‘NUMISNET WORLD’

  Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996)


       Volume 22                                               Issue 9                                                    September  2017


 

SNIPPETS, QUESTIONS & ANSWERS!

OLD STUFF...and NEW STUFF!

 

Compiled and Edited

by

Graeme Petterwood.

Even though the title implies that this publication is mainly about numismatic items that interest our international readers - I encourage and invite discussions about virtually anything decent and reasonable- particularly, in any closely associated hobby or trivia-type areas that may be of mutual interest.

Storylines will be interesting, hopefully, and I may even encourage a bit of gossip at times! 

Whilst this revised publication is no longer an official auspice of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' - or any other association or club - it does maintain close friendly relationships with the Society and several other groups and organizations, and, it will feature articles and issue reminders from those sources, on occasion, as a mutual service.

This new version of the 'Numisnet World' publication may also be linked to other forums for distribution - and it will be uploaded to the Internet whenever it is convenient -  and when, the subject matter is of interest and sufficient in quantity to attract and entertain new readers  - but, hopefully,  not bore - old friends.

 

PREVIOUS NEWSLETTER ARCHIVES:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aprilnews.html

 

**********************************************************

Q & A Reminder!

Readers are reminded that - while the 'Numisnet World' is prepared to try to find answers to any pertinent numismatic questions you may have regarding the study of money in its usual forms  - we also cover the more common types of exonumia.  Things like medals, medallions, 'funny' money - cash vouchers, local currency and tokens etc. all fall into this category - so, if you want answers - ask the questions! (Please note illustrations are not always to scale.)

 

**********************************************************

 

'Flames of Fear'

 

 

by Roger V. McNeice OAM.

 

We have been recently advised that an extra special price is available, for a limited time to selected groups, on the final first edition copies of  'Flames of Fear' - and it has been kindly extended to our 'Numisnet World' readers - by the renowned author, Roger V McNeice OAM. 

 

(Normal retail price is AUD$75.00 plus postage/handling)

Special Offer Price :- AUD$50.00 (plus AUD$14.00 postage).

 

 

(Special postage rates can be discussed for quantities of 5 books or over)

 

 

This is a graphic tale of tragedy and heroism that touched so many individuals and families in our state of Tasmania - and our Australian nation - over 50 years ago - and, it is a timely reminder as so many details of this momentous time are now slowly fading into the smoke of history.

 

The facts, many previously unpublished, were painstakingly compiled by the author - a former high ranking fire officer - and they were presented for perusal by those who lived through those terrible days - the desperate hours - and, the aftermath of those 'flames of fear'.

 

However, the well-indexed and illustrated 370 page book is also essential reading for those others in our extended community - the hundreds of volunteers and, especially, the 'firies' - whose lives were forever altered because of the events that occurred during that 'Black Tuesday' from Hell on 7th. February 1967.

 

The lessons learned in 1967 must never be forgotten - or treated with complacency!

 

It is recommended that those readers, who want to add this book to their library, contact the author direct, at the address shown below, for details and how to order their copies of  'Flames of Fear' .

 

 

ROGER V. McNEICE OAM.

 

 

P.O.  Box 27

 

Kingston

 

Tasmania 7051.

 

 

Email:- rvmn@internode.on.net

 

 

Mobile Phone :-  0408 276 279

 

 

FLAMES OF FEAR!

 

"The most well-researched collation of facts and tales that I have read - relating to

the humanity, heroism and tragedy - the terrors and errors - of Black Tuesday Feb. 7th. 1967."

 

**********************************************************

U.S. DOLLAR COINS

Although I do not possess a sample of every U.S. coin ever minted and issued for general circulation, I do have a smattering of basic U.S. coin types including the various sized Dollar coins - they are in many conditions of preservation and in assorted metals.

I have been fortunate to accumulate some of these scarce bits 'n' pieces over the last few decades of gathering world coins, and - in the main - they represent that historic era we now refer to as the 'modern days' - from the turn of the 1800's, the 1900's and into the 2000's.

