five cents, fifty cents) and the initial issues of currency notes with values of one dollar, five dollars, ten dollars and twenty dollars gradually expanded to encompass higher denominations."   http://www.guyana.org/features/guyanastory/chapter74.html


The monetary system, while under Dutch control saw the oddly named Joe which equalled 22 Guilders used up until 1836, but when under British control between 1837 - 1965 the colony saw introduction of a dollar note issued by the Government of British Guiana which equalled 4 Shillings and 2 Pence. The name Joe was a reminder of the colony's early days when, for reasons of necessity in 1798 - 99, Brazilian and Portuguese gold Reis coins were counterstamped for use at 22 guilders. Some of the Portuguese coins had the effigy of Josephus (Jose) 1750 - 1777 and so the nick-name of 'Joe' entered into the currency language.

In 1808, the situation hadn't changed that much so the British Government authorised the mutilation, by the overstamping, of George III British silver and also that of the famous Spanish 8 Reales silver coins by punching out a plug which was valued at 3 Bits whilst the remainder was valued at 3 Guilders. This type of action was taken in English colonies all across the world at about this time due to the shortage of English coinage.

By 1813, the Dutch-named 'Stiver' and 'Gulden' coinage of King George III of England had become established and this carried through during the reign of George IV.

From 1836 through to 1888, the silver Maundy type coinage of Great Britain was allowed to circulate, firstly that which bore Queen Victoria's effigy and later that of Edward VII, George V and George VI.

In 1951, the use of the all-encompassing British East Caribbean Territories coinage was authorised and this saw the introduction of a denomination range from 1/2 cent, 1, 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 cents. These remained in use until the Bank of Guyana issued its own independent decimal coinage in 1967.

Paper money issues, while under British control from 1926 - 1940, were primarily handled by Barclays Bank (Dominion, Colonial and Overseas) which was formerly known as the Colonial Bank. Notes of the Colonial Bank - bottom edge-marked British Guiana from c.1900, were never issued although Specimen notes are occasionally offered for sale at high prices.

Barclays Bank Note 1939 $5.00

(Scan published with permission from Ponterio & Associates, Inc.)


During the period from 1913 - 1938, the Royal Bank of Canada also issued notes, only redeemable in British Guiana, in denominations of 5, 20 and 100 Dollars.

From 1950 - 1965 notes issued under the authority of the British Caribbean Territories Currency Board (Eastern Group) were the main circulating currency.

The denominations ranged from 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 100 Dollars and these notes, like the coinage, were used in many of the British possessions in the Eastern Caribbean at that time.

The first issue of notes under the independent banner of the Bank of Guyana occurred in 1966 and the range included 1, 5, 10 and 20 Dollars.

In 1989, a second emission was commenced and a new $20 was introduced - as well as a 100, 500 in 1992, and eventually  a $1000 note in 1993 - all with a relatively similar obverse design showing the country in relation to others surrounding it.




                               Guyana S1,000 - 1993 map of Guyana (obverse)               Guyana FAO Copper-nickel 1970 coin with 'Cuffy' effigy.


Additional notes re: 'Cuffy' - http://www.miss-guyana.org/history.htm


Exchange rates at the time of writing showed that 1000 Guyanan Dollars = A$6.20 (US$5.61)



Area: 157,047 sq. miles (406,752 sq. kms)

capital: Asuncion

A Short History of Paraguay

"Pre-Columbian civilization in the fertile, wooded region that is now Paraguay consisted of numerous seminomadic, Guarani-speaking tribes of Indians, who were recognized for their fierce warrior traditions. They practiced a mythical polytheistic religion, which later blended with Christianity. Spanish explorer Juan de Salazar founded Asuncion on the Feast Day of the Assumption, August 15, 1537. The city eventually became the center of a Spanish colonial province. Paraguay declared its independence by overthrowing the local Spanish authorities in May 1811. The country's formative years saw three strong leaders who established the tradition of personal rule that lasted until 1989: Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia, Carlos Antonio Lopez, and his son, Francisco Solano Lopez. The younger Lopez waged a war against Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil (War of the Triple Alliance, 1864-70) in which Paraguay lost half its population; afterwards, Brazilian troops occupied the country until 1874. A succession of presidents governed Paraguay under the banner of the Colorado Party from 1880 until 1904, when the Liberal party seized control, ruling with only a brief interruption until 1940.

In the 1930s and 1940s, Paraguayan politics were defined by the Chaco war against Bolivia, a civil war, dictatorships, and periods of extreme political instability. Gen. Alfredo Stroessner took power in May 1954. Elected to complete the unexpired term of his predecessor, he was re-elected president seven times, ruling almost continuously under the state-of-siege provision of the constitution with support from the military and the Colorado Party. During Stroessner's 34-year reign, political freedoms were severely limited, and opponents of the regime were systematically harassed and persecuted in the name of national security and anticommunism. Though a 1967 constitution gave dubious legitimacy to Stroessner's control, Paraguay became progressively isolated from the world community.

On February 3, 1989, Stroessner was overthrown in a military coup headed by Gen. Andres Rodriguez. Rodriguez, as the Colorado Party candidate, easily won the presidency in elections held that May and the Colorado Party dominated the Congress. In 1991 municipal elections, however, opposition candidates won several major urban centers, including Asuncion. As president, Rodriguez instituted political, legal, and economic reforms and initiated a rapprochement with the international community.

The June 1992 constitution established a democratic system of government and dramatically improved protection of fundamental rights. In May 1993, Colorado Party candidate Juan Carlos Wasmosy was elected as Paraguay's first civilian president in almost 40 years in what international observers deemed fair and free elections. The newly elected majority-opposition Congress quickly demonstrated its independence from the executive by rescinding legislation passed by the previous Colorado-dominated Congress. With support from the United States, the Organization of American States, and other countries in the region, the Paraguayan people rejected an April 1996 attempt by then-Army Chief Gen. Lino Oviedo to oust President Wasmosy, taking an important step to strengthen democracy.

Oviedo became the Colorado candidate for president in the 1998 election, but when the Supreme Court upheld in April his conviction on charges related to the 1996 coup attempt, he was not allowed to run and remained in confinement. His former running mate, Raul Cubas Grau, became the Colorado Party's candidate and was elected in May in elections deemed by international observers to be free and fair. However, his brief presidency was dominated by conflict over the status of Oviedo, who had significant influence over the Cubas government. One of Cubas' first acts after taking office in August was to commute Oviedo's sentence and release him from confinement. In December 1998, Paraguay's Supreme Court declared these actions unconstitutional. After delaying for 2 months, Cubas openly defied the Supreme Court in February 1999, refusing to return Oviedo to jail. In this tense atmosphere, the murder of Vice President and long-time Oviedo rival Luis Maria Argana on March 23, 1999, led the Chamber of Deputies to impeach Cubas the next day. The March 26 murder of eight student antigovernment demonstrators, widely believed to have been carried out by Oviedo supporters, made it clear that the Senate would vote to remove Cubas on March 29, and Cubas resigned on March 28. Despite fears that the military would not allow the change of government, Senate President Luis Gonzalez Macchi, a Cubas opponent, was peacefully sworn in as president the same day. Cubas left for Brazil the next day and has since received asylum. Oviedo fled the same day, first to Argentina, then to Brazil. In December 2001, Brazil rejected Paraguay's petition to extradite Oviedo to stand trial for the March 1999 assassination and "marzo paraguayo" incident.

