Formerly published as the 'Tasmanian Numismatist' - Internet Edition' (Est. 1996).

       Volume 22                                               Issue 7                                                       July  2017





Compiled and Edited


Graeme Petterwood.

Even though the title implies that this publication is mainly about numismatic items that interest our international readers - I encourage and invite discussions about virtually anything decent and reasonable- particularly, in any closely associated hobby or trivia-type areas that may be of mutual interest.

Storylines will be interesting, hopefully, and I may even encourage a bit of gossip at times! 

I have also dropped the designation N.S. (News Sheet) as this no longer applies.


Whilst this revised publication is no longer an official auspice of the 'Tasmanian Numismatic Society' - or any other association or club - it does maintain close friendly relationships with the Society and several other groups and organizations, and, it will feature articles and issue reminders from those sources, on occasion, as a mutual service.

This new version of the 'Numisnet World' publication may also be linked to other forums for distribution - and it will be uploaded to the Internet whenever it is convenient -  and when, the subject matter is of interest and sufficient in quantity to attract and entertain new readers  - but, hopefully,  not bore - old friends.


PREVIOUS NEWSLETTER ARCHIVES:- http://www.vision.net.au/~pwood/aprilnews.html



Q & A Reminder!

Readers are reminded that - while the 'Numisnet World' is prepared to try to find answers to any pertinent numismatic questions you may have regarding the study of money in its usual forms  - we also cover the more common types of exonumia.  Things like medals, medallions, 'funny' money - cash vouchers, local currency and tokens etc. all fall into this category - so, if you want answers - ask the questions! (Please note illustrations are not always to scale.)



To complement and finalize the original query regarding 20th Century Occupation Currency and other Emergency Money (see Issue #6) I have added some extra illustrations of military notes for readers' perusal.

With Japanese Invasion Money, in particular, no reliable printing numbers are available.

Not all denominations of each issue are available for viewing. Illustrations not to scale.

Refer to a good catalogue (e.g. Krause's 'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money') for additional details.


These small Military Currency notes are typical of the types that Allied troops used, at the end of WWII, in France, Germany, Italy and Japan - and are the most commonly encountered at coin markets


The (Series 641) Military Payment Certificates (shown below) were of the type used by U.S. Military forces in various fields of operation during the 1960's. The M.P.C. notes in this form were originally initiated during and after WWII and there are several series seen in market accumulations.


1965 U.S. 5Cent Military Payment Certificate. (Photo-library copy*)

1965 U.S. 10Cent Military Payment Certificate.



Prior the start of the Pacific theatre of WWII, when Japan entered the conflict by attacking the U.S. Fleet at Pearl Harbor, that nation had already been engaged in a brutal invasion of parts of China for a considerable time. In occupied areas of China, the Japanese Government had issued over-stamped older issues of Japanese Sen currency and the troops were paid in these notes and Chinese businesses were forced to accept them or suffer dire consequences. 


Japanese notes for military use in China (1938-40)

Due to the success of the Chinese experiment, it was not a hard call to extend - and improve - the system to other parts of Asia that fell to the Japanese military.

A generic range of notes was conceived, and - with slight alterations, such as colour changes, series letters and denomination names - the variety of illustrations on the printing plates could be easily adapted to local conditions.


Japanese Invasion Money for use in Burma (B) & Malaya (M) - (1942-44)


Japanese Invasion Money (aka J.I.M.) for use in East Indies & Oceania.


Initial issue J.I.M. for the Philippines (1942).

The occupation of the U.S. protectorate of the Philippines, however, was a major step for Japan, and, after the initial issues of J.I.M., the resistance to acceptance of the generic notes was not lost on the Japanese and they made a more elaborate form of currency that was employed in an effort to maintain a viable economy in the mutual 'co-prosperity' sphere forced upon the inhabitants!


In some areas, with authorization from the Philippine Government in exile, local partisans started printing issues of their own paper money (a few samples shown - not to scale) - using whatever materials were available and improvising printing presses. Bearers of such currency were subject to torture and summary execution, by the Japanese military, if caught.

The printings far exceeded the amounts authorized - but, to complicate matters even further, the invading Japanese seized the printing plates in Bohol - and got in on the act of printing and issuing this currency for their own use.

The synopsis of the provincial events is available in Krause's 'Standard Catalog of World Paper Money' (Specialized Issues) Volume One.  Counterfeits were rampant and the catalogue should be consulted for further details


Some official printings were rudimentary and on paper that did not age well when used in tropical conditions.

The notes from Bohol and Negros Provinces were even printed on  available heavy manila paper normally used for sugar-bags - but - all were intended to be redeemed in due course by the legitimate Government of the Philippines.  Notes known to have been printed by the Japanese were to be excluded from this redemption and known details are shown in Krause's 'Standard  Catalog of World Paper Money' (Specialized Issues) Volume One.


Provinces of Bohol (1942) and Negros Island (1944)

(These notes are of the types issued by local partisans using improvised paper materials.)

Provincial notes of Mountain Province (1942), Iloilo (1941-42 -44) and Negros Occidental (1942).

Samples found today are often pristine - from being hidden away - or, they are very well-worn!

Collectors can expect to pick up samples of this Emergency scrip at reasonable market prices starting at a few dollars.


The second issue of Japanese 'official' notes (1943) was on reasonably good watermarked paper, and - in imitation of U.S. notes that had been in use prior to the invasion - they were one sized. The fronts of notes of One Peso and above were similarly decorated with the Rizal Monument and serial numbered instead of the country of origin letters that were used on the invasion notes distributed elsewhere.