That those times, and those 'newer' coins, are also rapidly becoming historic - is a fact of life.

 

As modern electronic technology overtakes the world of monetary transactions - and cash becomes a thing our parents and grand-parents used - it might be advisable to seek and possess some of the better examples of these pieces of numismatic memorabilia before they completely disappear, or, are priced into the realm of rarities.

These samples of older U.S. Dollar coins (shown below) are made of different grades of Silver, Silver-coated alloys or Copper-Nickel, and, more recently, a type of coated manganese brass!

 

(Scans not to scale)

 

LIBERTY HEAD OR MORGAN TYPE  1878 - 1921

Designer:- George T. Morgan

Weight:- 26.73 grams

Composition:- .900 Silver, .100 Copper

Diameter:- 38.1mm. Reeded edge.

Net weight Pure Silver:- .77344 oz.

Mints:- Philadelphia, New Orleans, Carson City, Denver, San Francisco

Mintmark:- Below  reverse wreath

Designer's initial:- Single letter M on the base of neck near lower tress of hair on Obverse, and also within ribbon loop on Reverse.

 

PEACE TYPE 1921 - 1935

Designer:- Anthony De Fransisci

Weight:- 26.73 grams

Composition:- .900 Silver, .100 Copper

Diameter:- 38.1mm.Reeded edge.

Net weight Pure Silver:- .77344 oz.

Mints:- Philadelphia, Denver, San Francisco

Mintmark:- Below  Reverse wreath

Designer's initials:- Initials AF co-joined under truncation of neck on Obverse

 

 

EISENHOWER DOLLARS 1971 - 1978

Designer:- Frank Gasparro

Weight:- 22.68 grams

Composition:- Copper-Nickel (.750 Copper, .250 Nickel outer layer bonded to Pure Copper core)

Diameter:- 38.1mm. Reeded edge.

Mints:- Philadelphia, Denver, San Francisco

Mintmark:- Below Eisenhower's bust neck truncation on Obverse  Philadelphia P does not appear on these coins

Designer's initials:- Initials FG below tail feathers of Eagle on Reverse

 

EISENHOWER DOLLAR BICENTENNIAL COIN dated 1776 - 1976 (1976 issue only)

Designer:- Dennis R. Williams

Weight:- 22.68 grams

Composition:- Copper-Nickel (.750 Copper, .250 Nickel outer layer bonded to Pure Copper core)

Diameter:- 38.1mm. Reeded edge.

Mints:- Philadelphia, Denver, San Francisco

Mintmark:- Below Eisenhower's bust neck truncation on Obverse  Philadelphia P does not appear on these coins

Designer's initials:- Initials DRW near bell striker on Reverse

 

ANTHONY DOLLARS 1979 - 1999

Designer:- Frank Gasparro

Weight:- 8.1 grams

Composition:- Copper-Nickel (.750 Copper, .250 Nickel outer layer bonded to Pure Copper core)

Diameter:- 26.5mm. Reeded edge.

Mints:- Philadelphia, Denver, San Francisco

Mintmark:- Above Anthony's right shoulder on the Obverse

Designer's initials:- Initials FG below tail feathers of Eagle on Reverse

 

SACAGAWEA DOLLARS 2000 - 2006

Obverse Designer:- Glenna Goodacre

Reverse Designer:- Thomas D. Rogers Snr.

Weight:- 8.1 grams. (Gold in colour).

Composition:- Outer layers Manganese Brass (.770 Copper, .120 Zinc, .070 Manganese and .040 Nickel over a Pure Copper core.

Diameter:- 26.5mm. Plain edge.

Mints:- Philadelphia, Denver, San Francisco

Mintmark:- Under Date on Obverse.

Designers' initials:- Initials GG under Baby's Carry Blanket on Obverse and TDR below Eagle's tail Feathers on Reverse.