Gonzalez Macchi offered cabinet positions in his government to senior representatives of all three political parties in an attempt to create a coalition government. While the Liberal Party pulled out of the government in February 2000, the Gonzalez Macchi government has achieved a consensus among the parties on many controversial issues, including economic reform. Liberal Julio Cesar Franco won the August 2000 election to fill the vacant vice presidential position. In August 2001, the lower house of Congress considered but did not pass a motion to impeach Gonzalez Macchi for alleged corruption and inefficient governance. "

Reference: http://www.abacci.com/atlas/history.asp?countryID=296


The long and violent history of Paraguay is reflected in its currency over the last half a millennium. Like all the other countries in the region, the people of Paraguay eventually threw off the yoke of colonialism, but the period between discovery and exploration in 1524 - 28 and 1537 when de Salazar founded Asuncion was a bloody start to an even bloodier future.The area was continually plagued by wars between Indians and settlers - and civil strife where brother killed brother. Religious intolerance and exploitive dominence held the country in a grip for over 160 years while the militant Jesuits of the time ruled like a defacto government.

In 1811, the Spanish were overthrown due to their attention being diverted back to the European Napoleonic wars.

Up until that time the monetary system was based on the Spanish Centesimos and Reales.

A Copper 1/12 Real was minted by the Birmingham Mint dated 1845 and, during the Triple Alliance War of 1864 - 1870, under a decree of 11th. September 1867, the first Paraguayan Gold 4 Pesos Fuertes (meaning - strong) was struck from gold melted from jewellery supplied by the ladies of Asuncion as part of the war effort.

As a fore-runner to decimal currency in 1889, a .900 Silver Peso was struck in a limited release and, even so, many were remelted.

Decimal coinage was introduced in 1870 and the initial range was from 1, 2 and 4 Copper Centesimos and then, from 1900 - 1939, a variety  of metal compositions were used in small denomination coinage including Copper-nickel 5,10, 20 and 50 Centavos as well as 1, 2 and 5 Pesos.

Aluminium 50 Centavos and 1 and 2 Pesos were issued in 1938.

A monetary reform occurred in 1944 and Aluminium-bronze coins from 1, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 50 Centimos were issued and Guaranies from 1,5, 10, 50 were available in Stainless-steel and 100 Guaranies in a Copper-Zinc-Nickel alloy. The first commemorative 300 Guaranies was struck in .720 Silver in 1968 but subsequent issues from 1972 have been in .999 Silver.

From 1972 onwards, .900 Gold Guaranies in denominations of 1500, 3000, 4500, 10,000 70,000, 100,000, 250,000 and 300,000  have been issued. The rate of inflation of these gold coins is well indicated by their face values. Commemorative gold coins containing .917 were issued 1987 -1988



           Paraguay 1953 Aluminium-Bronze 10 Centimos           Paraguay 1952 One Guarani - Soldier (obverse) & Legislative palace (reverse)


Paraguayan banknotes also show the ravages of the civil unrest in the late part of the 1800's and early part of the 1900's

The Republica del Paraguay issued - under the banner of El Tesoro Nacional (the National Treasury) - several series of Real notes from 1856.

Under the Decree of 13th February 1856, the 1/2 and 4 Reales were issued as well as 1 and 2 Pesos.

In further decrees on 29th April and 17th May 1859, a 1 Real and a 1 Peso were produced. Further issues of 1/2, 1, 2 and 4 Reales plus 1 and 2 Pesos were authorised on 10th June 1860. Then followed, on 21st September, a 5 Pesos; 14th November 1861 saw a 4 Pesos; 31st March 1862 a 4 and 5 Pesos.

During the 'War of the Triple Alliance' which was fought against Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, a note issue covering 3, 4 and 5 Pesos was produced in 1868, and another in 1870, covering a small series of 1, 2 and 4 Reales, 50 Centesimos, 1 and 5 Pesos, whilst the 1871 issue covered 1/2, 1, 2 and 4 Reales as well as 1, 5 and 10 Pesos  - these are very scarce.

During the occupation of Paraguay by the victorious Alliance forces, an Argentinian issue was produced in 50 Centimos, 5 and 10 Pesos under the banner of Lezica y Lanus who were Army suppliers.

While issues of Paraguayan Treasury notes continued to be produced at fairly regular intervals until 1875 there appears to have been issues originating from several other sources. Notes were issued under the banners of Banco de Comercio, Banco del Paraguay, Banco Nacional del Paraguay and the Banco Paraguay y Rio de la Plata from 1882 - 1889. The establishment of the government controlled Republica del Paraguay organisation saw a rationalisation of the system and  from 1894 - 1923 many emisions were made.

The Banco de la Republica was also in operation however, and, in 1907, began to issue notes and continued to do so until 1923 - although some of its notes were overprinted in 1943 as a provisional issue while the new Banco del Paraguay was coming into being.

The Banco Del Paraguay only made the issues authorised on 5th October 1943 and then gave way to the Banco Central del Paraguay, established in March 1952, which is still the issuing authority at this time. Most notes of this country appear to still feature contemporary military figures and scenes - famous generals, politicians and presidents.


Exchange rates at the time of writing showed that 1 Paraguayan Guarani = A$0.24 (US$0.16)



Area: 496,222 sq. miles (1,285,216 sq. kms)

Capital: Lima

The nation of Peru, once the home of the Incas, had been exploited by a series of avaricious Spanish rulers since it was first conquered in 1531 - 33 by Francisco Pizarro. With Lima as its capital, and because of its great wealth, it had become the stronghold of the Spanish in South America.

By 1569, the situation between the rival groups of Spanish in the colony had deteriorated into war because of greed, and it was only then that Spain decided to act and bring the area back under direct control.  Francisco de Toledo was chosen to set the situation back to rights and, following his arrival and very firm responses, the country went on to enjoy over 250 years of efficient colonial rule. 

Like the majority of other countries on the South American continent, Peru, remained a colony of Spain - until the famous Argentinian Gen. José de San Martin (1788 - 1850) declared its independence on July 28th 1821 after taking advantage of the situation of the Napoleonic wars in Europe.

However, Peru was still under Spanish control until Simon Bolívar from Venezuela marched in and defeated the last Spanish army in South America in December 1824. As it had in several other South American countries,Spain made several half-hearted attempts to regain control of the area but, by 1879, it was finally forced to recognised Peru's independence.

Peru had used the monetary system of Spain and most of the silver and gold coinage was minted from Peruvian and other South American ore sources.

The range of hammered cob coins stretched from .931 Silver 1/2, 1, 2, 4 and 8 Reales until 1723 and also some .917 Silver 8 Reales from 1727 - 1746.

A series of .917 Gold Escudos from 1,2, 4 and 8 were alo issued between 1702 and 1750.

Milled coinage first made its appearance in 1752 when a full range of silver and gold was produced. The silver coinage was at .917 Fine until 1772 when it was reduced to .903, and the gold was at .917 Fine until 1772 when that was also reduced down to .901 Fine.

Silver content in Peruvian coinage remained stable at .903, but Gold was further reduced to .875 in 1801 and these composition remained in place until 1824 when the Spanish were finally driven from Peru.

During the period from 1821 until 1824 a provisional issue, of a Copper 1/4 Real and 1/4 Peso and an .903 silver 8 Reales dated 1822 and 1823, was produced by the new republic - and, while the independence of the country was still in dispute, a Royalist overstamp was used to blank out some of the Republican 8 Reales in 1824.

The establishment of the republican coinage of South Peru in 1837 saw a continuation of silver and gold coinage in the same sorts of denominations but there were some flucuations in precious metal content. South Peruvian silver Reales, in particular, dropped to .667, however, coinage produced in North Peru during this period maintained its .875 gold and silver levels.

In keeping with the times, Peru issued a transition coinage between 1858 - 1863 as it prepared for full decimisation. The interim coinage consisted of .900 silver Medio (or 1/2 Real), and a 1 Real, 25 Centavos, 50 Centimos, 50 Centavos as well as .975 gold 4 and 8 Escudos.

Decimal coinage commenced in 1863 with releases of Copper-nickel 1 and 2 Centavos, .900 silver  1 Dinero and a 1/5 Sol, a series of .900 gold Soles was also minted in denominations of 5, 10 and 20 - these were closely followed in 1864 with .900 silver 1/2 and 1 Sol coins.