These earlier invasion notes can be identified with area letters ... B = Burma, M = Malaya, O = Oceania, S = Sumatra  ... and P = Philippines.  Occasionally, a second letter was added to signify a province or other major area..

The backs were usually relatively basic with scrollwork and denomination shown by number or word..

The Invasion Note preparation was not always professionally done, due to the haste in putting the new Japanese Government currency on the street - various examples of poor cutting, plate misalignment, and ink smudges etc. were abundant (see below).




Due to the enormous quantities of these Japanese Invasion Money (J.I.M.) issues that were available in uncirculated condition after WWII - the buying prices for Military currency collectors has always been very low as a rule. It is only very recently - after 70 years of delving through dealers' scratch boxes or 'cheapies' folders for the odd scarce note to complete a denomination range - that J.I.M. gatherers have noted a slight increase in prices as retailers' stocks of top quality notes are slowly diminishing.

Many of the Philippines' J.I.M. uncirculated notes were purloined by the bale-load from storages by crooked speculators and were passed in for reimbursement - and/or stamped illegally as having passed through the Reparation organization at war's end - so many in fact, that the system crashed and the notes became worthless and tonnes were officially destroyed. However, it doesn't seem to make much difference in the collector market price structure.



CAVEAT EMPTOR - Buy and Sell sites on the Internet are also trending upwards in prices for these notes - however, don't get carried away - or get me wrong - there are still literally tonnes of these J.I.M. notes hoarded away - stamped and unstamped. I have no doubt, they will appear again in substantial numbers as time passes and prices tempt inheritors of collections to re-sell these interesting pieces of historical occupation paper-money.



During the initial, successful years of the occupation of Europe during WWII by troops of Nazi Germany, the  issue of currency notes was under the strict control of the military administration.

In some of the more friendly places - such as Ukraine - they printed and issued low value bi-lingual notes that were for use by the population as well as military personnel - but, they also took control of the official note-printing facilities of the conquered nations - like France - and authorized production of higher value notes for commercial use and to maintain the economy.






1941 - 1942 Occupied France - Officially issued 20, 50, 100 & 500 Francs notes.



 My Favourite Coins from 1937 - 1938



The 1937 Australian .925 Sterling Silver Crown coin was the first of its kind, and, it is just a little bit older than I am  - but not much -  I turned up a few months later - on the 1st.August 1937.

However, even though I share this commemorative piece of good Silver with others - far more noble - I do like to think of it as my own 'special' anniversary year coin - as no other Australian coins were struck for general circulation in that year of 1937.


The Commonwealth of Australia issued approximately 1,008,000 pieces - each 1937 Crown coin had a 38.5mm.diameter and weighed 28.27 grams - and - to close this momentous first year for me, the Mint issued a few more of these Sterling Silver Crowns - the last 101,000 of their kind -  dated 1938, to round it all off.

The 1937 Crown was, obviously, struck to struck to commemorate my forthcoming birth - as well as the ascension to the throne of Great Britain of Prince Albert - 'Bertie' - who was to be regally known as King George VI - after the death of his father George V.




'Bertie' was a quiet, dutiful man of small stature, who had a wife and two young beautiful daughters - a terrible stutter...and, eventually, a nasty smoker's cough... but, he would prove to be a good, dearly beloved monarch when times were tough for his people during the following six years of war and turmoil!

King George's passing in the early 1950's was not totally unexpected - but, it was a blow to all those who cared for this good man, loving husband and devoted father.


The Coronation of King George VI ('Bertie') and his wife, Elizabeth, had taken place on 12 May 1937 after a bit of a Royal Family 'kerfuffle' with the older princely lad,'David' - regally known as Edward VIII - who was the natural heir-in-waiting at the time.

However, King Edward VIII ('David') had wanted to be King under his own terms - and he was in love and wanted to wed an attractive divorced American lady of his own choice and make her his consort much to the horror of the Royal purists.

Red tape and Blue blood do not always mix well in English Royalty - so King Edward VIII never got to officially wear the Crown - although he was allowed to be called King for a short while - 325 historic days.

By August 1936, events - scandals and some disturbing rumours - had accumulated, and 'David' - Edward had been persuaded that he should abdicate the throne, but, certain procedures had to be followed.


August 1936 Olympic Games protocol.

Former Mrs. Wallis Simpson and King Edward VIII with German leader, Adolf Hitler.

The exiled couple were discreetly married on June 3, 1937 at the Chateau de Cande in France.


Edward had made a few unwise personal, and political, choices with the company he kept before he announced that he was to abdicate formally on 10th. December 1936 - and it meant that he was rarely invited 'home' for the rest of his life. The uncrowned King was granted the title, 'Duke of Windsor', and shown the palace side door by the boffins - he was bundled off to the West Indies colonies as a Governor, and elsewhere - to spend the rest of his life in exile. However, he was endowed with an income to suit - as a sort of 'Pommy remittance man' - a political protocol Royal emigre!

Uncle 'David' was eventually 'forgiven' by the current Royal Family, and, after his death, he was interred in the Royal Burial Ground at Frogmore in England.


23 June 1894 - 28 May 1972




Any literary contributions or relevant and constructive comment regarding numismatics, in particular, will always be welcome for consideration, however, this invitation is not a guarantee of discussion or publication.

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Please note that all opinions expressed in material published in this publication are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Editor or Compiler - and ALL comments in linked articles remain the responsibility of the original authors.

Bearing in mind our public disclaimers (see below), any Internet links selected by the authors of this news-sheet, are usually provided as a complimentary source of reference to the featured article in regard to:

(1) Illustrations - or - (2) To provide additional important information. - and this publication, and its Editor or Compiler, accept, no responsibility for their content.

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