 

PRESIDENTS' PORTRAIT DOLLARS 2007 - 2017 (Selection)

Designers:- Don Everhart, Joseph P. Menna - et al

Weight:-  8.1 grams. (Gold in colour)

Composition:- Outer layers Manganese Brass (.770 Copper, .120 Zinc, .070 Manganese and .040 Nickel) Pure Copper core.

Diameter:- 26.5mm. Plain edge with inscribed Mottos - 'In God We Trust' 'E Pluribus Unum' - and Minting Date

Mints:- Philadelphia, Denver, San Francisco

Mintmark:- Under Date on 'Statue of Liberty' Obverse.

Designers' initials:- Various Initials DE, JPM,  CLV  etc. on left side of bust on Obverse; and DE below Liberty's left hand on Reverse.

 

***************************************************

SOME OTHER U.S. ODDMENTS

You will note some obvious gaps in the dates of the samples selected. Unfortunately, I do not have examples of all the coin types that were produced - many for only relatively short periods of time.

Always refer to a good U.S. coin catalogue for additional details.

Scan qualities vary as some of these older circulation coins are well-worn or have suffered other damage.

 

 

U.S. COPPER LARGE LIBERTY CENTS (1793 - 1857)

Considerable amount of varieties sighted. Coins usually found in lower grades of condition.

All coined at the Philadelphia Mint. No Mintmark.

Diameter:- Approx. 27.5 - 29mm. Plain edge.

1806. Weight 10.89 grams Draped Bust - Designer:- Robert Scot

1826. Weight 10.89 grams Matron Head - Designer:- Robert Scot

1853. Weight 10.89 grams Young Head - Designer:- Christian Golbrecht

Reverse:- Words 'ONE CENT' within wreath.

 

U.S. BRONZE TWO CENTS (1864 - 1873)

Composition:- .950 Copper, .050 Tin and Zinc. Weight:- 6.22 grams. Diameter:- 23mm.Plain edge.

Shield Obverse. Numeral 2 near top within wreath Reverse.

All coined at the Philadelphia Mint. No Mintmark.

1865. 1868. Designer:- James B. Longacre

 

U.S. NICKEL THREE-CENT PIECES 1865 - 1889

Composition:- .750 Copper, .250 Nickel. Weight 1.94 grams. Diameter:- 17.9mm. Plain edge

Liberty Head Obverse. Roman III (3) within wreath Reverse.

 All coined at the Philadelphia Mint. No Mintmark.

1868. Designer:- James B. Longacre.

(Enlarged scans)

 

U.S. SILVER HALF DIME (1829 - 1837)

Composition:- .8924 Silver, .1076 Copper. Weight 1.35 grams. Diameter:- 15.5mm. Reeded edge.

Liberty Capped Bust  Eagle with Shield chest Reverse

All coined at the Philadelphia Mint. No Mintmark. (Obverse toning).

1832. Designer:- William Kneass.

 

U.S. SILVER HALF DIME (1853 - 1855)

Composition:- .900 Silver, .100 Copper. Weight 1.24 grams. Diameter 15.5mm. Reeded edge. (Holed & worn)

Liberty Seated (Variety 3) Arrows at date Obverse. Wording 'HALF DIME' within wreath Reverse.

Coined at Philadelphia, New Orleans, San Francisco.

1853. Designer:- Christian Golbrecht.

Mintmarks of various sizes above wreath ribbon Reverse.

 

U.S. NICKEL FIVE -CENT PIECES (1866 - 1883)

Composition:- .750 Copper, .250 Nickel. Weight 5 grams. Diameter 20.5mm. Plain edge.

All coined at Philadelphia Mint. No mintmark.

Shield Obverse. Large number 5 within circle of 13 Stars (Varieties) Reverse.

1868. Designer:- James B. Longacre.

 

U.S. NICKEL FIVE - CENT PIECES (1883 - 1912)

Composition:- .750 Copper, .250 Nickel. Weight 5 grams. Diameter 21.2mm. Plain edge.

Liberty Head Obverse. Roman V (5) within wreath Reverse.