The metal composition and quality of Peruvian coinage dropped in 1922 to .500 in Silver and during the releases of the 1940's even the previous Copper-nickel low value coins, including the 1/2 Sol, were made from Brass. In 1976 a commemorative 1/2 Sol coin was minted in .900 gold.

Monetary reforms occured in 1985 and this saw the Inti as a denomination at the rate of 1000 Soles de Oro = I Inti.

A second reform in 1991 saw the Intis replaced with Nueva Soles at the rate of 1,000,000 Intis = 1 Nueva (New) Sole.

Brass and Copper-nickle were widespread in the Centimos range but the 1 and 20 New Soles started out as .925 silver but ,later that year, they were reduced to Copper-nickel.

In 1994, the 2 and 5 new Soles were being produced in bi-metallic with a Brass centre and a Steel outer ring.

Since 1902, Peru has maintained a .917 gold Trade coinage in denominations of 1/5, 1/2 and 1 Libra and, between 1910 - 1932, also produced a small range of National Defence Tokens in silver, gold and gold-plated silver with denominations of 1, 5 and 10 Soles.

Over the years the metal content and value of Peruvian coins has varied so much it is beyond the scope of this article to list it all in detail so we recommend that a good catalogue such as Standard Catalog of World Coins be consulted.



                   Peruvian 1985 50 Intis featuring Nicolas de Pierola 1839–1913,          Peruvian 1916 silver ½ Sol featuring Liberty


The first relatively crude currency notes issued for the 'independent' Peru were authorised by Gen. José de San Martin to relieve the economic problem s that had been created by his declaration. A short-lived organisation known as Banco de la Emancipacion (1822 - 1823) handled the printing and distribution of 2, 4 and 8 Reales (1 Peso).

Private and provincial banks abounded in Peru after it had gained its independence and the Spanish claims on the nation had finally been quashed. The initial system used by many these banks revolved around the Sol which equalled 100 Centavos (10 Dineros) - a later denomination was 10 Soles = 1 Libra. However, the Peso system also was accepted and ran in tandem during the early 1860's.

The Banco de Londres Mexico y Sud America operated in Peru for a time and made emissions in both Pesos and Soles between 1866 - 1875. By that time the Sole currency had been more widely accepted and many of the private banks had converted to that denomination range.

The Banco Nacional del Peru and its branches issued fractional notes in 1873 to supplement their Soles issues that continued until 1878.

Political upheaval in that period saw an issue of notes authorised under the Republica del Peru banner by a military Junta in 1879.

Provisional issues were issued in 1881using an overprint 'Billette Provisional' on private bank notes and a new denomination appeared. Notes bore values of 1, 5, and 100 Incas. Another provisional issue was also produced in late 1881 and Inca notes were overprinted with Values on Soles.

In the latter half of 1914, another Junta took control and issued draft notes under the heading of Cheque Circulaire, with Libras as their denomination.  Two issues of 1/2, 1, 5 and 10 Libra drafts were drawn against a selected group of private international banks with branches in Peru. Another similar emission was made in the last half of 1918 and again two issues were made. During August 1917, Certificado de Deposito de Oro in values of 5 and 50 Centavos, plus a 1 Sol note were issued.

The Banco Central de Reserva del Peru issued provisional notes overprinted on backs of their 1922 unissued Libra remainders in 1935. The bank had  a range from 1/2, 1, 5 and 10 Libras already in existence and the provisional issue was valued in Soles.

Whilst this is the bank that has survived until this day, it has experienced many upheavals, particularly since 1984, due to drastic changes in the monetary system.

As with the coinage of Peru, the hyper-inflation rates, changes in currency names as monetary reforms occured, are best studied in a good catalogue such as the Standard Catalog of World Paper Money.


Additional note re: Nicolas de Pierola - http://www.famousamericans.net/nicolasdepierola/


Exchange rates at the time of writing showed that 1 Peruvian Nuevo Peso = A$0.44 (US$0.29)



Area: 63,037 sq. miles (163,270 sq. kms)

Capital: Paramaribo

With its strong Dutch background it is not surprising that the coins and currency of Suriname bear the denominations of Guilders and Cents.

The country was under the same influences that shaped British Guiana (Guyana) in the early colonial days but in this instance the Dutch presence remained the strongest. This area of the Guiana coast was sighted originally by Amerigo Vespucci in 1499 but when the Spanish explorers of the 1500's found no gold they abandoned the area to the British who first settled the area in 1652. However, the British were also trying to obtain control of the rights of Nieuw Amsterdam (the state of New York) at that time and a deal was done to exchange this part of the British colony on the Guyanan coast for the Nieuw Amsterdam rights.

During the 1700's and 1800's the European rivalries - and wars - spilt over into the new world and from 1781 - 1784, the Dutch colony was back in British hands.

Again, between 1796 - 1814, Britain gained control of this area until the Dutch eased them out again.

Small denomination silver, brass and bronze coinage of the Netherlands was circulating from 1943 until 1960 in the colony and some issues expressly designed for Suriname had the palm-tree mintmark and were minted by the Philadephia, Denver and San Francisco mints and their initials are located near the date.

Suriname became an automonous part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands on December 15th. 1954, and, on November 25th. 1975 gained full independence.

From 1962, Suriname issued its range of coinage in a variety of metal compostions from the Bronze 1 cent, Nickel-brass, Aluminium and Copper-plated Steel 5 cents, Copper-nickel and Nickel-plated Steel 10 cents, Copper-nickel and Nickel-plated Steel 25 cents, Copper-nickel 100 cents and Copper-nickel 250 Cents.

The larger denomination - which are mainly commemorative coins were also a mixture - .720 Silver 1 Gulden, .925 Silver 10 Gulden,  .925 Silver 25 Gulden and Guilders, .925 Silver 30 Gulden, .925 Silver 50 Guilders, .900 Gold 100 Gulden with .999 Silver and Copper-nickel 100 Guilders, .500 Gold 200 Gulden , .917 Gold 250 Guilders, .917 Gold 500 Guilders, .917 Gold and Gold-plated Brass and .916 Gold 1000 Guilders. Why the terms Gulden and Guilders are used I am not sure.

Between 1980 - 1987 a military government controlled Suriname after a coup put them into power, but this junta has since been disolved and democracy has returned.

Several commemorative coins in silver (25 Gulden) and gold (200 & 250 Gulden) were issued during this period to celebrate the 1st and 5th anniversaries of the Revolutionary Junta (dated 1981 and 1985)



Suriname 1962 Bronze One Cent


Suriname 1982 25 Gulden - Woman and Soldiers (Obverse)


The use of banknotes in Suriname began in an indirect way similar to that of British Guiana which was also influenced by the Dutch in the early days.

The main method of dealing with large transactions was by the use of various denomination promissary notes that were redeemable in Amsterdam but, in 1829, an issue by the West-Indische Bank covered the denomination range from 1/2 Gulden, 1,2, 3, 5, 10, 50 Gulden and, in 1837, the same organisation are listed as having issued notes from 10 and 15 Centen, 2 different  25 Gulden notes (one was Hexagonal) and a 50 Gulden.

All these notes are Rare and some of the few that have been handled are graded as Fine. No indications are available as to current values.

The next major issue was under the title of De Surinaamsche Bank in 1865 and denominations of 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 300 Gulden are reported.

In 1901 a 50 Gulden note is also listed as having been issued but no details are available of quantities or conditions. This is also considered Rare with no indication available as to current value

De Surinaamsche bank issued a number of various design notes from 1915 - 1951 including a provisional issue in 1940 for 2 1/2 Gulden which was overprinted on half of a previously issued 5 Gulden note of that same year. The denominations of the 1915 - 1948 series ranges from 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 1000 Gulden. When the next issue was released in 1940 - 1942 a much-needed  2 1/2 Gulden note was the lowest denomination. Other notes of 5, 10, 25 and 100 Gulden were also in this emission. In 1951, only the 10, 25 and 100 Gulden notes were produced by the printer De Bussy of Amsterdam for Suriname.