Coined at Philadelphia, Denver, San Francisco.

1884. Designer:- Charles E. Barber.

Mintmarks under dot before word 'CENTS' on Reverse.

 

U.S. NICKEL FIVE - CENT PIECES (1913- 1938)

Composition:- .750 Copper, .250 Nickel. Weight 5 grams. Diameter 21.2mm. Plain edge.

Coined at Philadelphia, Denver, San Francisco.

Indian Head Obverse. American Bison Reverse

1936. Designer:- James E. Fraser

Mintmarks under words 'FIVE CENTS" on Reverse.

 

**********************************************************

HOW IT USED TO BE!

At the beginning of 1966, the circulating Imperial-style currency in Australia had been stable since 1911 when the introduction of a dedicated range of basic coins and banknotes became indicative of our Australian nationhood.

 

We had retained the English system of Pounds, Shillings and Pence - with a few exceptions -  as we surged forward as an independent entity. We went from being a convict dumping-ground and colonial outpost of the British Empire - to a vibrant young country striving to find our own destiny - and our new coinage was, eventually, going to be another reflection of that determination to succeed!.

 

For a while, the English coinage, in particular, continued to circulate in tandem with the new Australian Bronze and Sterling Silver - but it disappeared relatively quickly - and Farthings, Half Crowns, Crowns - and even locally minted Half and Full Sovereigns of Gold - became scarce or 'obsolete' virtually overnight.

Some of the colonial coins - particularly those of precious metal - were gathered by those who could afford to hoard them as bullion - while others, of less noble metals, were kept as curios and were forgotten in time!

 

As a child of the pre-WWII era, I can still recollect having seen King Edward VII - and, even earlier Queen Victoria issues. Half-Pennies and Pennies with unusual reverses - that I now know were English - laying scattered in the bottom of my grandparents' old kitchen cabinet drawer, and, they would even turn up in pocket change, on occasion, as they were slipped back into circulation by the needy.

 

For those who came in late, I will try to explain the older system of pre-decimal coinage etc.

I have used Greg McDonald's Pocket Guide - 'Australian Coins and Banknotes' - as my main reference.

 

In the late 1800's, the polyglot of assorted colonial coinages, tokens, foreign issues  - and private bank issues of paper currency - were still creating a burden to commerce and individuals alike - although steps had been taken to curtail the problem.

However, the first few Silver denominations, with reverses specifically designed and issued for Australia after Federation -  needed to be curtailed soon after they were released in 1910, due to the sudden death of King Edward VII.

After this false start, Australia needed to start again, in 1911, when  King George V was crowned.

Most of the new dedicated Australian coinage, for the first few years, was minted in England, or India, because - at that time - Australia was not capable of making that many coin denominations in its limited facilities in Sydney and Melbourne to supply the national need quickly. It was not until the 1920 era - after so many things had changed in the world -  that we followed our destiny and started to produce our own coinage..

 

ENGLISH SMALL CHANGE COINAGE - SOMETIMES FOUND IN AUSTRALIA

....of Queens -Victoria and Elizabeth II,

...and Kings - Edward VII, George V, George VI 

 

NOTE- These pictures of English coins include some samples- that were, occasionally, found mixed with similar-sized and shaped Australian small change prior to Federation in 1910 and decimalization in 1966.

The Bronze Farthing, the KGVI dodecagonal (12 sided) Nickel-Brass Threepence (that replaced the Silver Threepences of previous monarchs), as well as Half Crowns, a Double-Florin and Crowns were not compatible.

 

The new Australian national currency range was already abbreviated from that of the English homeland   - and, as mentioned, we had dropped some of the denominations - the Half-farthings,  Farthings, Half Crowns, Double Florins and Crowns - as non-essential to our new national economy.

 

Australian minted Gold Sovereigns and Half-Sovereigns

These coins circulated until 1931.

 

We retained the precious metal integrity of our lesser Australian coinage and the inherited coin shapes -  for a longer period than England after the ascension of King George VI.

 

Early King George V - c. 1911-12 - samples of Australian well circulated coinage.

Although monarchs changed in 1936, several of these reverse designs lasted until 1938

 

1939-64 Australian revised reverses of coinage denominations.

 

King George VI - Sterling Silver 1937-8 Australian Crowns (value 5 Shillings)

 

In 1937 and 1938, Sterling Silver Crowns made a brief appearance in our Australian coinage range  - this has been discussed recently - but, the coin never became a standard as it was too large to be conveniently handled.

Many of the 1937 Crowns were hoarded as souvenirs - a 'commemorative' issue - celebrating the ascension to the English throne by King George VI - and, the 1938 issue were in such limited quantity that they have become a sought after reminder of the era and command a premium when they come onto the numismatic market..

 

While the Half-Penny, Penny, Threepence, Sixpence, Shilling and Florin became our coinage mainstays - the Ten Shillings, Pound, Five Pounds and Ten Pounds issued by the Commonwealth of Australia were our paper banknotes of common usage.  Private bank issues were withdrawn as the official banknotes became entrenched.

 

 

Samples of King George V Ten Shillings and One Pound notes from the 1920-30's

 

Banks and large businesses had previously used a system that included notes of higher denomination - 20, 50, 100 and 1000 Pounds -  for internal trading and these were, occasionally, obtained and handled by members of the public for certain transactions that needed large cash transfers.  The C of A continued this practice until 1945 or so, but the larger denominations were gradually phased out from the 1920's .

 

I can remember seeing my grandparents receive a 100 Pound note for a necessary transaction in the mid 1940's - just after WWII - and, I was even allowed to handle the blue note for a brief moment - before it was whisked away back to the bank. It was a really 'big deal' for the family at that time - so, it was a moment I have never forgotten.

 

Scan courtesy of

Greg McDonald's annual 'Australian Coins and Banknotes' Pocket Guide*.

GREG McDONALD PUBLISHING and NUMISMATICS Pty.Ltd.

Email:- gregmcdonaldpublishing@gmail.com

or

greg.mcdonald@iinet.net.au

 

The Imperial coinage system was far more complicated than our decimal based currency of today.

The symbols for Pence and Pounds, for instance, were based on abbreviations of old Roman symbols of 'd.' short for denarius (equivalent to the penny) and a stylized L-shape £ (for Libra - the pound weight.)

 

2 Half-pennies  equalled one Penny. 1d.

6 Half-pennies  or 3 Pennies (Pence) equalled Threepence. 3d.

12 Half-pennies, 6 Pennies (Pence) or 2 Threepences equalled a Sixpence. 6d.

24 Half-pennies, 12 Pennies (Pence), 4 Threepences or 2 Sixpences equalled a Shilling. 1/-

48 Half-pennies, 24 Pennies (Pence), 6 Threepences or 4 Sixpences equalled a Florin - a value of 2 Shillings. 2/-

 

240 Half-pennies, 120 Pennies (Pence), 40 Threepences, 20 Sixpences, 10 Shillings or 5 Florins equalled a 10/- (Ten Shilling) paper note

480 Half-pennies, 240 Pennies (Pence) 80 Threepences, 40 Sixpences, 20 Shillings or 10 Florins equalled a £1 (One Pound) paper note.

 

In transactions, an amount of money (e.g. Ten Pounds, Five Shillings and Eleven Pence) may have been shown thus on an account or statement:- £10/5/11. 

Another example (e.g. One Hundred and Seven Pounds, Nineteen Shillings and Twopence) would show:- £107/19/2.

(The word 'twopence' would normally be pronounced as 'Tuppence' - and Threepence as 'Thrippence')

Sometimes, the acute slash sign was replaced with a stop. - (e.g. One Pound, Ten Shillings and Sixpence) £1. 10. 6.

 

Slang terms from England had been a part of the colonial Australian money culture since the mid 1800's  - but some new names were introduced by returned WWI servicemen, and were often used by many middle-class Australians.