Also circulating between 1918 - 1960, were several series of Zilverbonnen (Silver Certificate) notes under the title of Suriname Zilverbon. The 1918 release only covered 1/2, 1 and 2 1/2 Gulden; and the two 1920 releases covered 50 Cents, 1 and 2 1/2 Gulden.; the 1940  issues covered 50 Cents and One Gulden; and between 1949-55 there were 3 x 1Gulden and 2 x 2 1/2 Gulden releases.

In 1957, the Centrale Bank van Suriname came into operation and their initial release covered denominations of 5, 10, 25, 100 and 1000 Gulden.

A release, in 1960, of Suriname Mutbiljetten (Mint Certificates) in denominations of 1 and 2 1/2 Guldens - these have a reverse that reads Wettig Betaalmiddel (roughly translated means 'legal payable necessity' - in other words 'legal tender' notes) was the fore-runner of the Centrale Bank van Suriname's next releases in 1963 of notes ranging from 5, 10, 25, 100 and 1000 Gulden. All of the designs of the Suriname notes up until the issues of 1986 feature buildings, flora and fauna as well as scenes of local industry and the participants. During recent years, the government of Suriname has released large quantities of several of the high denomination uncirculated notes of 1963 (1000 Gulden) and 1982 (500 Gulden) to the numismatic community for a price of about US$2.00 each - which is currently a lot more than their buying power.

During 1986 - 1988 the revolutionary period banknotes featured the portrait of ex-Suriname left-wing radical author, Anton DeKom - who died at the hands of the Nazis during WWII - and militia scenes, but, by 1991 the familiar scenes of local industry, buildings etc. had been returned to the banknotes of Suriname.


Suriname 100 Gulden 1986 featuring Anton DeKom


Additional notes re: Anton DeKom - http://www.caribvoice.org/documents.html


Exchange rates at the time of writing showed that 1000 Suriname Gulden = A$0.61 (US$0.40)



Area: 68,536 sq. miles (176,220 sq. kms)

Capital: Montevideo

The Oriental Republic of Uruguay has had a very chequered early history because of its location. With an area of only 177,508 sq.kms. it was sandwiched between the huge possessions of the two major European powers in South America - Spanish Argentina to the south and Portuguese Brazil on its northern borders.

Discovered in 1516 by a Spaniard, Juan Diaz de Solis, the area lay undeveloped until the Portuguese moved in and established a colony, aptly called Colonia, in 1680. It was only then that the Spanish authorities sat up and took notice.

After a bitter and long confrontation, Spain gained control of Uruguay in 1778 - but it was not the end of the quest to control the area.

When the rest of the countries on the continent were declaring their independence from colonial rule, Uruguay also tried to get out from under the Spanish yoke but ended up being reconquered by the Brazilian Portuguese during the period 1816 - 1820.

The sense of South American destiny pushed the Uruguans to revolt against this continuance of colonial dominence and, in 1825, the fight was renewed.

Like the other countries nearby, Uruguay eventually reasserted its independence in 1826 and, with the aid of an independent Argentina, was recognised as a nation in 1828. This event was formalised in 1830 with the formation of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay.

Coinage of the new republic took some time to become established and, like other countries in South America, a continuance of existing denominations in Centesimos and Pesos was inevitable. 

The year 1840 saw the release of 5 and 20 Centesimos in Copper, followed in 1844 with a Copper 40 Centesimos and a .875 silver Peso. With the appearance of 1, 2 and 4 Bronze Centesimos in 1869,  the gaps between denominations were reducing, however, it took another 8 years - until 1877 - before the .900 silver 10, 20 and 50 Centimos were released. That year a new, better quality .917 silver Peso was alo produced.

During the years, until the monetary reforms of 1976, the compositions of all the issued denominations have undergone the sorts of changes that have befallen other South American nations.

The lower value Centesimos, from 1 - 5,  were produced in Copper, Copper -nickel and Nickel-brass. From 10 - 50 Centesimos, the metals used ranged from Silver, Copper, Copper-nickel, Aluminium-bronze and Aluminium.

The Pesos which, by 1976, included denominations from 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 1000 also had wide fluctuations due to changing conditions in the nations monetary system. The silver content of the Peso went from from .875 in 1844 then up to .917 in 1877 - but from there on it was downhill to .900 in 1878 and finally to .720 in 1942, from then on it changed to base metals such as to Copper-nickel, Aluminium-bronze and Nickel-brass. The 5 Peso, which had been introduced in limited quantity in 1930 at .917 Fine Gold was next issued between 1965 - 1968 as either Alumium-bronze or Nickel-brass.

With the exception of a few commemorative issue, all other Peso denominations were produced in the types of base metals already mentioned.

In 1976, a monetary reform, that saw 1000 Pesos = 1 New Peso, took place and base metals, including Stainless-steel, were again used with a few exceptions which were produced in .900 Silver and .900 Gold. This style of monetary system is currently in force in Uruguay.

A .900 Gold Bullion NCLT Proof issue of 1992 saw the introduction of a small range of special new denominations 1/4, 1/2 and 1 Gaucho.



Uruguay 1994 Brass 2 New Pesos (Reformed coinage 1976)


Uruguayan N.D. (1967) 100 Pesos featuring General Jose Gervasio Artigas (obverse)


Paper money in Uruguay followed the path of other South American emerging nations of the era, in that its initial releases were provided by private or provincial banking organisations. A series of Public Debt Drafts authorised on 29th April 1835 was issued in August to cover denominations of 400, 500, 2000 and 5000 Pesos  but these are extremely rare and it was not until about 1858 that notes from the Banco Comercial, Montevideo started to appear. The earliest values, stated to be redeemable in gold, were from 120, 240, 480, 960 Centesimos and a 1 Onza de Oro (Ounce of Gold).

A further issue in 1860 covered 240, 480 and 960 Centesimos. The next issue, from this bank, in 1863 produced lower denominations of 10, 20, 50 Centesimos, 1 Peso and 1, 2, Doblones - at that time, 1 Doblon = 10 Pesos.

Like many other countries, Uruguay went through chronic shortages of coinage in the 1860's and adopted the U.S. idea of usimg Postage stamps as currency for a time. Various other private banks, including Uruguan branches of international banks from England and Italy,  began issuing notes from 1863 onwards and continued to do so until 1875-6 when banks were nationalised. The Republica Oriental del Uruguay - Comision de Extincionde Billettes branch   - formed in 1875 was to redeem valueless or obsolete note issues and to withdraw them from circulation. The bank issued notes of 20, 50 Centesimos and 1, 2, 5, 10 20, 50 and 100 Pesos.

Another branch, Junta de Credito Publico, formed earlier in 1870, issued notes of 50 Centesimos and 1, 5, 20, 50 and 100 Pesos. Other branches - such as the Vale de Tesoreria branch had previously issued some denomiations in Reales as well as Pesos in 1855 and made another issue in 1886, under the revised name of Vale del Tesoro branch, of 1 and 10 Pesos.

The Banco Nacional commenced its bank note operation (under an authorisation dated 23 rd June 1862) and issued notes in 1887 covering a wide range of notes from 10, 20, 50, Centesimos, 1, 2,  5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 Pesos.

The Banco de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay issued a full range of Centesimos and Peso notes from 1896 and ultimately became the recognised national bank until 1967 when its note design depicting General Jose Gervasio Artigas, that had been authorised in 1939, was overprinted to read Banco Central del Uruguay.

Monetary reforms that began in 1975 - 1976 saw a savage reduction in note value when overprints reduced the 1000 Peso note down to 1 Nuevo Peso.

The full range of New Peso notes, which was released between 1975 - 1992, continued to show the rampant inflation that was occuring. The currency reform of 1994 when the 1000 New peso was further reduced down to 1 Peso Urugayos has done little to halt the slide - the decline in value of the Uruguayan New Peso has reached the point where it is basically worthless as an international trading currency.


Additional Note re: General Jose Gervasio Artigas - http://www.uruguayinfo.com/english.htm


Exchange rates at the time of writing showed that 1 Uruguayan Nuevos Peso = A$0.05 (US$0.04)



Area: 352,143 sq. miles (912,050 sq. kms)

Capital: Caracas

During Columbus' third trip to the Americas, in 1498, he ventured further south and discovered the area now known as Venezuela. Originally it seemed to be a place of little value except as a source of Indian slaves and a few pearls from offshore islands and settlement was not made until 1567 when Caracas was was founded.

History of Venezuela

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Venezuela

"At the time of the Spanish discovery, the indigenous people were mainly agriculturists and hunters living in groups along the coast, the Andean mountain range, and along the Orinoco River. The first permanent Spanish settlement in South America, Nueva Cadiz was established in Venezuela in 1522. Venezuela was a relatively neglected colony in the 1500s and 1600s as the Spaniards focused on extracting gold from other areas of their empire in the Americas.

The Venezuelans began to grow restive under colonial control toward the end of the 18th century. Venezuelan achieved home rule after a coup on April 19, 1810, and later declared independence from Spain on July 5, 1811. The war on independence ensued. After several years of war that killed half of Venezuela's white population, the country achieved independence from Spain in 1821 under the leadership of its most famous son, Simon Bolivar. Venezuela, along with what are now Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador, was part of the Republic of Gran Colombia until 1830, when Venezuela separated and became a sovereign country.

Much of Venezuela's 19th century history was characterized by periods of political instability, dictatorial rule, and revolutionary turbulence. The first half of the 20th century was marked by periods of authoritarianism--including dictatorships from 1908-35 and from 1950-58. The Venezuelan economy shifted after World War 1 from a primarily agricultural orientation to an economy centered on petroleum production and export.

Since the overthrow of Gen. Marcos Perez Jimenez in 1958 and the military's withdrawal from direct involvement in national politics, Venezuela has enjoyed an unbroken tradition of civilian democratic rule. Until the 1998 elections, the Democratic Action (AD) and the Christian Democratic (COPEI) parties dominated the political environment at both the state and federal level.

Hugo Chavez was elected President in December 1998 on a platform that called for the creation of a National Constituent Assembly to write a new constitution for Venezuela. Chavez's argument that the existing political system had become isolated from the people won broad acceptance, particularly among Venezuela's poorest classes, who had seen a significant real decline in their living standards over the previous decade and a half. The National Constituent Assembly (ANC), consisting of 131 elected individuals, convened in August 1999 to begin rewriting the Constitution In free elections, voters gave all but six seats to persons associated with Chavez's movement. Venezuelans approved the ANC's draft in a referendum on December 15, 1999.

Current concerns include: drug-related conflicts along the Colombian border, increasing internal drug consumption, overdependence on the petroleum industry with its price fluctuations, and irresponsible mining operations which are endangering the rain forest and indigenous peoples."


The numismatic history of Venezuela follows the path of most other South American nations in that, after its independence was gained, the original monetary system of Spain was continued. The first republican coinage started to be produced soon after the coup of 1810 in silver Reales, denominations of  1 and 2  Reales of unknown origin - but probably from Lima - made their appearance.Because of the continued Royalist presence for the next 11 years, several issues of existing coinage were also produced from Spanish controlled mints in Caracas and several other provincial mints. Most of these coins are rough examples made to alleviate a severe shortage of specie was caused when Republican forces isolated some of the Royalist controlled provinces and cities.

Royalist coinage ranged from Copper 1/8, 1/4, 2/4, 1/2, Silver 1, 2 and 4 Reales while the Republican issues were made in a mixture of Silver as well as Copper 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2 Reales. During the period when Venezuela was part of Gran Columbia a Silver 1/4 and 1/2 Real was issued.

The Republic of Venezuela issued coinage from 1843 - 1870 in denominations of Copper 1/4, 1/2 and 1 Centavos and Silver 1/2, 1, 2, 5 and 10 Reales and the first Monetary reform in 1871- 1879 saw the introduction of Copper-nickel 1 and 2 1/2 Centavos and a range of silver 5, 10, 20 and 50 Centavos as well as a new denomination known as the Venezolanos, with a silver 1 and a gold 5, at the rate of 100 Centavos = 1 Venezolano.

A second reform took place in 1879 and the new range of coinage introduced 100 Centimos = 1 Bolivar. Metal compositions underwent changes during this reform with Copper-nickel, Brass, Copper-clad Steel, Nickel-clad Steel all taking the places of their low denomination copper and silver predecessors.

For some time .835 - .900 Silver still remained available in coins of 25 Centimos and above which included 50 Centimos, 1/5,  1/4, 1/2, 1, 2, Bolivares but  most of these are now produced in the various base metal compositions.

Coins of 10 and 20 Bolivares were available in .900 gold and most commemoratives 25, 50 and 75 Bolivares were .835 - .900 Silver with the odd 50 gold Bolivares

Other commemorative or bullion coins in the very high denominations from 100 - 5000 Bolivares have been issued in either .900 Gold or .835 Silver .

It is also noteworthy that a special range of coinage was produced  in 1913 for exclusive use in the large leper colony on Providencia Island in Lake Maracaibo and another issue was made in 1939 for another colony located near Caracas. These coins were mainly made from Brass and were very plain and functional with values ranging from 5, 12 1/2 and  50 Centimos plus 1/8, 1/2, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 Bolivares, availability dependant on where and when they were issued.


Venezuela 1965 Copper-Nickel 5 Centimos


            Venezuelan 10 Bolivares (1990) featuring Simon Bolívar and Antonio José de Sucre y Alcala


Well over a dozen  private banking organisations were involved in supplying notes in Venezuela in the early years of the republic, but notes were first issued by the Treasury of the United States of Venezuela in 1811.

They were fairly basic uniface notes printed in black on heavy white paper and covered denominations of 2 Reales, 1, 2 4, 8 and 16 Pesos.

Treasury notes of 5 Pesos were issued in 1849 and, 10 years later, the Republica de Venezuela started issuing notes of 5, 10,50, 100, 500 and 1000 Pesos - further emissions were authorised in 1860 and 1861 in similar denominations including 8 Reales. All of these notes are now rare to very rare.

The original Banco de Venezuela issued 8 Reales/Peso and 50 Peso notes in 1862 and in later years the almalgamation of several banks to form a new Banco de Veezuela took place. The second institution is still in operation in Venezuela. It issued notes from about the 1890's until the mid 1930's

The other private and provincial banks, including international agencies, issued notes from about 1865 onwards until the monetary system was nationalised and the Banco Central de Venezuela became the main issuing body in 1940 and commenced  producing notes with denominations of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 Bolivares.

in 1966, a commemorative 5 Bolivare note was issued and  this denomination carried forward into 1971.

Various attractive reverse designs changes have been made over the years and many feature stirring battle scenes from the struggle for independence. As could be expected ranges of these notes carry effigies of Venezuelas heroes - Simon Bolívar and Antonio José de Sucre and more recent rulers.

Whilst Venezuela has enjoyed a history that was not quite fraught with the fiscal problems of adjoining nations, it also has not avoided some of them and this is reflected in the buying power of the Bolivar on the international market


Exchange rates at the time of writing showed that 1 Venezuelan Bolivar = A$0.05 (US$0.04)


Additional notes.

Simon Bolívar - during the course of doing research on this outstanding man I noticed the detail of a somewhat prophetic note he had written just prior to his demise and it highlights the bitterness that had overcome him at the end of his brilliant career.