A further check of English money-slang origins may turn up some interesting military roots.

*Along with several other good reasons for the nickname, the term 'Bob' possibly came from the English short name for Robert (Walpole) who was  the Kings Paymaster and responsible for the 'Kings Shilling' recruitment fee paid to enlisting soldiers in the 1700's.

 

The 3d. (Threepence) became a 'Trey' (probably a take-off of the French word 'trois 'for 3).

The 6d. Sixpence became a 'Tanner' or  'Zac'.

The 1/- Shilling became a 'Deener' (after a similar sized Mid-Eastern coin, the Dinar - which had also taken its name from the Roman denier) - or a 'Bob'.

The 2/- Florin was usually called 'Two Bob' .

 

During WWII, the Crown (value 5 Shillings) also became known as a 'Dollar' as a spin-off of the similar-sized  circulating US silver coin used by American troops, on leave in Australia, from the Pacific arena..

 

The paper money Ten Shillings became 'Ten Bob' or Half-a-Quid', the Pound  £1 became a 'Quid' - a derivation of the  Gaelic word 'cuid' - meaning money - used by many Irish and Scotch  Gaelic-speaking troops in the British Army

 

Sometimes the colour influenced other slang names - £5 became 'Blueys'  or 5 'Quid ' ... and the  £10 notes were 'Bricks' or 10 'Quid'.

 

Other slang names adopted from the gambling-game 'Two-Up' (also known as 'Swy') were also used - but, the ones mentioned above were most prevalent in Australia.

 

 

 

 

Australian Paper Money c. late 1930's and early 1940's.

 

* Samples not to scale - for illustration purposes only.

**********************************************************

THE JINGLE THAT JANGLES!

 

Our aim as numismatists, is to procure the best examples that are available within our means - either by our own diligence or by purchase.  However, at the other end of the scale, are those other examples that we seem to gather without trying - those that have suffered undue hardship and abuse - deliberate or otherwise.

Gatherers, of those wonderful round metal pieces - called coins - may relate to this 'thought bubble' - which was prompted by a recent discussion of several presentations at a 'Numismatic Society of South Australia Inc.' meeting, and mentioned, in their quarterly newsletter #120, by long-time colleague and acquaintance, Mick Vort-Ronald (pic.).

Occasionally, these can also be very intriguing and collectible -  if - they have suffered in an interesting manner!

 

The N.S.S.A. article had, specifically, mentioned and shown illustrations of 'planchet flaws', and it reminded me that I had similar items in my accumulation of 'mangled money' acquired in Tasmania over the years..

Other miscellaneous  items - besides the normal, bitten coins, planchet flaws, filled dies, die-cracks, cuds, double-strikes etc. -  also caught my attention as I browsed through my own hoard of 'jingle that jangles' - so I decided to share a few of these jangled bits that may strike an harmonious chord with readers! (Illustrations not to scale.)

 

 

THE JINGLE THAT JANGLES!

A Ten Cent with a 'sharp enough to cut' rim protrusion.

A Twenty Cent within a smooth collar - no rim milling.

Fifty Cent coin reverse with apparent multiple strikes.

Two examples of super-toned Twenty Cent coins.

Commemorative Dollar with Rim faults.

Serious Lamination faults on 1934 Half-penny reverse.

Wafer-thin planchet 1919 Half-penny.

 

As you can see, the oddities scope can be as large as your imagination!

**********************************************************

RECENT SURPRISE!

Due to an extremely debilitating flu-like viral cold that swept through my family in late July during the preceding week to my 80th. Birthday, it was decided to cancel the small intimate Birthday get-together planned for August 1st. at my youngest daughter's home

It was decided we would have a make-up evening - a family 'eat & run - come as you are' supper - at our local 'Over 50's Club' a few days later when we had all recovered sufficiently.

 

Imagine the look on my face - and the laughter of those present - when I arrived at the appointed time, walked into the Dining Room in my 'come as you are' gear - and found I had really been given the works!