Bolívar's body was returned to Venezuela and interred in the Nacional Cemetery at Caracas at his own request.

"I have held power for twenty years and I have drawn but a few conclusions. (South) America is ungovernable. He who serves a revolution ploughs the sea. The only thing one can do in (South) America is to emigrate. This country will infallibly fall into the hands of an unbridled crowd of petty tyrants...... Devoured by all the crimes and extinguished by ferocity, we shall be distained by the Europeans, who will not deign to conquer us. If it were possible for part of of the world to fall back into primitive chaos, (South) America would."

Antonio José de Sucre y Alcala - usually just known as Marshall A. J. de Sucre - was born at Cumana in Venezuela on 3rd February 1795 

In 1813, as a very young and enthusiastic army officer, he first met Simon Bolívar, the liberator, and knew he wanted to join the struggle for independence.

He proved to be a very able officer and soon rose to be on Bolívar's staff was involved in the major battles at Boyacá, Pichincha and Ayacucho and was soon accepted as the liberator's deputy during the struggle to gain independence for Ecuador.

However, his extremely distinguished military career was cut short as, shortly after 8 a.m. on 4th June in 1830, he was assassinated by mercenaries in the Berruecos jungle during a march back to Quito via Popayán and Pasto.

Refer: http://www.fuerzasarmadasecuador.org/english/historia/ecuadorgrancolombia1822.htm




Internet references - as detailed.

Standard Catalog of World Coins 1901 - Present by Chester L. Krause & Clifford Mishler - Edited by Colin R. Bruce II.

Standard Catalog of World Coins 1801 - 1994 by Chester L. Krause & Clifford Mishler - Edited by Colin R. Bruce II.

Standard Catalog of World Coins 1701 - 1800 by Chester L. Krause & Clifford Mishler - Edited by Colin R. Bruce II.

Standard Catalog of World Paper Money - Specialised Issues (Vol.1) by Albert Pick. - Editors Neil Shafer and Colin R. Bruce II

Standard Catalog of World Paper Money - General Issues (Vol.2) by Albert Pick. - Editors Neil Shafer and Colin R. Bruce II

Standard Catolog of World Paper Money - Modern Issues (Vol.3) Edited by Colin R. Bruce II and George S. Cuhaj

Life World Library - Time-Life Books

Domain It Currency Converter - http://www.domainit.co.uk/currency.html


Additional coin scans.

Refer:  Falmouth Stamp & Coin - http://www.coinsandstamps.com/


Additional banknote scans.

British Guiana: Ponterio & Associates Inc. - http://www.ponterio.com/index.html

From time to time, we find a great commercial site that not only has a full range of quality numismatic 'goodies' on offer for our readers but who are also generous with their permission for us to use the information and photos that they have worked hard to accumulate when we need to furnish these things for our articles.

Ponterio & Associates are such a firm. We have no hesitation in continuing to have them placed on our recommended dealer site. They can be contacted at:

Ponterio & Associates, Inc.
1818 Robinson Avenue
San Diego, California 92103

Ph: (619) 299-0400  or (800) 854-2888  - Fax (619) 299-6952

Auction bidding: bids@ponterio.com  All other inquiries: coins@ponterio.com


Guyana and Suriname: Audrius Tomonis' Banknotes.com - http://www.banknotes.com/

We have mentioned Audrius Tomonis in our newsletter on previous occasions over the years and suggest our readers peruse his great site for all sorts of interesting information and also an update of items that are currently on offer. Highly recommended North Carolina dealer.

A. Tomonis

P.O.Box 16692

Asheville, NC 28816

Ph: (828) 255 4666  Email: auto@banknotes.com




The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ newsletter is the only official newsletter of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society’ and it is published periodically and distributed by post, or hand delivered, directly to members of the Tasmanian Numismatic Society and selected associates and institutions.

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ (Internet Edition) has been provided with space on this privately maintained Internet site and is currently presented on a monthly basis by the member-provider with the aim of promoting the hobby of numismatics.  All matters pertaining to the T.N.S. are re-published with the permission of the current Executive Committee of the  ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society and the Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) abides by the same basic guidelines suggested for the official 'Tasmanian Numismatist' newsletter.

Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' (Internet Edition) are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the ‘Tasmanian Numismatic Society or the Editor. 

Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comments regarding numismatics are always welcome.


The Editor,

Tasmanian Numismatist (Internet Edition). 

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.


Internet Page: http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/tns.html

Email: pwood@vision.net.au


DISCLAIMER: All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned. 

The ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’ (Internet Edition) takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers.  Deadline for any literary contributions or amendment to copy is 7 Days prior to the beginning of the month of publication. The contents of this Internet newsletter, and all prior issues, are copyrighted ©, but anything herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, we do like to be asked by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy. 

This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article. Explicit permission from the author or the Editor of the  ‘Tasmanian Numismatist ’(Internet Edition) is required prior to use of that material.



INDEX UPDATE 2001 - 2002.

In a memorandum issued by the Executive Committee in May 1995, was a notification that the format for the Society’s newsletter was to be changed and that the approved name for the publication was to be the ‘Tasmanian Numismatist’.
The following is an update of information first compiled in August 1998, and details the most topical items and articles published, in addition to the usual Society general notices, from September 1995 until the current issue. Several regularly published items are:

Society Snippets –  a gossipy news column, Society information, short articles by members, for members or about members.

Society Notes – items that concern the everyday business and functions of our membership.

Around the Traps – local or national numismatic commercial intelligence.

From the Columns – news items of interest from magazines, numismatic newsletters etc.

Wanted Known – requests from members or readers for contact with others with similar numismatic interests.

Internet News – specific items sourced from local, national and international Internet numismatic bodies or individual contacts.

Blast from the Past – items that made the headlines years ago – mainly sourced from our Society’s Journals.

The Story Behind the Story – articles that expand on details of a previously published short item.


All items and articles designated with the author’s name highlighted are copyright – all others were written or compiled by the current Editor and permission should be sought prior to any form of republishing.

Due to cost factors beyond the reasonable financial scope of the Society – including the imposition of the G.S.T. – it was decided at a special Committee meeting in December 2000 to revert back to a bi-monthly publication. The monthly Internet Edition version would not be affected. Details of the  contents of both editions are shown separately although many items are now duplicated .

Volume 6 – 2001.

Issue 1. (Jan/February)

Society Snippets.

Lockwood Medal 2000 (Paul and Dianna Kerr).

Bulletin – advising members of new publishing schedule.

Society Notes.


Issue 2. (March/April)

Society Snippets – AGM report.

ANDA Coin Show advice.

Tasmania – Tourist Mecca Tourist tokens.

Centenary of Federation Medallion.

Wooden Nickels – Vive La difference.

Member’s Magazine features –‘How did Ft. Worth Become Panther City’ by Jerry Adams.


Issue 3. (May/June)

Society Snippets – including ANDA Show.

‘Lest We Forget’

Around the Traps.

‘Coins, Coins and More Coins’ – the plethora of Special coins.

Celebrate with Exonumia – an idea by Jerry Remick.

Latest Tasmanian Token releases.

Wanted Known – details of Canadian MTT available.

Congratulations Dominic and Fanny Labbé on the safe arrival of Amélya.


Issue 4. (July/August) Society Snippets.

“All I Need is a Token From Keller’ – by Jerry Adams.

Important Notice - regarding the necessity of placing of Internet Edition photo scans into the Archives.

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.                                                                                                                               

Unique Opportunity – Masonic Club of Tasmania. Pre-decimal tokens for sale.

‘When is a Stamp not a Stamp’ – highlighting metallic representation of postage stamps.

Bereavement – Ron Greig.

New Book Release – ‘Emergency Services Medals of Tasmania’ published by Roger McNeice.

U.S. Statehood Quarter Dollars.


Issue 5. (Sept/October)

Society Snippets – Life membership to Jerry Remick.

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.

‘The Value of Money’- how we view our money compared to our needs.

‘The Man Who Loved Women’ – the women featured on ancient Roman coins.

From the Columns.


Issue 6. (Nov/December)

Society Snippets.

South Seas Paradise – Tasmanian Tokens.

Tasmanian Tradesmen’s Tokens.

Editor’s Award 2002 (Jerry Adams).

International News – Death of US Mint Chief Engraver, Frank Gasparro.


Volume 6 – 2001 Internet Edition.

Issue 1.

Society Snippets.

Lockwood Medal – Previous Recipients List and 2000 Awardees (Paul and Dianna Kerr).

Editor’s 2001 award presentation (T.W. ‘Bill’ Holmes).

A.G.M reminder.

Bulletin - advising members of new publishing schedule.

Review of Variety article written by Ian McConnelly.

The Federation Fiver.

Tasmania Tourist Mecca

Jerry Remick’s Book Review.

Jerry’s Christmas Medals – a review by the Editor of the stunning Christmas medals issued by Jerry Remick.

Internet News.

‘What will happen When …’ (Is Currency becoming irrelevant?).

‘At a Touch’ by Dominic Labbé – Canadian coins and currency designed for the visually impaired.


Issue 2.

Society Snippets – AGM Report and ANDA Show reminder.

The Tasmanian Initiative – the introduction of a range of Tasmanian souvenir Tourist Tokens.

Centenary of Federation Medallion.

Wooden Nickels – Vive La Différence.

Internet News.

Member’s Magazine features –‘How did Ft. Worth Become Panther City?’ by Jerry Adams.


Issue 3.

Society Snippets – ANDA Show report.

Members Magazine – ‘An Interesting Comparison’ (U.S. & Australian Note and coin hoarding).

‘Should You save Those ‘Sac’ Dollars?’ – by Mike Nourse (Anchorage Coin Club).

‘Who Was Sacagawea?’ – a brief recounting of how an Indian girl aided the famous Lewis & Clark Expedition.

Variety is the Spice of Life – further discussion on the growing interest in collecting varieties and mint errors.

Jerry Remick’s Book Review.

Internet News.

Congratulations Dominic and Fanny Labbé on the safe arrival of Amélya.


Issue 4.

Members Magazine – ‘A Casual Study of ‘Liberty’ on U.S. Circulating Coins.’ by Jerry Adams.

‘The Noble Bandit – the Story of Sam Bass, Outlaw.’ by Jerry Adams.

‘Coins, Coins and More Coins’ – the plethora of Special coins.


Issue 5.

Around the Traps –  the Editor’s review of Greg McDonald’s 8th Edition ‘Coin & Banknote Pocketbook’.

Remember the ‘Don’ – noting the release of three new commemorative coins honoring the cricket legend.

Latest Tasmanian Token releases – Ellison Hawker Bookshop and The Penguin Railway Centenary.

Members Magazine -  ‘The R. E. Wallace Story – or How I got Interested in Tokens’ by Jerry Adams.

‘All Those Faces’ -  a discussion on the variety of faces on banknotes in comparison to coinage.

‘Celebrate with Exonumia.’ – an idea by Jerry Remick.

Internet News.

‘Lest We Forget’ – Anzac Day 25th April, 2001.


Issue 6.

Important Notice - regarding the necessity of placing of Internet Edition photo scans into the Archives.

Members magazine – A Short History of Keller, Texas and their tokens.’ by Jerry Adams.

‘Parlez- Vous?’ – the problems associated with identifying various foreign scripts on coins and banknotes.

U.S. Statehood Quarter Dollars.

‘Moral Restriction - or Commercial Censorship’ -  a discussion on the restrictive demands placed on eBay buyers and sellers who collect items from previous enemies.

Internet News.

Jerry Remick’s Book Review.

Unique Opportunity – Masonic Club of Tasmania. Pre-decimal tokens for sale.

Wanted Known.


Issue 7.

Congratulations – re Life Membership bestowed on Jerry Remick.

Jerry Remick’s Book Review.

Members Magazine -  ‘Messages from Mike Metras.’ by Mike Metras.

‘Those who go Down in the Sea in Ships.’ – the recovery of a early Civil War submarine, lost with all hands, and the sad story of a lucky gold US$20 coin that was not so lucky the second time around.

U.S State Quarters – release schedule update.

‘When is a Stamp not a Stamp’ - highlighting metallic representation of postage stamps.

New Book Release – ‘Emergency Services Medals of Tasmania’  published by Roger McNeice.

Bereavement – Ron Greig.

Wanted Known.

Late Internet News -  Canadian Municipal Trade Tokens by Serge Pelletier.


Issue 8.

Winter Recess – due to low attendance it was decided to call a temporary recess during Winter.

‘What does the Future Hold?’ -  with aging or dwindling memberships many clubs are asking this question.

Congratulations – Larry Nakata from our sister club, Anchorage Coin Club, was married recently.

Members Magazine – ‘The Value of Money’  - a nostalgic look back at how we valued our money.

‘The Man who Loved Women.’ - the women featured on ancient Roman coins.

Around the Traps – Mike Metras releases numismatic CD ‘ Money Meanderings’.

Wanted Known.


Issue 9.

Society Snippets.

‘The Day the World Sighed’ -  a look at the devastation caused by the 1964 Alaskan Earthquake and several of the commemorative tokens struck at the time.

‘The 1964 Alaskan Earthquake – a study of its effects.’ by Dan Goldstein.   

From the Columns – Anchorage Coin Club plan giant exposition and show.

Jerry Remick’s Book Review.

Another Book Review  with a difference – Mike Metras’ ‘ Money Meanderings’ reviewed by the Editor.

Internet News.


Issue 10.

Condolences – September 11th tragedy in New York.

Society Snippets – Restart date advised after Winter recess.

‘South Seas Paradise’ – a brief look at Tasmanian history.

‘Born to be Hanged – the story of William Andrew Jarvey, his tokens and ultimate destiny.

Of Ducals and Avrams – further information about the currency of the Duke of Avram, Prince John.

An Australian Grading System – Perhaps?! – a tongue-in-cheek look at coin grading.

From the Columns – includes details of cut-off dates and equivalent values for European currencies and the Euro.

Funny Money – some ‘funny’ money is too realistic.

Internet News.


Issue 11.

Society Snippets.

Editor’s Award 2002 (Jerry Adams)

Jerry Remick wins the Canadian  ‘J.D. Ferguson Award 2001’

Internet news.

Tasmanian Tradesmen’s Tokens – a more detailed look at tokens issued in the north of the state.


Issue 12.

Society Snippets  - change of time for BBQ meeting and Tom Williamson’s sudden hospitalisation in Launceston.

U.S. Tokens – further article from Jerry Adams.

From the Columns -  Euro Conversion – an article by Jim Davis (Elgin Coin Club).

Possible Euro Coinage – an article by Gerhard Schön of Germany

Horses for Courses – A comparison between Australian and Us Mints – one is not making enough coins and the other is laying off staff because of over production.


Volume 7 – 2002.

Issue 1. (Jan/February)

Society Snippets – including book launch - ‘Honoured Grave’ published by Roger McNeice.

A Part of History – history of the D.C.M. and the M.M.

Editor’s Review – 9th Edition Greg McDonald’s ‘Australian Coins and Banknotes’.

Market Trends.


Issue 2. (March/April)

AGM Report.

National Service Medal.

Australian Coin Review editorial changeover.

Banking and Currency Museum –Kadina.

Lady Hazel Lavery – the face on the Irish notes of yesteryear.

Meeting venue notice.

‘The Aegis of Pontos’.- a study and investigation of a  mysterious coin

Recent Queries.

Fraudulent Transactions – money scams out of Africa.