 

SURPRISE! There were already over 2 dozen people in the private Dining room and it was all set up for a party with balloons etc. I was suitably impressed to see my kids, most of my grandkids - and most of my extended family - plus some old dear friends, including T.N.S. Secretary, Chris Heath, who made a second trip from Hobart in the one week to be part of the surprise - as well as my old Artillery mate and long-time friend, Gunter Breier, and his charming wife, Catherine - and it brightened me up so much that I actually had a lovely 80th Birthday Party - it was a few days late ... but it all happened!

The 80th.Birthday cake with gold-wrapped 'Chocolate Coins' was appropriate!

 

 

'THANK YOU ALL FOR SUCH A WONDERFUL EVENING!'

 

The month of August was over-flowing with milestone birthday anniversaries- but, we all survived!  My 80th. started the month  - my youngest daughter's 50th. was roughly in the middle - and my eldest grandson's 30th., closed off the festivities near the end.

Bring on September!

 

**********************************************************

FAIR USAGE & COPYRIGHT PROVISIONS.

Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comment regarding numismatics, in particular, will always be welcome for consideration, however, this invitation is not a guarantee of discussion or publication.

As in previous publications - certain items from other sources may be subject to copyright restrictions, and, when warranted, they shall be specifically marked accordingly ©  - so, please, be fully aware that, to maintain its free access, this publication will still need to abide by established privacy and copyright parameters suggested by our site host.

Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in this publication are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Editor or Compiler - and ALL comments in linked articles remain the responsibility of the original authors.

Bearing in mind our public disclaimers (see below), any Internet links selected by the authors of this news-sheet, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to:

(1) Illustrations - or - (2) To provide additional important information. - and this publication, and its Editor or Compiler, accept, no responsibility for their content.

The contents of this independent Internet publication, and all prior associated newsletter issues - including excerpts from the 'Tasmanian Numismatist - Internet Edition' - and previous 'Numisnet World' (Internet Edition) are subject to certain public usage provisions and copyright conditions ©.

 

Articles or comments submitted herein can be fairly used to promote the great hobby of numismatics; however, permission must be sought by commercial interests if they wish to use any of our copy for promotional purposes. 

This permission, however, does not extend to any article specifically marked as copyrighted © by the author of the article.

Explicit permission from the author, or the Compiler of the Numisnet World' - and other publications mentioned herewith, is required - in writing or by electronic correspondence - prior to use of that material.

Some illustrated items - including their designs, brand names and packaging -  may also be subject to existing copyright restrictions.

In such instances, they may not be replicated or their images reproduced or republished - unless prior permission is sought from, and given by, the originator, owner or licensee of such item, design or packaging.

By publication of this provision, 'Numisnet World' has indicated that it accepts no responsibility for breaches of these protocols occasioned by readers of this Internet publication.

DISCLAIMER

All details of a commercial nature, organisations, items or individual arrangement to buy, sell or trade are provided in good faith as information only, and any consequent dealings are between the parties concerned. 

The 'Numisnet World' takes no responsibility for disagreements between parties, and also reserves the right to only feature information that it considers suitable in promoting the hobby to our readers and we also reserve the right to refuse publication of offensive material or that which we consider to be of an unsuitable nature.

PRIVACY PROTECTION

The 'Numisnet World' complies with the Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act.

Under this act, information about individuals can be stored and published only if: the information is already contained in a publicly available document or if personal information has been provided by the individual to whom the information relates, and if that individual is aware of the purposes for which the information is being collected.

While the ''Numisnet World' may hold some writers' addresses and other details for the purposes of communication and copyright protection, it will never make such addresses or details available to any member of the public without the permission of those involved.

The 'Numisnet World'' also respects the privacy of our readers. When you write to us with comments, queries or suggestions, you may provide us with personal information including your contact address or other relevant information. Your personal information will never be made available to a third party without permission.

'Numisnet World'

P.O. Box 10,

Ravenswood. 7250. Tasmania.

Australia.

Email: pwood@vision.net.au