Issue 3. (May/June)

Society Snippets – Members BBQ meeting.

Next Meeting arrangements.

The Revolt of 1967 – when Greece was in turmoil.

T.N.S. Token Dollar Vouchers – a discussion regarding introduction of Society token vouchers.

Miscellaneous Q & A’s – answering basic numismatic queries from members and readers.


Issue 4. (July/August)

Society Snippets – Northern Chapter BBQ meeting.

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.

Reader’s Mailbag – a section to expand on the Q & A’s column when necessary.

Telephone Tokens – a discussion idea from Jose Rubio from Uruguay.

Replicas - tokens, coins etc. that appear occasionally that can be mistaken for a genuine article.

Miscellaneous Q & A’s – answering basic numismatic queries from members and readers.

Maverick  World Tokens – tokens of unknown origin.(Williams Bros.).


Issue 5. (Sept/October)

Society Snippets – July BBQ meeting report and Northern BBQ arrangements for December.

‘Bent, Broke, Bruised & Battered – but Not Beaten!’ – coin varieties.

‘Vive La Différence!’ – changes noticed in the issued Euro notes and coins compared to the earlier training facsimiles and specimens.

Reader’s Mailbag.

Did You Know? – a few interesting numismatic facts that may have escaped notice.

Miscellaneous Q & A’s – answering basic numismatic queries from members and readers.

T.N.S. Society Bookroom – obtainable or available items from our Bookroom.


Issue 6. (Nov/December)

Society Snippets -  Northern BBQ postponement.

Tasmanian Tourist Trail Souvenir Tokens.

Editor’s Award 2003 (Jerry Adams)

‘The Money, Medals and Miniés of Dixie!’ – a look at several facets of the American Civil War.

Miscellaneous Q & A’s – answering basic numismatic queries from members and readers.

Society Notes.


Volume 7 – 2002 Internet Edition.

Issue 1.

Society Snippets.

Book Launch - ‘Honoured Grave’ published by Roger McNeice.

A Part of History – history of the D.C.M. and the M.M.

Editor’s Review – 9th Edition Greg McDonald’s ‘Australian Coins and Banknotes’.

Market Trends.

Internet News.

Message from Mike Metras (Elgin Coin Club) regarding Sept. 11th tragedy and pending new CD release.


Issue 2.

A.G.M. Reminder.

Society Snippets – reminder Subs are also due.

Tasmanian Federation Coins – new designs in 20 and 50 cent coins to celebrate Federation are still not available.

A Message of Peace – Jerry Remick’s Christmas Medallions.

From the Columns -  a farewell to the ‘Australian Coin Review’.

National Service Medal.

A New Beginning – the unification of Europe by the new Euro currency.

Internet News.

Miscellaneous Q & A’s.


Issue 3.

A.G.M. informal report.

‘The Aegis of Pontos’.- a study and investigation of a  mysterious coin

Banking and Currency Museum –Kadina.

Internet News.

‘Out of Africa’ - fraudulent transactions and money scams.

Miscellaneous Q & A’s. – the 1939 Penny.

Lady Hazel Lavery – the face on the Irish notes of yesteryear.

Editor’s Award qualifications and rules.


Issue 4.

Society Snippets – BBQ meeting report and next meeting arrangements.

Editor’s Awards – literary submissions required for this year’s entry.

Jerry Remick’s Mailbag – a special article concerning  future Euro releases.


Chatham Is.Trade Notes – issued in 2000, dated 2001, these are still valid for 2002.

Blasts from the past – various important dates that can be tied into numismatic history,

The Revolt of 1967 – when Greece was in turmoil.

Internet News.

Miscellaneous Q & A’s – the 1752 ‘Austrian Ducat’ Funny Money issued by Reader’s Digest.


Issue 5.

Meeting Reminder.

Society Snippets.

Members Mailbag – ‘Baker’s Transfer Tokens’ article by Jerry Adams.

Worldwide Bimetallics Coin Club – various brief articles by WBCC members regarding the Euro coins.

Internet News.

‘Out of Africa’ scams – follow up. A disastrous experience for one victim.

Miscellaneous Q & A’s -  The Six Minarets gold coin and a brief explanation of the gold coins of Australia.

Anzac Medal – ‘The Star that Never Shone’ – the release of a non-official Anzac commemorative medal.


Issue 6.

Society Snippets – Northern Chapter BBQ meeting report.

The Mystery of the Missing ‘SD’ Initials – some 2 cents coins are missing the designers initials.

Tokens – What is happening in the World of Token collecting.

Token and Medals Literature -  U.S. guide to token identification.

Internet News – further discussion on Tokens of the World.

Readers Mailbag – more token articles.

Miscellaneous Q & A’s – Blacksmith Tokens, Maverick tokens, Tasmanian Tradesmen’s tokens, Telephone tokens.

Replicas – the growing problem of quality replicas of valuable coins.   


Issue 7.

Society Snippets.

Members mailbag.

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.

Members Profile – Jerry Adams’ High School Project. Plans drawn by Jerry Adams.

Internet News

‘Bent, Broke, Bruised & Battered – but Not Beaten!’ – coin varieties.

‘Did You Know?’ – numismatic trivia.

Readers Mailbag – various comments.

Miscellaneous Q & A’s – the history of Silver Ingots as money.



Issue 8.

July BBQ meeting report.

A Little More Variety’ – Comments and discussion about Australian coin varieties.

‘Vive La Différence!’ – changes noticed in the issued Euro notes and coins compared to the earlier training facsimiles and specimens.

Readers Mailbag – various emails.

‘Did You Know?’ – numismatic trivia. concerning the ECU fantasy coin issues predating the Euros.

 Profile – Mike Metras from Elgin Coin Club ‘Travels of a Youth’ depicts the writer’s experiences in Ethiopia.

Miscellaneous Q & A’s – ‘please make questions reasonable’ request to contributors.


Issue 9.

BBQ Meeting reminder.

Review of the 2002 NTCA Token Show held in Omaha, Nebraska, USA by Jerry Adams.

Miscellaneous Q & A’s -  1919 issue Victory Medal.

Federation of Australia, details of Tasmanian State issues release.

Readers Mailbag – various emails.

Retrospect – Money Matters Revisited (What is happening to our banking system?)


Issue 10.

Society Snippets – BBQ meeting reminder.

The Finalisation of a Notable Collection – T.W. Bill’ Holmes prepares to sell off the majority of his collection.

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.

‘Token Tales – the story of Lee & Reynolds’ – by Jerry Adams.

Apology -  Mike Hargreave-Mawson, author of many Crimean War histories, forgave us for inadvertently using an illustration and text which we omitted to attribute to him.

Wanted Known – Mos Byrnes’ decline in health.

Readers Mailbag -  the WBCC’s co-founder, Martin Peeters (the ‘Long Distance Traveller’), arrives in Australia and we get his daily reports, via Rod Sell.

Miscellaneous Q & A’s – the signatories on Australian Paper currency.


Issue 11.

December BBQ meeting cancellation and apology. (Rescheduled for Hobart.)

Tasmanian Tourist Souvenir Tokens – several new releases from Ozmint.

Editor’s Award 2003 (Jerry Adams).

Readers Mailbag – including Crimean War Research Society details supplied by Mike Hargreave -Mawson.

‘The Money, Medals and Miniés of Dixie’ – an extensive article compiled jointly by Jerry Adams and the Editor.

Miscellaneous Q & A’s – Trade Dollars of the World.


Issue 12.

Society Snippets.

‘The Bison and the Indian’ – an in depth article by Jerry Adams, about the famous Indian Head design nickel and how it was used to form the equally famous Hobo nickels of the Depression era.

Beaconsfield Gold – a look back at the mines that drowned but are now being revived with modern technology.

Coins Of Commodus.

Readers Mailbag – various emails about coins.

Jerry Remick’s Book Reviews.

To be continued.